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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242635, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278477

RESUMO

Abstract Indian crested porcupine is the largest rodent pest that damages a wide variety of crops, vegetables, and tree species which ultimately causes huge economic loss in Pakistan, which is an agricultural country. It prefers to live in hilly terrain but common in temperate and tropical forests, shrublands, and grasslands. This study focused on the identification and assessment of crops damaged along with the main precautionary measures used by the local farmers. The data was collected from twenty-four villages of two union councils i.e. Chamhad and Slahad of district Abbottabad. Two types of data (primary and secondary) were collected from the study area. Primary data was collected for identification and estimation calculation of total crop damaged through direct field observation by taking random quadrates in each village of the study area. The damage in the crop was assessed by randomly selecting a quadrate of 1x1 m2 for the wheat, pearl millet, and Sorghum fields. While 4x4 m2 quadrates were taken for maize and vegetables. At least three quadrate samples were taken from each field including one quadrate taken from the center of the field area. In union council Chamhad, damage to maize (11.31%) and wheat (0.73%) by the Indian crested porcupine while in union council Salhad, damage of maize (6.95%) and wheat (1.6%) was observed. In the entire study area, overall damage to maize crop (8.01%) and wheat (0.88%) was calculated. Based on information obtained from the farmers, the Indian porcupine inflicted damage to potato, tomato, cauliflower, chili pepper, turnip, radish, pea, and onion, etc. Secondary data obtained through a questionnaire survey to explore the human porcupine conflict and precautionary measures used by the farmers and landowners. Open and close-ended questionnaires (159) highlighted the presence of Indian crested porcupine in the study area and 96% of the respondents have seen porcupine directly. Many types of precautionary measures were used by the farmers such as fencing, night stay, night firing, and dogs to decrease the crop damage, respondents (63.91%) use guns for hunting. however, due to the largely agricultural area and nocturnal behavior of Indian crested porcupine majority of the respondents (51.57%) did not use any precautionary measure. Biological control of Indian porcupine is recommended in the study area. Farmers should be encouraged and provide incentives and killing through current should be banned while proper hunting license should be issued to overcome overhunting. Scientific studies are required to control the reproduction of porcupine specifically in the more damaged areas.


Resumo O porco-espinho indiano é a maior praga de roedores que danifica uma grande variedade de culturas, vegetais e espécies de árvores, o que acaba por causar enormes perdas econômicas no Paquistão, que é um país agrícola. Prefere viver em terrenos montanhosos, mas comuns em florestas temperadas e tropicais, arbustos e pastagens. Este estudo concentrou-se na identificação e avaliação das lavouras danificadas, juntamente com as principais medidas de precaução utilizadas pelos agricultores locais. Os dados foram coletados de 24 aldeias de dois conselhos sindicais, ou seja, Chamhad e Slahad, do distrito de Abbottabad. Dois tipos de dados (primário e secundário) foram coletados da área de estudo. Foram coletados dados primários para identificação e cálculo de estimativa do total da cultura danificada por meio da observação direta do campo, tomando quadrantes aleatórios em cada aldeia da área de estudo. O dano na cultura foi avaliado pela seleção aleatória de um quadrante de 1x1 m2 para os campos de trigo, milheto pérola e sorgo, enquanto quadrantes de 4x4 m2 foram tomados para milho e legumes. Pelo menos três amostras de quadrante foram colhidas de cada campo, incluindo um quadrante retirado do centro da área do campo. No Conselho Sindical de Chamhad, houve danos ao milho (11,31%) e ao trigo (0,73%) pelo porco-espinho indiano, enquanto no Conselho Sindical de Salhad, danos ao milho (6,95%) e ao trigo (1,6%) foram observados. Em toda a área do estudo, danos gerais à cultura do milho (8,01%) e ao trigo (0,88%) foram calculados. Com base em informações obtidas dos agricultores, o porco-espinho indiano infligiu danos à batata, tomate, couve-flor, pimenta, nabo, rabanete, ervilha, cebola, etc. Dados secundários foram obtidos por meio de um questionário para explorar o conflito suíno humano e as medidas de precaução utilizadas pelos agricultores e proprietários de terras. Questionários abertos e fechados (159) destacaram a presença de porco-espinho indiano na área de estudo e 96% dos entrevistados viram o porco-espinho diretamente. Muitos tipos de medidas de precaução foram utilizados pelos agricultores, como esgrima, estadia noturna, fogo noturno e cães para diminuir os danos na lavoura. Dos entrevistados, 63,91% usaram armas para caçar. No entanto, devido à área ser em grande parte agrícola e ao comportamento noturno da maioria dos porcos-espinhos indianos, 51,57% não usaram nenhuma medida de precaução. O controle biológico do porco-espinho indiano é recomendado na área de estudo. Os agricultores devem ser encorajados e fornecer incentivos, e o uso da corrente para matar os animais deve ser banido, assim como deve ser emitida a licença de caça adequada para superar a caça excessiva. Estudos científicos são necessários para controlar a reprodução de porco-espinho, especificamente nas áreas mais danificadas.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242334, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278515

