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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240842, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339375

RESUMO

Abstract This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar várias atividades mosquitocidas do extrato n-hexano de planta inteira de Chenopodium botrys contra Culex quinquefasciatus. O extrato mostrou atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora de oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus. Durante as atividades larvicida e pupicida, a concentração letal de 24 horas (CL50) do extrato contra larvas de 2º estádio, larvas de 4º estádio e pupa foi de 324,6, 495,6 e 950,8 ppm, respectivamente. Durante o bioensaio com frasco do CDC (Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças) para adulticida, o tempo médio de desativação (KDT50) na concentração de 1,25% foi de 123,4 minutos. Durante o bioensaio de impregnação com papel de filtro para a atividade adulticida do extrato, o valor KDT50 na concentração de 0,138 mg / cm2 foi de 48,6 minutos. O extrato foi fracionado em 14 frações através de cromatografia em coluna de gel de sílica que foram então combinadas em seis frações com base em um valor de fator de retenção (Rf) semelhante. Essas frações foram selecionadas quanto à atividade adulticida por meio da aplicação do bioensaio com garrafa do CDC. A fração obtida através da fase móvel de n-hexanos-clorofórmio 60:40% a 50:50% com valor de 0,5 Rf apresentou atividade adulticida de 100% na concentração de 0,2%. Durante a atividade de dissuasão da oviposição, a maior concentração de extrato (1000 ppm) apresentou repelência efetiva de 71,3 ± 4,4% e índice de atividade de oviposição de 0,6 ± 0,1. Durante a atividade de inibição da emergência de adultos, o valor médio de inibição da emergência (EI50) foi de 312,3 ppm. A partir do resultado da presente investigação, conclui-se que o extrato de n-hexano da planta inteira de C. botrys possui fortes atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora da oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247915, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339396

RESUMO

Abstract Wildlife trade is a profitable economic activity. Birds are among the most heavily traded animals worldwide, with numerous species threatened by pet trade. The present case study was stretched for period of one year to find out the status of wild birds' trade in Bannu and Dera Ismael Khan Divisions. The study was aimed to find out the types of species, commercial prices of bird, trade routes, overall income generated from birds' trade and the status of dealers whether licensed or not. Bimonthly visits were conducted to interview 52 bird dealers/pet shops owners/venders (23 in Dera Ismael Khan and 29 in Bannu). A sum of 16 conceivable sites were visited during the study period. Out of these, 8 sites were located in Dera Ismael Khan and 8 sites in Bannu Division. The highest priced species was Demoiselle crane (Grus virgo) and the lowest priced species was house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Total number of species traded in both regions were 8 and 14 while the income generated by bird trade was amounting to PkR 1,322,200 and 7,128,950 in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. Majority of the birds were trapped locally with the exception of few from adjacent areas. Commercial activity led by illegal bird traders was found 75% and 100% species in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. There was no significant difference between prices of birds, number of species sold and income generated by bird trade in two divisions.


Resumo O comércio de animais selvagens é uma atividade econômica lucrativa. Os pássaros estão entre os animais mais comercializados em todo o mundo, com inúmeras espécies ameaçadas pelo comércio de animais de estimação. O presente estudo de caso foi estendido por um período de um ano para descobrir a situação do comércio de aves selvagens nas Divisões Bannu e Dera Ismael Khan. O estudo teve como objetivo descobrir os tipos de espécies, os preços comerciais das aves, as rotas comerciais, a receita geral gerada pelo comércio de aves e o status dos negociantes, licenciados ou não. Visitas bimestrais foram realizadas para entrevistar 52 comerciantes de pássaros / proprietários / vendedores de pet shops (23 em Dera Ismael Khan e 29 em Bannu). Uma soma de 16 locais concebíveis foram visitados durante o período de estudo. Destes, 8 sites estavam localizados em Dera Ismael Khan e 8 sites na Divisão Bannu. A espécie com preço mais alto foi o guindaste Demoiselle (Grus virgo) e a espécie com preço mais baixo foi o pardal (Passer domesticus). O número total de espécies comercializadas em ambas as regiões foi de 8 e 14, enquanto a receita gerada pelo comércio de aves foi de PkR 1.322.200 e 7.128.950 em Dera Ismael Khan e Bannu, respectivamente. A maioria das aves foi capturada localmente, com exceção de algumas das áreas adjacentes. A atividade comercial liderada por comerciantes ilegais de aves foi encontrada com 75% e 100% de espécies em Dera Ismael Khan e Bannu, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre os preços das aves, o número de espécies vendidas e a receita gerada pelo comércio de aves nas duas divisões.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236496, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249245

