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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244311, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285616

RESUMO

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado ​​para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados ​​para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762573

RESUMO

Abstract Illnesses caused by human pinworm remains a pediatric health problem in developing nations including Pakistan. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in school children of four districts in Malakand region, Pakistan. Four hundred faecal specimens were screened from May 2014 to July 2017 using normal saline and Lugol Iodine solution. Twenty three (5.75%) individuals were found infected with E. vermicularis. Five children (1.25%) were infected with only E. vermicularis and eighteen (4.5%) were mixed with other helminths. E. vermicularis 23 (5.75%), hookworm 11 (2.75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1.25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0.5%) and Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%) were detected. Age wise 5-8 years were more parasitized followed by 13-15 and 9-12 years of age (0.0296, P 0.05). Male children were highly (0.06700, P 0.05) infected than female. Children in Malakand district were found more infected followed by Dir Upper, similar infection rate was noted in children of districts Lower Dir and Swat (0.0192, P 0.05). Children in primary level were highly (0.0013, P 0.05) infected than those of middle and high levels. Enterobiosis is still the most common parasitic diseases in children. Studies on enterobiosis should be conducted time by time to recognize the hazardous of such parasitic infection in remote areas of the country.


Resumo As doenças causadas pela traça humana continuam sendo um problema de saúde pediátrica nos países em desenvolvimento, incluindo o Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência de Enterobius vermicularis em escolares de quatro distritos na região de Malakand, Paquistão. Quatrocentos espécimes fecais foram selecionados de maio de 2014 a julho de 2017, usando solução salina normal e solução de lugol iodo. Vinte e três (5,75%) indivíduos foram encontrados infectados por E. vermicularis. Cinco crianças (1,25%) foram infectadas apenas com E. vermicularis e dezoito (4,5%) foram misturadas com outros helmintos. Foram detectados E. vermicularis 23 (5,75%), ancilóstomo 11 (2,75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1,25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0,5%) e Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%). Com relação à idade, 5-8 anos foram mais parasitados, seguidos por 13-15 e 9-12 anos de idade (0,0296, P 0,05). Crianças do sexo masculino foram altamente (0,06700, P 0,05) infectadas do que as do sexo feminino. As crianças no distrito de Malakand foram encontradas mais infectadas, seguidas por Dir Upper, taxa de infecção semelhante foi observada em crianças dos distritos Lower Dir e Swat (0,0192, P 0,05). As crianças do nível primário foram altamente (0,0013, P 0,05) infectadas do que as dos níveis médio e alto. A enterobiose ainda é a doença parasitária mais comum em crianças. Os estudos sobre enterobiose devem ser conduzidos periodicamente para reconhecer a periculosidade dessa infecção parasitária em áreas remotas do país.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238769, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285587

RESUMO

Abstract Illnesses caused by human pinworm remains a pediatric health problem in developing nations including Pakistan. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in school children of four districts in Malakand region, Pakistan. Four hundred faecal specimens were screened from May 2014 to July 2017 using normal saline and Lugol Iodine solution. Twenty three (5.75%) individuals were found infected with E. vermicularis. Five children (1.25%) were infected with only E. vermicularis and eighteen (4.5%) were mixed with other helminths. E. vermicularis 23 (5.75%), hookworm 11 (2.75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1.25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0.5%) and Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%) were detected. Age wise 5-8 years were more parasitized followed by 13-15 and 9-12 years of age (0.0296, P<0.05). Male children were highly (0.06700, P<0.05) infected than female. Children in Malakand district were found more infected followed by Dir Upper, similar infection rate was noted in children of districts Lower Dir and Swat (0.0192, P<0.05). Children in primary level were highly (0.0013, P<0.05) infected than those of middle and high levels. Enterobiosis is still the most common parasitic diseases in children. Studies on enterobiosis should be conducted time by time to recognize the hazardous of such parasitic infection in remote areas of the country.