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Microhabitat factors associated with the habitat of barking deer (Muntiacus vaginalis) were examined and compared between summer and winter seasons. Habitat characteristics and preferred habitat were measured by locating direct and indirect signs. To quantify the habitat utilization of barking deer, each selected study site was sampled for floral diversity from 2015 to 2017. Quadrats were deployed along transect lines to determine seasonal distribution. Barking deer were not evenly distributed across vegetation types in the study area; they occurred more often in the broad-leaved forest than in Chir pine forest, at an elevational range of 550-850 m, in thick vegetation on steep slopes. The most preferred habitat included trees and shrubs with 30% and 69% cover, respectively. Barking deer avoided thicker tree cover, possibly as it hinders movement and escape from predators. No significant difference (χ2 = 6.37, df = 3, p = 0.19) in seasonal vegetation cover was recorded.


RESUMO Fatores de micro-hábitat associados ao hábitat do veado (Muntiacus vaginalis) foram examinados e comparados entre as estações de verão e inverno. As características do hábitat e o hábitat preferido foram medidos, localizando sinais diretos e indiretos. Para quantificar a utilização do hábitat de cervos-latidos, cada local de estudo selecionado foi amostrado para a diversidade floral de 2015 a 2017. Quadrats foram implantados ao longo de linhas de transecto para determinar a distribuição sazonal., Veados-latidos não foram distribuídos uniformemente pelos tipos de vegetação na área de estudo; ocorreram com mais frequência na floresta de folhas largas do que na floresta de pinheiros Chir, em uma faixa de elevação de 550-850 m, em vegetação densa, em encostas íngremes. O hábitat mais preferido incluía árvores e arbustos com 30% e 69% de cobertura, respectivamente. O veado-latido evitou uma cobertura de árvores mais espessa, possivelmente porque impede o movimento e a fuga de predadores. Nenhuma diferença significativa (χ2 = 6,37; df = 3; p = 0,19) na cobertura vegetal sazonal foi registrada.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242636, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285595

RESUMO

Abstract Cranes are the large and attractive Creatures of nature with long necks, legs, and life-span. Adults of both sexes are the same with similar color patterns. Demoiselle cranes spend most of their lifespan on dry grasses. They are also found around the stream, rivers, shallow lakes, natural wetlands, and depressions. To evaluate the current status of habitat use and major threats a study was conducted in tehsil Domel district Bannu. Line transect method and water quality tests (temperature, PH, contamination of E-coli bacteria) were used. To determine the major threats questionnaire method was used. The whole data was analyzed by using SPSS 21 version. Based on the distribution four study sites were selected and four water samples from each study site were taken. Most sites were moderate to highly degraded except Kashoo and kurram river mixing point which was low degraded with livestock grazing and human activities. Water quality tests showed PH ranges from 7-9, temperature 6.5-8.5, and contamination of E-coli in all samples. The social survey revealed that hunting, habitat degradation, and pollution as major threats. Effective long-term conservation and management in the study area are needed to focus on the protection of disturbance-free habitat.