RESUMO

Abstract Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (the skittering frog) is one of the most widespread species in Pakistan. Present study was aimed to know the presence of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis in urban and rural areas of Lower Dir, the North-western Pakistan. A total of 33 frogs were collected, including 15 from rural and 18 from urban areas. The frogs were caught by hands covered with gloves instead of using nets. The collection was managed from August to October 2016 and from April to May 2018. Morphometric analysis, coloration as well as photographs of the frogs have been provided in detail. Skittering frogs were seen frequent in swampy areas near the water bodies. These frogs were mostly seen after sunset.


Resumo Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (a rã que desliza) é uma das espécies mais comuns no Paquistão. O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a presença de Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis em áreas urbanas e rurais de Lower Dir, noroeste do Paquistão. Um total de 33 sapos foram coletados, incluindo 15 de áreas rurais e 18 de áreas urbanas. As rãs foram apanhadas com as mãos cobertas com luvas em vez de redes. A coleta foi gerenciada de agosto a outubro de 2016 e de abril a maio de 2018. Análises morfométricas, coloração e também fotografias das rãs foram fornecidas em detalhes. Rãs saltitantes foram vistas freqüentemente em áreas pantanosas próximas aos corpos d'água. Essas rãs eram vistas principalmente após o pôr do sol.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236494, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278489

RESUMO

Abstract Sucking pests are major threat to cotton field crop which cause unbearable losses to the crop yield. Aim of the current study was to record seasonal dynamics of major sucking insect pests including whitefly, jassid, thrips and their natural arthropod predators i.e. green lacewings and spiders in cotton field plots. The effects of surrounding field crops on pests' density and predatory efficiency of predators were also recorded. For sampling and survey of insects, the visual counting was found to be the most efficient method for recording the abundance of insects, trailed by net sweeping and tapping. Whitefly was the most dominant sucking pest found on the vegetative stage of cotton, followed by jassid and thrips. Fluctuated populations of predatory arthropods, spiders and green lacewings were also recorded during whole cropping season however, the densities of pests and predators varied with crop phenology. Spiders' population was encouraging at both vegetative and flowering stage and also the same trend of jassid and whitefly were observed at both stages of the crop. Surrounding habitats showed non-significant effect on population densities of insect pests and predators. For abiotic factors, the spiders showed strong positive correlation with humidity and temperature. However, green lacewing was only positively correlated with humidity. On the other hand, the populations of whitefly, jassid and thrips showed non-significant correlation with both temperature and humidity. Overall densities of sucking insect pests were found above economic threshold level. The plant age, crop stage and surrounding habitats effect on the population fluctuation of pests as well as the predators' abundance. The future studies are also warranted to investigate the altered habitats and multiple trap cropping to find out their impact on unattended insect predators and parasitoids in cotton crop.