Resumo As doenças causadas pela traça humana continuam sendo um problema de saúde pediátrica nos países em desenvolvimento, incluindo o Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência de Enterobius vermicularis em escolares de quatro distritos na região de Malakand, Paquistão. Quatrocentos espécimes fecais foram selecionados de maio de 2014 a julho de 2017, usando solução salina normal e solução de lugol iodo. Vinte e três (5,75%) indivíduos foram encontrados infectados por E. vermicularis. Cinco crianças (1,25%) foram infectadas apenas com E. vermicularis e dezoito (4,5%) foram misturadas com outros helmintos. Foram detectados E. vermicularis 23 (5,75%), ancilóstomo 11 (2,75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1,25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0,5%) e Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%). Com relação à idade, 5-8 anos foram mais parasitados, seguidos por 13-15 e 9-12 anos de idade (0,0296, P <0,05). Crianças do sexo masculino foram altamente (0,06700, P <0,05) infectadas do que as do sexo feminino. As crianças no distrito de Malakand foram encontradas mais infectadas, seguidas por Dir Upper, taxa de infecção semelhante foi observada em crianças dos distritos Lower Dir e Swat (0,0192, P <0,05). As crianças do nível primário foram altamente (0,0013, P <0,05) infectadas do que as dos níveis médio e alto. A enterobiose ainda é a doença parasitária mais comum em crianças. Os estudos sobre enterobiose devem ser conduzidos periodicamente para reconhecer a periculosidade dessa infecção parasitária em áreas remotas do país.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238769, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249232

RESUMO

Abstract Illnesses caused by human pinworm remains a pediatric health problem in developing nations including Pakistan. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in school children of four districts in Malakand region, Pakistan. Four hundred faecal specimens were screened from May 2014 to July 2017 using normal saline and Lugol Iodine solution. Twenty three (5.75%) individuals were found infected with E. vermicularis. Five children (1.25%) were infected with only E. vermicularis and eighteen (4.5%) were mixed with other helminths. E. vermicularis 23 (5.75%), hookworm 11 (2.75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1.25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0.5%) and Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%) were detected. Age wise 5-8 years were more parasitized followed by 13-15 and 9-12 years of age (0.0296, P<0.05). Male children were highly (0.06700, P<0.05) infected than female. Children in Malakand district were found more infected followed by Dir Upper, similar infection rate was noted in children of districts Lower Dir and Swat (0.0192, P<0.05). Children in primary level were highly (0.0013, P<0.05) infected than those of middle and high levels. Enterobiosis is still the most common parasitic diseases in children. Studies on enterobiosis should be conducted time by time to recognize the hazardous of such parasitic infection in remote areas of the country.


Resumo As doenças causadas pela traça humana continuam sendo um problema de saúde pediátrica nos países em desenvolvimento, incluindo o Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência de Enterobius vermicularis em escolares de quatro distritos na região de Malakand, Paquistão. Quatrocentos espécimes fecais foram selecionados de maio de 2014 a julho de 2017, usando solução salina normal e solução de lugol iodo. Vinte e três (5,75%) indivíduos foram encontrados infectados por E. vermicularis. Cinco crianças (1,25%) foram infectadas apenas com E. vermicularis e dezoito (4,5%) foram misturadas com outros helmintos. Foram detectados E. vermicularis 23 (5,75%), ancilóstomo 11 (2,75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1,25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0,5%) e Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%). Com relação à idade, 5-8 anos foram mais parasitados, seguidos por 13-15 e 9-12 anos de idade (0,0296, P <0,05). Crianças do sexo masculino foram altamente (0,06700, P <0,05) infectadas do que as do sexo feminino. As crianças no distrito de Malakand foram encontradas mais infectadas, seguidas por Dir Upper, taxa de infecção semelhante foi observada em crianças dos distritos Lower Dir e Swat (0,0192, P <0,05). As crianças do nível primário foram altamente (0,0013, P <0,05) infectadas do que as dos níveis médio e alto. A enterobiose ainda é a doença parasitária mais comum em crianças. Os estudos sobre enterobiose devem ser conduzidos periodicamente para reconhecer a periculosidade dessa infecção parasitária em áreas remotas do país.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245585, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495157

RESUMO

Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais , RNA Ribossômico 16S
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e240842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550279

RESUMO

This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Culex , Inseticidas , Animais , Hexanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431905

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico
8.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 633-637, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226448