Resumo Guindastes são a grande e atraente criatura da natureza com um pescoço longo, pernas e vida útil. Adultos de ambos os sexos são os mesmos com padrões de cores semelhantes. Guindastes Demoiselle passam a maior parte da vida em gramíneas secas. Também se encontram ao redor do córrego, rios, lagos rasos, pântanos naturais e depressões. Para avaliar o estado atual do uso do hábitat e as principais ameaças, um estudo foi realizado no distrito de Tehsil Domel, em Bannu. Foram utilizados o método transect e testes de qualidade da água (temperatura, pH, contaminação da bactéria E. coli). Para determinar as principais ameaçasfoi utilizado o método de questionário. Todos os dados foram analisados por meio da versão SPSS 21. Com base na distribuição, foram selecionados quatro locais de estudo e quatro amostras de água de cada local de estudo. A maioria dos locais estava moderada a altamente degradada, exceto no ponto de encontro dos rios Kashoo e Kurram, que teve baixa degradação com pastagem de gado e atividades humanas. Os testes de qualidade da água mostraram variação de pH de 7-9, temperatura 6,5-8,5 e contaminação de E. coli em todas as amostras. A pesquisa do questionário revelou que a caça, a degradação do hábitat e a poluição são as principais ameaças. Efetiva conservação e gestão a longo prazo na área de estudo são necessárias para se concentrar na proteção de um hábitat livre de distúrbios.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248153, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468532

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the phylogenetic similarities among the muntjac (Muntiacus spp.). The phylogenetic similarities among seven major muntjac species were studied by comparing the nucleotide sequence of 16s rRNA and cytochrome b genome. Nucleotide sequences, retrieved from NCBI databases were aligned by using DNASTAR software. A phylogenetic tree was created for the selected species of muntjac by using the maximum likelihood method on MEGA7 software. The results of nucleotide sequences (16s rRNA) showed phylogenetic similarities between, the M. truongsonensis and M. rooseveltorum had the highest (99.2%) while the lowest similarities (96.8%) found between M. crinifrons and M. putaoensi. While the results of nucleotide sequences (Cty b) showed the highest similarity (100%) between M. muntjak and M. truongsonensis and the lowest s (91.5%) among M. putaoensis and M. crinifrons. The phylogenetic tree of muntjac species (16s rRNA gene) shows the main two clusters, the one including M. putaoensis, M. truongsonensis, M. rooseveltorum, and M. muntjak, and the second one including M. crinifrons and M. vuquangensis. The M. reevesi exists separately in the phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic tree of muntjac species using cytochrome b genes shows that the M. muntjak and M. truongsonensis are clustered in the same group.


Assuntos
Citocromos b , Cervo Muntjac , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Citocromos b/genética , Cervo Muntjac/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
5.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242636, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346960

RESUMO

Cranes are the large and attractive Creatures of nature with long necks, legs, and life-span. Adults of both sexes are the same with similar color patterns. Demoiselle cranes spend most of their lifespan on dry grasses. They are also found around the stream, rivers, shallow lakes, natural wetlands, and depressions. To evaluate the current status of habitat use and major threats a study was conducted in tehsil Domel district Bannu. Line transect method and water quality tests (temperature, PH, contamination of E-coli bacteria) were used. To determine the major threats questionnaire method was used. The whole data was analyzed by using SPSS 21 version. Based on the distribution four study sites were selected and four water samples from each study site were taken. Most sites were moderate to highly degraded except Kashoo and kurram river mixing point which was low degraded with livestock grazing and human activities. Water quality tests showed PH ranges from 7-9, temperature 6.5-8.5, and contamination of E-coli in all samples. The social survey revealed that hunting, habitat degradation, and pollution as major threats. Effective long-term conservation and management in the study area are needed to focus on the protection of disturbance-free habitat.