Resumo As pragas sugadoras são uma grande ameaça para a cultura do algodão, causando perdas insuportáveis no rendimento da cultura. O objetivo do estudo atual foi registrar a dinâmica sazonal das principais pragas de insetos sugadores, incluindo mosca-branca, jassid, tripes e seus artrópodes predadores naturais, ou seja, crisopídeos e aranhas verdes em parcelas de algodão. Os efeitos das plantações circundantes na densidade de pragas e na eficiência predatória de predadores também foram registrados. Para amostragem e pesquisa de insetos, a contagem visual foi considerada o método mais eficiente para registrar a abundância de insetos, seguido por varredura e batida de rede. A mosca-branca foi a praga sugadora mais dominante encontrada na fase vegetativa do algodoeiro, seguida pelo jassid e tripes. Populações flutuantes de artrópodes predadores, aranhas e crisálidas também foram registradas durante toda a safra, no entanto as densidades de pragas e predadores variaram com a fenologia da cultura. A população de aranhas foi encorajadora tanto na fase vegetativa como na floração e também a mesma tendência de jassid e mosca-branca foi observada em ambas as fases da cultura. Os habitats circundantes mostraram efeito não significativo nas densidades populacionais de insetos-praga e predadores. Para os fatores abióticos, as aranhas apresentaram forte correlação positiva com umidade e temperatura. No entanto, lacewing verde foi apenas positivamente correlacionado com a umidade. Por outro lado, as populações de mosca-branca, jassid e tripes apresentaram correlação não significativa com temperatura e umidade. As densidades gerais de pragas sugadoras de insetos foram encontradas acima do nível do limiar econômico. A idade da planta, o estágio da cultura e os habitats circundantes afetam a flutuação populacional de pragas, bem como a abundância de predadores. Os estudos futuros também são necessários para investigar os habitats alterados e cultivo com armadilhas múltiplas para descobrir seu impacto sobre predadores de insetos e parasitoides desacompanhados na cultura do algodão.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242205, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339332

RESUMO

Abstract Tapeworms of zoonotic importance have been described as a leading public health problem. Current research was aim to assess the prevalence of tapeworms among 5-12years school children residing in district Lower Dir, Pakistan from January 2019-December 2019. The wet mount preparation in saline/iodine/methods were used for stool examination. Data was analyzed using appropriate descriptive, static methods. Of the 400 children studied 71.7% were infected with one or more species of intestinal parasites. Single infection of cestode species was found in 69 individuals with 17.2% prevalence and multiple parasitic infections were identified in 19.7% (n=79/400) individuals. The multiple infection were comprised as 10% (n=40) double, 6.75% (n=27) triple and 3% (n=12) quadruple. A total of 9 species of helminths and one species of protozoan infection. Among the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent 33.1% (n=95), Taenia saginata 22.6% (n=65), hookworm 19.8% (n=57), Hymenolepis nana 18.8% (n=54), Enterobius vermicularis and Hymenolepis diminuta 1.39% (n=4each), Trichuris trichura 1.04% (n=3), Toxocara spp 0.69% (n=2) and Schistosoma japonicum 0.34% (n=1) were reported. One protozoan species was Cryptosporidium spp 0.69% (n=2) in current study. In case of A.lumbricoides, hookworm, E.vermicularis, T.trichura, T.saginata, H.nana and H.diminuta the male children of below 8 years of age were highly infected. Other infections are reported in the same prevalence with slight difference if any. We conclude that there is a need for mass scale campaigns to create awareness regarding health and hygiene in children and the need for development of effective poverty control programs because deworming alone is not adequate to control parasitic infections.


Resumo As tênias de importância zoonótica têm sido descritas como um dos principais problemas de saúde pública. A pesquisa atual teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de tênias entre crianças em idade escolar de 5 a 12 anos que residem no distrito de Lower Dir, Paquistão, de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2019. Os métodos de preparação para montagem úmida em solução salina/iodo foram usados ​​para exame de fezes. Os dados foram analisados ​​usando métodos descritivos e estáticos apropriados. Das 400 crianças estudadas, 71,7% estavam infectadas com uma ou mais espécies de parasitas intestinais. Infecção única de espécies de cestóides foi encontrada em 69 indivíduos com prevalência de 17,2% e infecções parasitárias múltiplas foram identificadas em 19,7% (n = 79/400) indivíduos. As infecções múltiplas foram compostas por 10% (n = 40) dupla, 6,75% (n = 27) tripla e 3% (n = 12) quádrupla. Um total de 9 espécies de helmintos e uma espécie de infecção por protozoários. Entre os helmintos, Ascaris lumbricoides foi o mais prevalente 33,1% (n = 95), Taenia saginata 22,6% (n = 65), ancilóstomo 19,8% (n = 57), Hymenolepis nana 18,8% (n = 54), Enterobius vermicularis e Hymenolepis diminuta 1,39% (n = 4cada), Trichuris trichura 1,04% (n = 3), Toxocara spp 0,69% (n = 2) e Schistosoma japonicum 0,34% (n = 1). Uma espécie de protozoário foi Cryptosporidium spp 0,69% (n = 2) no estudo atual. No caso de A.lumbricoides, ancilostomíase, E.vermicularis, T.trichura, T.saginata, H.nana e H.diminuta, as crianças do sexo masculino com menos de 8 anos de idade estavam altamente infectadas. Outras infecções são relatadas na mesma prevalência, com ligeira diferença, se houver. Concluímos que há uma necessidade de campanhas em massa para criar consciência sobre saúde e higiene em crianças e a necessidade de desenvolvimento de programas eficazes de controle da pobreza, porque a desparasitação por si só não é adequada para controlar infecções parasitárias.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762571