RESUMO

The Incidence of twin and high order multiple gestation has increased significantly over the past 15 years primarily because of the availability and increased use of ovulation inducing drugs and assisted reproductive technology. Both maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity is higher in multiple pregnancy than in singleton pregnancy. Proposed study is designed to determine the incidence and obstetric outcome of multiple pregnancy which is a high-risk pregnancy in a tertiary referral hospital. The purpose of this study is to evaluate obstetric outcome of multiple pregnancy. This prospective observational study was carried out in the Department of Obs and Gynae, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh from December 2011 to May 2012. Patients were selected by purposive way. In this study it was observed that incidence of twin pregnancy was 1.66% common age group 30-35 years (48%), common in multipara (74%), no pregnancy crossed EDD. Family history of twin was 32% and unknown etiology 58%. Most common maternal complication was preterm labour (60%). Commonest mode of delivery was LSCS (64%), incidence of perinatal mortality 15%, 36% baby had birth weight in between 2.1-2.5kg, all the baby requiring admission in neonatal unit. This prospective observational study revealed that perinatal mortality was high in our center, there was no maternal mortality.


Assuntos
Resultado da Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida
9.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238769, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037078

RESUMO

Illnesses caused by human pinworm remains a pediatric health problem in developing nations including Pakistan. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in school children of four districts in Malakand region, Pakistan. Four hundred faecal specimens were screened from May 2014 to July 2017 using normal saline and Lugol Iodine solution. Twenty three (5.75%) individuals were found infected with E. vermicularis. Five children (1.25%) were infected with only E. vermicularis and eighteen (4.5%) were mixed with other helminths. E. vermicularis 23 (5.75%), hookworm 11 (2.75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1.25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0.5%) and Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%) were detected. Age wise 5-8 years were more parasitized followed by 13-15 and 9-12 years of age (0.0296, P<0.05). Male children were highly (0.06700, P<0.05) infected than female. Children in Malakand district were found more infected followed by Dir Upper, similar infection rate was noted in children of districts Lower Dir and Swat (0.0192, P<0.05). Children in primary level were highly (0.0013, P<0.05) infected than those of middle and high levels. Enterobiosis is still the most common parasitic diseases in children. Studies on enterobiosis should be conducted time by time to recognize the hazardous of such parasitic infection in remote areas of the country.


Assuntos
Enterobíase , Helmintos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Enterobíase/epidemiologia , Enterobius , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
10.
J Environ Manage ; 291: 112661, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962284

RESUMO

The issue of waste management has received considerable critical attention due to the increase of waste generation worldwide. One of the solutions for waste disposal that has been widely implemented is through the use of the landfill due to its economic benefits. Landfill, however, results in many adverse impacts on the environment and human health. Recycling can extract some useful materials from waste, however not every waste can be recycled and a significant volume of waste, particularly the municipal solid waste (MSW) goes to landfill even though it has extractable energy potentials. Extraction of energy from MSW has been a key focus of research due to the scope of energy recovery, environmental and economic benefits. The principal concept of waste to energy is to convert waste into energy through thermal and/or biological processes. In addition, thermochemical processes such as gasification have been found as a promising technology offering several benefits. This paper presents a critical assessment of waste to energy gasification technology for MSW on processing, energy recovery, environmental performance and economic perspectives. These aspects have been analyzed for the landfill as well. The review also explored and identified suitable simulation tools for optimizing gasification. Subsequently, an assessment and comparison of different gasification reactors were carried out which indicate that the plasma gasification can be a feasible technology for MSW management due to higher energy efficiency (816 kWh/tonne) with minimum emission and lowest residue. Although plasma gasification is an energy intensive application which has relatively higher investment cost, it can be built as a large system (up to several 1000 MW system), which can make it economically competitive too. Other technologies such as; fluidized bed gasifier, fixed bed gasifier also have good energy efficiency (547-571 kWh/tonne) however, they contribute to higher CO2 emission. Considering overall waste management, it was found that gasification technology is beneficial to economy, environment and energy extraction compared to the landfill option. A number of tools and their relevant properties have been identified to develop appropriate gasifier model. It is expected that this study will advance further research and innovation that will be helpful to manage waste efficiently as well as to improve the environment.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Humanos , Reciclagem , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
11.
Eur J Med Chem ; 219: 113402, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845234