Assuntos
Aves , Ecossistema , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Rios , Áreas Alagadas
6.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242334, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133564

RESUMO

Microhabitat factors associated with the habitat of barking deer (Muntiacus vaginalis) were examined and compared between summer and winter seasons. Habitat characteristics and preferred habitat were measured by locating direct and indirect signs. To quantify the habitat utilization of barking deer, each selected study site was sampled for floral diversity from 2015 to 2017. Quadrats were deployed along transect lines to determine seasonal distribution. Barking deer were not evenly distributed across vegetation types in the study area; they occurred more often in the broad-leaved forest than in Chir pine forest, at an elevational range of 550-850 m, in thick vegetation on steep slopes. The most preferred habitat included trees and shrubs with 30% and 69% cover, respectively. Barking deer avoided thicker tree cover, possibly as it hinders movement and escape from predators. No significant difference (χ2 = 6.37, df = 3, p = 0.19) in seasonal vegetation cover was recorded.


Assuntos
Cervos , Cervo Muntjac , Animais , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Parques Recreativos , Estações do Ano
7.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242635, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190803

RESUMO

Indian crested porcupine is the largest rodent pest that damages a wide variety of crops, vegetables, and tree species which ultimately causes huge economic loss in Pakistan, which is an agricultural country. It prefers to live in hilly terrain but common in temperate and tropical forests, shrublands, and grasslands. This study focused on the identification and assessment of crops damaged along with the main precautionary measures used by the local farmers. The data was collected from twenty-four villages of two union councils i.e. Chamhad and Slahad of district Abbottabad. Two types of data (primary and secondary) were collected from the study area. Primary data was collected for identification and estimation calculation of total crop damaged through direct field observation by taking random quadrates in each village of the study area. The damage in the crop was assessed by randomly selecting a quadrate of 1x1 m2 for the wheat, pearl millet, and Sorghum fields. While 4x4 m2 quadrates were taken for maize and vegetables. At least three quadrate samples were taken from each field including one quadrate taken from the center of the field area. In union council Chamhad, damage to maize (11.31%) and wheat (0.73%) by the Indian crested porcupine while in union council Salhad, damage of maize (6.95%) and wheat (1.6%) was observed. In the entire study area, overall damage to maize crop (8.01%) and wheat (0.88%) was calculated. Based on information obtained from the farmers, the Indian porcupine inflicted damage to potato, tomato, cauliflower, chili pepper, turnip, radish, pea, and onion, etc. Secondary data obtained through a questionnaire survey to explore the human porcupine conflict and precautionary measures used by the farmers and landowners. Open and close-ended questionnaires (159) highlighted the presence of Indian crested porcupine in the study area and 96% of the respondents have seen porcupine directly. Many types of precautionary measures were used by the farmers such as fencing, night stay, night firing, and dogs to decrease the crop damage, respondents (63.91%) use guns for hunting. however, due to the largely agricultural area and nocturnal behavior of Indian crested porcupine majority of the respondents (51.57%) did not use any precautionary measure. Biological control of Indian porcupine is recommended in the study area. Farmers should be encouraged and provide incentives and killing through current should be banned while proper hunting license should be issued to overcome overhunting. Scientific studies are required to control the reproduction of porcupine specifically in the more damaged areas.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Agricultura , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Cães , Paquistão , Árvores
8.
J Inequal Appl ; 2018(1): 243, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839695

RESUMO

In this paper some new general fractional integral inequalities for convex and m-convex functions by involving an extended Mittag-Leffler function are presented. These results produce inequalities for several kinds of fractional integral operators. Some interesting special cases of our main results are also pointed out.