RESUMO

Abstract Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (the skittering frog) is one of the most widespread species in Pakistan. Present study was aimed to know the presence of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis in urban and rural areas of Lower Dir, the North-western Pakistan. A total of 33 frogs were collected, including 15 from rural and 18 from urban areas. The frogs were caught by hands covered with gloves instead of using nets. The collection was managed from August to October 2016 and from April to May 2018. Morphometric analysis, coloration as well as photographs of the frogs have been provided in detail. Skittering frogs were seen frequent in swampy areas near the water bodies. These frogs were mostly seen after sunset.


Resumo Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (a rã que desliza) é uma das espécies mais comuns no Paquistão. O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a presença de Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis em áreas urbanas e rurais de Lower Dir, noroeste do Paquistão. Um total de 33 sapos foram coletados, incluindo 15 de áreas rurais e 18 de áreas urbanas. As rãs foram apanhadas com as mãos cobertas com luvas em vez de redes. A coleta foi gerenciada de agosto a outubro de 2016 e de abril a maio de 2018. Análises morfométricas, coloração e também fotografias das rãs foram fornecidas em detalhes. Rãs saltitantes foram vistas freqüentemente em áreas pantanosas próximas aos corpos d'água. Essas rãs eram vistas principalmente após o pôr do sol.

7.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 1183-1186, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605495

RESUMO

Self-inflicted wound can present with various scenarios. It is well known that the purpose of a self-inflicted wound is to avoid obligatory duties. During war, soldiers get self-inflicted wounds to seek medical leave in the hope to save their lives from deadly battle. Self-induced pneumomediastinum from oral lesion with valsalva maneuver was a rare practice among prisoners to get rid of that imprisoned life and to stay in the hospital. Self-inflicted wound is also commonly seen in patient with psychosomatic disorders. It relates observations from forensic medicine and psychiatry to specific clinical symptoms, toxicological circumstances and social influences e.g. stress incurred by everyday life, war, imprisonment etc. In particular cases, it clears up criminal and civil jurisdiction. It also gives importance to private insurers about cases of self-mutilation. There is also concern about insurers, forensic scientists and psychiatrist about their responsibilities and the procedure they follow in the examination, their jurisdiction and the treatment involving the cases of self-inflected injuries. To our knowledge, self-inflicted subcutaneous emphysema causing pneumomediastinum by a normal young boy out of curiosity and without any apparent ill motive, is an unusual finding and possibly no such case report was published before.


Assuntos
Enfisema Mediastínico , Automutilação , Humanos , Masculino , Enfisema Mediastínico/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Mediastínico/etiologia
8.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242205, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644726

RESUMO

Tapeworms of zoonotic importance have been described as a leading public health problem. Current research was aim to assess the prevalence of tapeworms among 5-12years school children residing in district Lower Dir, Pakistan from January 2019-December 2019. The wet mount preparation in saline/iodine/methods were used for stool examination. Data was analyzed using appropriate descriptive, static methods. Of the 400 children studied 71.7% were infected with one or more species of intestinal parasites. Single infection of cestode species was found in 69 individuals with 17.2% prevalence and multiple parasitic infections were identified in 19.7% (n=79/400) individuals. The multiple infection were comprised as 10% (n=40) double, 6.75% (n=27) triple and 3% (n=12) quadruple. A total of 9 species of helminths and one species of protozoan infection. Among the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent 33.1% (n=95), Taenia saginata 22.6% (n=65), hookworm 19.8% (n=57), Hymenolepis nana 18.8% (n=54), Enterobius vermicularis and Hymenolepis diminuta 1.39% (n=4each), Trichuris trichura 1.04% (n=3), Toxocara spp 0.69% (n=2) and Schistosoma japonicum 0.34% (n=1) were reported. One protozoan species was Cryptosporidium spp 0.69% (n=2) in current study. In case of A.lumbricoides, hookworm, E.vermicularis, T.trichura, T.saginata, H.nana and H.diminuta the male children of below 8 years of age were highly infected. Other infections are reported in the same prevalence with slight difference if any. We conclude that there is a need for mass scale campaigns to create awareness regarding health and hygiene in children and the need for development of effective poverty control programs because deworming alone is not adequate to control parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Criança , Fezes , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e240842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550279