RESUMO

A collection of potent antimicrobials consisting of novel 1,3-bis-benzoic acid and trifluoromethyl phenyl derived pyrazoles has been synthesized and tested for antibacterial activity. The majority of trifluoromethyl phenyl derivatives are highly potent growth inhibitors of Gram-positive bacteria and showed low toxicity to human cultured cells. In particular, two compounds (59 and 74) were selected for additional studies. These compounds are highly effective against Staphylococcus aureus as shown by a low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), a bactericidal effect in time-kill assays, moderate inhibition of biofilm formation as well as biofilm destruction, and a bactericidal effect against stationary phase cells representing non-growing persister cells. Multistep resistance assays showed a very low tendency for S. aureus and Enterococcus faecalis to develop resistance through mutation. Additionally, in vivo mouse model studies showed no harmful effects at doses up to 50 mg/kg using 14 blood plasma organ toxicity markers or TUNEL assay in liver and kidney. Investigations into the mode of action by performing macromolecular synthesis inhibition studies showed a broad range of inhibitory effects, suggesting targets that have a global effect on bacterial cell function.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazóis/química , Compostos de Anilina/síntese química , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533541

RESUMO

A supply of plant micronutrients (some of which are metals) is necessary to regulate many plant processes; their excess, however, can have detrimental consequences and can hamper plant growth, physiology and metabolism. Artemisia annua is an important crop plant used in the treatment of malaria. In this investigation, the physio-biochemical mechanisms involved in exogenous hydrogen sulphide-mediated (H2 S) alleviation of copper (Cu) stress in A. annua were assessed. Two different levels of Cu (20, 40 mg·kg-1 ), one H2 S treatment (200 µm) and their combinations were introduced while one set of plants was retained as control. Results showed that the presence of excess Cu in the soil reduced growth and biomass, photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll content and fluorescence, gas exchange parameters and induced antioxidant enzyme activity. Copper stress enhanced the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and increased Cu content in both roots and shoots of affected plants. Exogenous application of H2 S restored the physio-biochemical characteristics of Cu-treated A. annua plants by reducing lipid peroxidation and enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes in Cu-stressed plants as compared with the controls. Hydrogen sulphide also reduced the Cu content in different plant parts, increased photosynthetic efficiency, trichome density, average area of trichomes and artemisinin content. Therefore, our results provide a comprehensive assessment of the defensive role of H2 S in Cu-stressed A. annua.

13.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(1): 28-34, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397847

RESUMO

The global burden of cancer is gradually rising. In our context we are also facing the same problem. Hematological malignancies (HMs) are important component of cancer. Early diagnosis and proper treatment at right time, a good number of HMs patients can be cured or lengthening the survival period. For this purpose a proper diagnostic criteria should be developed in our settings. This research work is carried out to find out the clinicopathological findings of HMs in our population. This was a cross-sectional descriptive type of observational study conducted in the Department of Medicine and Hematology of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh from July 2016 to June 2017. Total 45 patients were purposively selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria with a view to observe the clinical and laboratory findings. Mean age of the patients was 44.5 years. Highest average age (70 years) was found in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and lowest (29 years) in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Majority of the respondents were male in all HMs except in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) where male-female ratio was 0.3:7. Among male most of them were farmers or day laborers and most of the females were housewife. Almost all patients were exposed to single or multiple exposures like smoking, betel nut, betel leaf, tobacco leaf, fertilizer or pesticides. Acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) was the leading HMS with 31.11% representation followed by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) 20%, Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) 15.56%, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) 11.11%, chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) 11.11%, multiple myeloma (MM)6.67% and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) 4.44%. Duration of symptoms was vary from 2 days to 5 years. In acute leukaemia duration was short (average 2 months). Common clinical findings were anaemia (95.5%), fever (80.0%), hepatosplenomegaly (42.2%), lymphadenopathy (40.0%), bony tenderness (22.2%) and bleeding manifestations (15.5%). Some uncommon findings were also reported like menorrhagia, facial nerve palsy, arthritis and disorientation. Common laboratory abnormalities were high ESR, anaemia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia and immature cell in PBF especially in acute leukaemia. Clinical suspicion along with history of positive exposure indicates strong possibilities of haematological malignancies. It should be kept in mind that haematological malignancies may also present with some isolated uncommon findings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas , Linfoma não Hodgkin , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Masculino
14.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(1): 48-55, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397850