9.
Mymensingh Med J ; 26(4): 854-862, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29208875

RESUMO

Hyperbilirubinemia is a common problem during the neonatal period and is the most common reason for readmission after early hospital discharge of the healthy near term and term infants. This early discharge policy along with limited follow-up facilities in developing countries and inadequate communication between physicians and parents necessitates a prognostic test to predict hyperbilirubinemia in these newborns; for early and effective management and prevention of potential complication before it occurred. This observational analytical study was done to determine the predictability of day1 total serum bilirubin (TSB) level as a screening test and identify the best cutoff value which would predict neonates likely to develop significant hyperbilirubinemia. The study was carried out in the Department of Neonatology and Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from 1st April 2013 to 31st March 2014. A TSB level of ≥17mg/dl after 72 hours was defined as significant hyperbilirubinemia. By purposive sampling method, 100 healthy late preterm and term neonates fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled and 89 were finally analyzed. Among 89 neonates 14(15.74%) developed significant hyperbilirubinemia (Group II) and 75(84.26%) did not develop hyperbilirubinemia (Group I). Mean time of sample collection was similar in both groups. Mean TSB level on day1 was significantly higher in Group II (5.97±1.74mg/dl) than Group I (3.19±1.4mg/dl). By using ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis, TSB level of 5.65mg/dl on day 1 has the best combination of sensitivity (86%) and specificity (91%) to predict neonates at risk of significant hyperbilirubinemia (AUC-0.880, p=0.001). At this cut-off PPV was 63% and NPV 97%. Total serum bilirubin level on first day of life predicts neonates at risk of subsequent significant hyperbilirubinemia and late preterm and term babies with TSB level of ≥5.65mg/dl on day 1 of life should be followed up strictly either in the hospital or in the outpatient department on day 5.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal , Bangladesh , Bilirrubina/sangue , Humanos , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/sangue , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/diagnóstico , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Mymensingh Med J ; 26(3): 621-627, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28919619

RESUMO

Neonatal jaundice or hyperbilirubinemia is a common occurrence in newborns. It can progress to develop kernicterus unless intervention is initiated. Severity and decision for management are usually based on serum bilirubin which needs blood sampling. Transcutaneous bilirubin measurement is a noninvasive technique and correlates closely with serum bilirubin. This Cross sectional study was done in the Department of Neonatology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University from March 2013 to August 2014 to evaluate the transcutaneous bilirubin in comparison to serum bilirubin. Total 160 infants with ≥35 weeks were purposively included over a period of 16 months. Neonates with less than 35 weeks, previously exposed to phototherapy, serious illness which leads to impaired circulation, who have had exchange transfusion, having major congenital malformation were excluded. Transcutaneous bilirubin measurement was performed within 30 minutes of obtaining sample for total serum bilirubin measurements. Of the enrolled infants, mean birth weight was 2631±520 grams, postnatal age was 4.99±3.02 days ranging from 2 to 25 days and mean transcutaneous bilirubin and serum bilirubin value was 14.59±2.55 and 13.62±2.86mg/dl respectively. Mean difference of transcutaneous bilirubin and serum bilirubin was 0.97±1.01mg/dl. In the total enrolled infant, transcutaneous bilirubin and serum bilirubin values showed significant correlation (r = 0.93, r2 = 0.876, p<0.001) and this was not affected by sex, gestational age, postnatal age, and birth weight. The area under ROC curve for transcutaneous bilirubin was 87% (p value <0.001). If the cut off value of transcutaneous bilirubin was set at 15 mg/dl, then a sensitivity of 77%, specificity of 88% and accuracy of 82% were obtained. Use of transcutaneous bilirubin can reduce need for serum bilirubin in assaying neonatal jaundice; as it showed significantly high correlation with serum bilirubin. Predictive accuracy of transcutaneous bilirubin was found to be statistically significant in comparison to serum bilirubin.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina , Icterícia Neonatal , Bilirrubina/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hiperbilirrubinemia/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido , Icterícia Neonatal/sangue , Icterícia Neonatal/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Oncogene ; 36(44): 6097-6108, 2017 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28671670