RESUMO

This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Culex , Inseticidas , Animais , Hexanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
10.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247915, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550285

RESUMO

Wildlife trade is a profitable economic activity. Birds are among the most heavily traded animals worldwide, with numerous species threatened by pet trade. The present case study was stretched for period of one year to find out the status of wild birds' trade in Bannu and Dera Ismael Khan Divisions. The study was aimed to find out the types of species, commercial prices of bird, trade routes, overall income generated from birds' trade and the status of dealers whether licensed or not. Bimonthly visits were conducted to interview 52 bird dealers/pet shops owners/venders (23 in Dera Ismael Khan and 29 in Bannu). A sum of 16 conceivable sites were visited during the study period. Out of these, 8 sites were located in Dera Ismael Khan and 8 sites in Bannu Division. The highest priced species was Demoiselle crane (Grus virgo) and the lowest priced species was house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Total number of species traded in both regions were 8 and 14 while the income generated by bird trade was amounting to PkR 1,322,200 and 7,128,950 in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. Majority of the birds were trapped locally with the exception of few from adjacent areas. Commercial activity led by illegal bird traders was found 75% and 100% species in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. There was no significant difference between prices of birds, number of species sold and income generated by bird trade in two divisions.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Aves , Animais , Paquistão
11.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387847

RESUMO

During last few decades, role of microbiota and its importance in several diseases has been a hot topic for research. The microbiota is considered as an accessory organ for maintaining normal physiology of an individual. These microbiota organisms which normally colonize several epithelial surfaces are known to secrete several small molecules leading to local and systemic effects on normal biological processes. The role of microbiota is also established in carcinogenesis as per several recent findings. The effects of microbiota on cancer is not only limited to their contribution in oncogenesis, but the overall susceptibility for oncogenesis and its subsequent progression, development of coinfections, and response to anticancer therapy is also found to be affected by microbiota. The information about microbiota and subsequent contributions of microbes in anticancer response motivated researchers in development of microbes-based anticancer therapeutics. We provided current status of microbiota contribution in oncogenesis with special reference to their mechanistic implications in different aspects of oncogenesis. In addition, the mechanistic implications of bacteria in anticancer therapy are also discussed. We conclude that several mechanisms of microbiota-mediated regulation of oncogenesis is known, but approaches must be focused on understanding contribution of microbiota as a community rather than single organisms-mediated effects.

12.
Br J Surg ; 108(10): 1181-1188, 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370833

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over half of women with surgically managed breast cancer in the UK undergo breast-conserving treatment (BCT). While photographs are shown prior to reconstructive surgery or complex oncoplastic procedures, standard practice prior to breast conservation is to simply describe the likely aesthetic changes. Patients have expressed the desire for more personalized information about likely appearance after surgery. The hypothesis was that viewing a three-dimensional (3D) simulation improves patients' confidence in knowing their likely aesthetic outcome after surgery. METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial of 117 women planning unilateral BCT was undertaken. The randomization was three-way: standard of care (verbal description alone, control group), viewing two-dimensional (2D) photographs, or viewing a 3D simulation before surgery. The primary endpoint was the comparison between groups' median answer on a visual analogue scale (VAS) for the question administered before surgery: 'How confident are you that you know how your breasts are likely to look after treatment?' RESULTS: The median VAS in the control group was 5.2 (i.q.r. 2.6-7.8); 8.0 (i.q.r. 5.7-8.7) for 2D photography, and 8.9 (i.q.r. 8.2-9.5) for 3D simulation. There was a significant difference between groups (P < 0.010) with post-hoc pairwise comparisons demonstrating a statistically significant difference between 3D simulation and both standard care and viewing 2D photographs (P < 0.010 and P = 0.012, respectively). CONCLUSION: This RCT has demonstrated that women who viewed an individualized 3D simulation of likely aesthetic outcome for BCT were more confident going into surgery than those who received standard care or who were shown 2D photographs of other women. The impact on longer-term satisfaction with outcome remains to be determined.Registration number: NCT03250260 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov).