RESUMO

The C-type lectin domain containing group 14 family members CLEC14A and CD93 are proteins expressed by endothelium and are implicated in tumour angiogenesis. CD248 (alternatively known as endosialin or tumour endothelial marker-1) is also a member of this family and is expressed by tumour-associated fibroblasts and pericytes. Multimerin-2 (MMRN2) is a unique endothelial specific extracellular matrix protein that has been implicated in angiogenesis and tumour progression. We show that the group 14 C-type lectins CLEC14A, CD93 and CD248 directly bind to MMRN2 and only thrombomodulin of the family does not. Binding to MMRN2 is dependent on a predicted long-loop region in the C-type lectin domain and is abrogated by mutation within the domain. CLEC14A and CD93 bind to the same non-glycosylated coiled-coil region of MMRN2, but the binding of CD248 occurs on a distinct non-competing region. CLEC14A and CD248 can bind MMRN2 simultaneously and this occurs at the interface between endothelium and pericytes in human pancreatic cancer. A recombinant peptide of MMRN2 spanning the CLEC14A and CD93 binding region blocks CLEC14A extracellular domain binding to the endothelial cell surface as well as increasing adherence of human umbilical vein endothelial cells to the active peptide. This MMRN2 peptide is anti-angiogenic in vitro and reduces tumour growth in mouse models. These findings identify novel protein interactions involving CLEC14A, CD93 and CD248 with MMRN2 as targetable components of vessel formation.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Antígenos de Superfície/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Receptores de Complemento/genética , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antígenos de Superfície/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Ligantes , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Pericitos/metabolismo , Pericitos/patologia , Ligação Proteica , Receptores de Complemento/metabolismo , Trombomodulina/genética , Trombomodulina/metabolismo
12.
Mymensingh Med J ; 25(1): 179-81, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26931272

RESUMO

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a genetic endocrinologic disorder. The severe classic form occurs in one in 15,000 births worldwide. Twenty-one-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is the most common cause in this autosomal recessive disease. It can cause virilization, ambiguous genitalia at birth and severe life threatening condition due to salt wasting. In this report we describe the clinical course of a male neonate presenting with lethargy, failure to thrive (FTT), genital pigmentation, electrolytes imbalance and high serum 17-hydroxy-progesterone (17-OHP) level and subsequently diagnosed as Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. After the initial crises management, the child was continued on replacement therapy. During the follow up, he was found to grow appropriately and achieving normal milestones for age.


Assuntos
17-alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona/sangue , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/diagnóstico , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/etiologia , Fludrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/sangue , Bangladesh , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo
13.
BJOG ; 122(11): 1495-505, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26219352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the economic costs associated with moderate and late preterm birth. DESIGN: An economic study was nested within a prospective cohort study. SAMPLE: Infants born between 32(+0) and 36(+6)  weeks of gestation in the East Midlands of England. A sample of infants born at ≥37 weeks of gestation acted as controls. METHODS: Data on resource use, estimated from a National Health Service (NHS) and personal social services perspective, and separately from a societal perspective, were collected between birth and 24 months corrected age (or death), and valued in pounds sterling, at 2010-11 prices. Descriptive statistics and multivariable analyses were used to estimate the relationship between gestational age at birth and economic costs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cumulative resource use and economic costs over the first two years of life. RESULTS: Of all eligible births, 1146 (83%) preterm and 1258 (79%) term infants were recruited. Mean (standard error) total societal costs from birth to 24 months were £12 037 (£1114) and £5823 (£1232) for children born moderately preterm (32(+0) -33(+6)  weeks of gestation) and late preterm (34(+0) -36(+6)  weeks of gestation), respectively, compared with £2056 (£132) for children born at term. The mean societal cost difference between moderate and late preterm and term infants was £4657 (bootstrap 95% confidence interval, 95% CI £2513-6803; P < 0.001). Multivariable regressions revealed that, after controlling for clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, moderate and late preterm birth increased societal costs by £7583 (£874) and £1963 (£337), respectively, compared with birth at full term. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate and late preterm birth is associated with significantly increased economic costs over the first 2 years of life. Our economic estimates can be used to inform budgetary and service planning by clinical decision-makers, and economic evaluations of interventions aimed at preventing moderate and late preterm birth or alleviating its adverse consequences. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Moderate and late preterm birth is associated with increased economic costs over the first 2 years of life.