13.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e236494, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133551

RESUMO

Sucking pests are major threat to cotton field crop which cause unbearable losses to the crop yield. Aim of the current study was to record seasonal dynamics of major sucking insect pests including whitefly, jassid, thrips and their natural arthropod predators i.e. green lacewings and spiders in cotton field plots. The effects of surrounding field crops on pests' density and predatory efficiency of predators were also recorded. For sampling and survey of insects, the visual counting was found to be the most efficient method for recording the abundance of insects, trailed by net sweeping and tapping. Whitefly was the most dominant sucking pest found on the vegetative stage of cotton, followed by jassid and thrips. Fluctuated populations of predatory arthropods, spiders and green lacewings were also recorded during whole cropping season however, the densities of pests and predators varied with crop phenology. Spiders' population was encouraging at both vegetative and flowering stage and also the same trend of jassid and whitefly were observed at both stages of the crop. Surrounding habitats showed non-significant effect on population densities of insect pests and predators. For abiotic factors, the spiders showed strong positive correlation with humidity and temperature. However, green lacewing was only positively correlated with humidity. On the other hand, the populations of whitefly, jassid and thrips showed non-significant correlation with both temperature and humidity. Overall densities of sucking insect pests were found above economic threshold level. The plant age, crop stage and surrounding habitats effect on the population fluctuation of pests as well as the predators' abundance. The future studies are also warranted to investigate the altered habitats and multiple trap cropping to find out their impact on unattended insect predators and parasitoids in cotton crop.


Assuntos
Gossypium , Aranhas , Animais , Ecossistema , Insetos , Paquistão
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 474-483, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153354

RESUMO

Abstract Nanoparticles are known bio elicitors in plant biotechnology. Different concentrations of ZnO, CuO and CoO nanoparticles were used for the enhanced accumulation of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities in the callus derived from root, shoot and leaf of Artemisia annua L. Biomass of callus was somehow affected on high concentrations of Nps. Phenolic content was observed maximum (60µg) in shoot callus at 0.1mg/l of CuONps. Total antioxidant activity was observed maximum (33µg) in root callus at 0.1mg/l of ZnOnps. Total reducing power maximum (33µg) was observed in root callus at concentration of 0.05 mg/l of CoONps. Maximum radical scavenging activity was observed in shoot callus at 0.05mg/l of ZnONps. Rutin gallic acid and caffic acid were also determined in most of the samples by HPLC. The study concludes that different Nps have positive effect on the induction of secondary metabolites in A.annua plant.


Resumo Nanopartículas são bio-elicitores conhecidos em biotecnologia de plantas. Diferentes concentrações de nanopartículas de ZnO, CuO e CoO foram usadas para o acúmulo aumentado de metabólitos secundários e atividades antioxidantes no calo derivado da raiz, parte aérea e folha de Artemisiaannua L. A biomassa do calo foi de alguma forma afetada em altas concentrações de Nps. O conteúdo fenólico foi observado no máximo (60 µg) no calo da parte aérea a 0,1 mg / l de CuONps. A atividade antioxidante total foi observada no máximo (33µg) no calo radicular a 0,1mg / l de ZnOnps. O poder de redução total máximo (33µg) foi observado no calo radicular na concentração de 0,05 mg / l de CoONps. Atividade máxima de eliminação de radicais foi observada no calo da parte aérea a 0,05mg / l de ZnONps. O ácido rutina-gálico e o ácido caffic também foram determinados na maioria das amostras por HPLC. O estudo conclui que diferentes Nps têm efeito positivo na indução de metabólitos secundários na planta de A.annua.

15.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 81(2): 474-483, Mar.-May 2021. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-762753

RESUMO

Nanoparticles are known bio elicitors in plant biotechnology. Different concentrations of ZnO, CuO and CoO nanoparticles were used for the enhanced accumulation of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities in the callus derived from root, shoot and leaf of Artemisia annua L. Biomass of callus was somehow affected on high concentrations of Nps. Phenolic content was observed maximum (60µg) in shoot callus at 0.1mg/l of CuONps. Total antioxidant activity was observed maximum (33µg) in root callus at 0.1mg/l of ZnOnps. Total reducing power maximum (33µg) was observed in root callus at concentration of 0.05 mg/l of CoONps. Maximum radical scavenging activity was observed in shoot callus at 0.05mg/l of ZnONps. Rutin gallic acid and caffic acid were also determined in most of the samples by HPLC. The study concludes that different Nps have positive effect on the induction of secondary metabolites in A.annua plant.(AU)


Nanopartículas são bio-elicitores conhecidos em biotecnologia de plantas. Diferentes concentrações de nanopartículas de ZnO, CuO e CoO foram usadas para o acúmulo aumentado de metabólitos secundários e atividades antioxidantes no calo derivado da raiz, parte aérea e folha de Artemisiaannua L. A biomassa do calo foi de alguma forma afetada em altas concentrações de Nps. O conteúdo fenólico foi observado no máximo (60 µg) no calo da parte aérea a 0,1 mg / l de CuONps. A atividade antioxidante total foi observada no máximo (33µg) no calo radicular a 0,1mg / l de ZnOnps. O poder de redução total máximo (33µg) foi observado no calo radicular na concentração de 0,05 mg / l de CoONps. Atividade máxima de eliminação de radicais foi observada no calo da parte aérea a 0,05mg / l de ZnONps. O ácido rutina-gálico e o ácido caffic também foram determinados na maioria das amostras por HPLC. O estudo conclui que diferentes Nps têm efeito positivo na indução de metabólitos secundários na planta de A.annua.(AU)


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Antioxidantes , Biotecnologia , Artemisia annua
16.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e236496, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037074

RESUMO

Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (the skittering frog) is one of the most widespread species in Pakistan. Present study was aimed to know the presence of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis in urban and rural areas of Lower Dir, the North-western Pakistan. A total of 33 frogs were collected, including 15 from rural and 18 from urban areas. The frogs were caught by hands covered with gloves instead of using nets. The collection was managed from August to October 2016 and from April to May 2018. Morphometric analysis, coloration as well as photographs of the frogs have been provided in detail. Skittering frogs were seen frequent in swampy areas near the water bodies. These frogs were mostly seen after sunset.


Assuntos
Anuros , Animais , Paquistão
17.
Trop Biomed ; 38(1): 1-7, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797516

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to evaluate the in-vitro and in-vivo antibacterial effects of the Typha elephantina aqueous extract (TE.AQ), ethanolic extract (TE.ET) and T. elephantina methanolic extract (TE.ME) against eight selected clinical pathogens. The test samples were tested for in-vitro analysis (by disc diffusion method) at different concentrations of 5, 15, 25, 50 and 100 mg/dL against both gram positive and gram-negative strains. The highest potential was observed in TE.ME at a concentration of 100 mg/dL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibiting 19.67 ± 0.577 mm zone of inhibition (ZOI). The same fraction also showed good activity against Staphylococus aureus with ZOI of 17.50 ± 0.70 mm. The TE.ET was found most active against P. aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes having ZOI of 18.53 ± 0.503 and 16.2 ± 1.55 mm respectively at a concentration of 100 mg/dL. The most sensitive bacteria P. aeruginosa was selected for in-vivo study (using poultry chicks) for induction of infection in chicks. The effects of TE.AQ, TE.ET and TE.ME were determined at concentrations of 300 mg/kg body weight based on hematological parameters, liver enzymes and gross pathological findings of lungs and livers. The findings of the in-vivo study in chick's model showed that treatment of experimental animals with TE.ME significantly restored the hematological parameters, liver enzymes and architecture of lungs and livers. Based on scientific evidence, the current study suggests that TE.ME may serve as a best and new natural antibacterial agent and can be used against infections caused by P. aeruginosa.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Typhaceae/química , Animais , Galinhas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Paquistão , Folhas de Planta/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Braz J Biol ; 81(2): 474-483, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053134