Assuntos
Idade Gestacional , Nascimento Prematuro/economia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/economia , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/economia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Licença para Cuidar de Pessoa da Família/economia , Feminino , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Lung ; 193(1): 71-7, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25381634

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite advances in diagnosis and management, the outcomes for both lung cancer and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are still unfavourable. The pathophysiology and outcomes for patients with concomitant lung cancer and IPF remains unclear. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective analysis was performed of all patients presenting with concomitant IPF and lung cancer to our centre over a 3-year period. Patients with connective tissue disease, asbestos exposure, sarcoidosis, previous thoracic radiation, radiological evidence of fibrosis but no histological confirmation of lung cancer, or the use of medications known to cause pulmonary fibrosis were excluded. We describe clinical, radiological and pathological characteristics of this group. We also report the response to standardized lung cancer therapy in this cohort. RESULTS: Of 637 lung cancer patients, 34 were identified with concomitant IPF (5.3 %) and all were smokers. 85 % had non-small cell lung cancer, 41 % were squamous cell cancers. The majority of tumours were located in the lower lobes, peripheral and present in an area of honeycombing. Despite the fact that approximately 2/3rds of the patients had localised or locally advanced lung cancer, the outcome of therapy for lung cancer was extremely poor regardless of tumour stage or severity of IPF. CONCLUSIONS: At our centre, 1/20 patients with lung cancer have concomitant IPF. The majority of these tumours are small in size, peripheral in location and squamous cell carcinoma; in an area of honey combing. The outcome for concomitant lung cancer and IPF regardless of stage or therapy is poor.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/complicações , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Idoso , Biópsia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/mortalidade , Irlanda , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral
16.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2014: 283982, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24959605

RESUMO

We study the boundedness and persistence, existence, and uniqueness of positive equilibrium, local and global behavior of positive equilibrium point, and rate of convergence of positive solutions of the following system of rational difference equations: x n+1 = (α 1 + ß 1 x(n-1))/(a1 + b1 y n), y(n+1) = (α 2 + ß 2 y(n-1))/(a2 + b2 xn), where the parameters α i, ß i, a i, and b i for i ∈ {1,2} and initial conditions x 0, x(-1), y 0, and y(-1) are positive real numbers. Some numerical examples are given to verify our theoretical results.

17.
Cell Death Dis ; 5: e1080, 2014 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24556695

RESUMO

HIV-1 Nef protein has key roles at almost all stages of the viral life cycle. We assessed the role of Nef and of the translation elongation factor eEF1A in primary human macrophages. Nuclear retention experiments and inhibition of the exportin-t (Exp-t) pathway suggested that cytoplasmic relocalization of eEF1A, mediated by Exp-t occurs in Nef-treated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). We observed the presence of tRNA in the Nef/eEF1A complexes. Nucleocytoplasmic relocalization of the Nef/eEF1A complexes prevented stress-induced apoptosis of MDMs treated with brefeldin A. Blockade of stress-induced apoptosis of MDMs treated with HIV-1 Nef resulted from enhanced nucleocytoplasmic transport of eEF1A with decreased release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and from increased tRNA binding to cytochrome c, ultimately leading to an inhibition of caspase activation. Our results indicate that HIV-1 Nef, through the nucleocytoplasmic relocalization of eEF1A and tRNAs, enhances resistance to stress-induced apoptosis in primary human macrophages.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Brefeldina A/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos do Gene nef do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Caspases/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Resistência a Medicamentos , Humanos , Carioferinas/genética , Carioferinas/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Transporte Proteico , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Transfecção , Produtos do Gene nef do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética , Produtos do Gene nef do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/farmacologia
18.
Mymensingh Med J ; 22(2): 397-9, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23715369

RESUMO

A 5 year old girl hailing from Keraniganj, presented with the complaints of fever, periumbilical pain and vomiting. In vomitus, Fasciolopsis buski worm in adult form was identified by naked eye examination. In stool, ova of Fasciolopsis buski were also observed under microscope. Clinically she was pale and had hepatomegaly. Microcytic hypochromic anaemia with normal liver function test was found on lab investigation. She was diagnosed as a case of Fasciolopsiasis and treated with Praziquantel and on follow up visit she was found to be free of symptom.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Trematódeos/diagnóstico , Infecções por Trematódeos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos
19.
Cell Death Dis ; 3: e292, 2012 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22476100

RESUMO

HIV-1 Nef protein has key roles at almost all stages of the viral life cycle. We assessed the role of the Nef/eEF1A (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1-alpha) complex in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in primary human macrophages. Nuclear retention experiments and inhibition of the exportin-t (Exp-t) pathway suggested that cytoplasmic relocalization of eEF1A, mediated by Exp-t, occurs in Nef-treated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). We observed the presence of tRNA in the Nef/eEF1A complexes. Nucleocytoplasmic relocalization of the Nef/eEF1A complexes prevented stress-induced apoptosis of MDMs treated with brefeldin-A. Blockade of stress-induced apoptosis of MDMs treated with HIV-1 Nef resulted from enhanced nucleocytoplasmic transport of eEF1A with decreased release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and from increased tRNA binding to cytochrome c, ultimately leading to an inhibition of caspase activation. Our results indicate that HIV-1 Nef, through the nucleocytoplasmic relocalization of eEF1A and tRNAs, enhances resistance to stress-induced apoptosis in primary human macrophages.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Produtos do Gene nef do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Brefeldina A/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Citocromos c/metabolismo , HIV-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/citologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Produtos do Gene nef do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
20.
Ir Med J ; 105(2): 50-2, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22455240

RESUMO

The evaluation of a solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) has changed over the years with increased access to percutaneous computerised tomography (CT) guided fine needle aspiration (FNA), where bronchoscopy is unhelpful. The aim of our study was to evaluate the sample adequacy, diagnostic and complication rate of CT-FNA of a SPN at our academic teaching hospital over an 18 month period. CT-FNA was performed by a radiologist, with a cytopathologist in attendance to confirm the adequacy of the sample obtained. The size of the nodule, sample material and adequacy, diagnosis and complications were recorded. A total of 101 patients were included, 54 male and the mean age was 68 +/- 11 years. The mean size of the SPN was 2.3 cm (range 1-11 cm). 56 (56%) patients had a right SPN, 45 (45%) had a left SPN. CT-FNA was diagnostic in 80 (80%) patients and non-diagnostic in 21 (20%) patients. The sample was insufficient for immunocytochemistry, although the morphological appearance was diagnostic in 20 (25%) of the 80 patients. Pneumothorax occurred in 26/101 (26%) patients post CT-FNA, of these 7 (27%) required chest drain insertion, while 19 (73%) were managed conservatively. CT FNA is a useful tool for the diagnosis of a SPN, with our diagnostic accuracy comparable to that reported in the literature. However, CT-FNA may not provide adequate sample volume to perform ancillary testing and has a moderate complication rate.


Assuntos
Biópsia por Agulha Fina/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário/patologia , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Idoso , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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