RESUMO

Nanoparticles are known bio elicitors in plant biotechnology. Different concentrations of ZnO, CuO and CoO nanoparticles were used for the enhanced accumulation of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities in the callus derived from root, shoot and leaf of Artemisia annua L. Biomass of callus was somehow affected on high concentrations of Nps. Phenolic content was observed maximum (60µg) in shoot callus at 0.1mg/l of CuONps. Total antioxidant activity was observed maximum (33µg) in root callus at 0.1mg/l of ZnOnps. Total reducing power maximum (33µg) was observed in root callus at concentration of 0.05 mg/l of CoONps. Maximum radical scavenging activity was observed in shoot callus at 0.05mg/l of ZnONps. Rutin gallic acid and caffic acid were also determined in most of the samples by HPLC. The study concludes that different Nps have positive effect on the induction of secondary metabolites in A.annua plant.


Assuntos
Artemisia annua , Nanopartículas , Antioxidantes , Fenóis , Folhas de Planta
19.
BJS Open ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the faecal immunochemical test (FIT) for detecting colorectal cancer in symptomatic patients. METHODS: This was a prospective study of patients with bowel symptoms. Stool samples were collected during rectal examination. The HM-JACKarc assay (Kyowa Medex, Tokyo, Japan) was used to quantify faecal haemoglobin (Hb); positive results were those with at least 10 µg Hb/g faeces. Two-by-two tables and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used to determine diagnostic accuracy; χ2 and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare other parameters. RESULTS: A total of 928 patients were included (M : F ratio 1 : 1·5; median age 72 (i.q.r. 64-80) years). The overall prevalence of colorectal cancer was 5·1 per cent. The FIT had sensitivity of 85·1 per cent, specificity of 83·5 per cent, positive predictive value of 22·6 per cent and negative predictive value of 99·0 per cent. ROC analysis of FIT for diagnosing colorectal cancer gave an area under the curve value of 0·89 (95 per cent c.i. 0·84 to 0·94). Significant bowel pathology was detected more frequently in FIT-positive patients (35·1 per cent versus 7·1 per cent in FIT-negative patients; P < 0·001). There were sex differences in FIT positivity (23·7 per cent in men versus 17·4 per cent in women; P = 0·019); the sensitivity of FIT for colorectal cancer in women was also low. False-negative FIT results were found mainly in women referred with iron-deficiency anaemia, who were found to have caecal cancer. CONCLUSION: FIT effectively excluded colorectal cancer in symptomatic patients. Integration of FIT into the diagnostic pathway for colorectal cancer would direct resources appropriately to patients with a greater likelihood of having the disease.

20.
J Comp Pathol ; 176: 133-144, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359626

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive malignant bone neoplasm that occurs mostly in the appendicular skeleton of dogs and people. OS is classified based on the presence of malignant stroma and the formation of extracellular matrix into osteoblastic, chondroblastic and fibroblastic forms. This study investigated the correlation between the three histological subtypes of canine OS and clinical outcome. Additionally, we examined whether there was any difference in the immunolabelling of desmin, S100 and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) between the three histological subtypes. Formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded tissues from 87 dogs with primary OS were available for this study. The survival times were correlated with appendicular OS subtypes in dogs that were treated surgically, received adjuvant chemotherapy and had no pulmonary metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Dogs with an appendicular fibroblastic OS had significantly prolonged mean average survival times (546 ± 105 days) in comparison with dogs having appendicular osteoblastic (257 ± 48 days) or appendicular chondroblastic (170 ± 28 days) OS (P = 0.003, Log Rank). The results also revealed that the appendicular chondroblastic subtype is a significant indicator for poor prognosis in dogs compared with the fibroblastic or osteoblastic subtypes (P = 0.006, Cox regression). Moreover, the findings indicated that there was no significant correlation between the localization of desmin, NSE or S100 and histological subtypes. Importantly, dogs with appendicular fibroblastic OS were found to have a better prognosis when compared with dogs with other subtypes. This may suggest that histological subtypes of appendicular OS have diverse behaviour and could be used to categorize patients for risk-based assessment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Osteossarcoma/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Masculino , Prognóstico
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