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia is a common problem in chronic kidney disease patients. Dyslipidemia in chronic kidney disease patients has been known to be a major risk factor of their cardiovascular disease and may contribute to progressive renal dysfunction. The result of the study might be of interest in improving preventive strategies and in management of dyslipidemia in chronic kidney disease patients. This cross sectional study was conducted to evaluate changes in lipid profile in patients with chronic kidney disease stage-3 to stage-5 patients and to correlate the biochemical abnormalities with progression of the disease in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh from October, 2016 to April, 2017. In this study 200 patients were including and subjected to do complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, random blood sugar, routine examination of urine, serum creatinine and fasting lipid profile. Two hundred (200) patients (134 males, 66 females) with the mean age were 50.5±12.43 years. 44.5% patients were in CKD stage-5, 37.5% patients were in CKD stage-4, 18% patients were in CKD stage-3. Mean value of Triglyceride (TG) was 194±47.20. Eighty nine percent (89%) patient had hyper-triglyceridemia and 11% had normal triglyceride level. It was statistically significant increased in triglyceride level (p<0.05). Mean value of High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was 34±6.10. Low HDL-C had in 87.5% patients, normal in 12.5% patients and was statistically significant reduction in HDL-C level (p<0.05). Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) mean was 113±35.6. High level of LDL-C had optimal/or near optimal in 47% patients, 39% patients had borderline high and 14% patients had that was not statistically significant (p>0.10). Total cholesterol (TC) mean was 212±45.3. In 38% patients had within desirable level, 62% patients had high level of Total cholesterol (TC). It was not statistically significant change (p>0.01).


Assuntos
Dislipidemias , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Bangladesh , HDL-Colesterol , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos
15.
Mymensingh Med J ; 27(4): 685-692, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487481

RESUMO

Stroke is leading cause of death world wide, after coronary artery disease and cancer. A high proportion of patients suffering from an acute stress such as stroke or myocardial infarction may develop hyperglycemia, even in the absence of a preexisting diagnosis of diabetes. An observational comparative study was carried out at the Department of Neurology and Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2011 to June 2013 among purposively selected ninety-three patients with a view to assess the outcome of stress hyperglycemia on acute stroke. Data were collected through interview, physical examinations & laboratory investigations by using case record form. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (Statistical package for social science) version 17. The mean age of this study was 59.04±15.01 years in the hyperglycemic group and 62.06±13.81 years in the normoglycemic group. The male female ratio in the Hyperglycemic and normoglycemic group was 2.12:1 and 2.44:1 respectively. Smoker was 48.8% in the hyperglycemic group and 52% in the normoglycemic group. 70% of the Hyperglycemic group and 66% of the normoglycemic were found hypertensive. Mean±SD blood glucose level was found 11.86±0.58mmol/L in the Hyperglycemic group and 6.50±1.55mmol/L in the normoglycemic group. Mean HbAlc were 6.14±0.56 in hyperglycemic group and 5.29±0.54 in normoglycemic group. Stroke severity score were 21.79±11.85 in Hyperglycemic and 28.64±9.53 in normoglycemic group on admission. Functional outcome was measured on discharge & at the end of 4th weeks of every patient by Glasgo Outcome Scale (GOS). The study also suggests that stress hyperglycemia is an important risk factor of poor stroke outcome.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hiperglicemia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh , Glicemia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
16.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2018: 243-246, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30440383

RESUMO

Investigating the brain neural pathways requires extensive knowledge of childrens' cognitive development. Significant variations in the cognitive process of a child, across ages, were assessed through the success in recognizing various stimuli. Longitudinal EEG data were gathered from 45 healthy children at the ages of seven and nine years. During the EEG data acquisition, children were asked to respond to the Flanker stimuli for investigating the development of the response conflict process. In each age group, the coherence and imaginary component of coherency were used to assess the network connectivity of each child. The congruent and incongruent stimuli were tried within delta, theta, alpha and beta bands. Following that, efficacies of various classification algorithms were tested in discriminating the coherency data of the two age groups. It was observed that brain connectivity was more helpful in distinguishing between two age groups using the incongruent Flanker stimuli. For the incongruent condition, the imaginary part of the coherency provides better features for classification. Using the features derived from the theta, alpha and beta bands, a classification accuracy of more than 94.31% could be achieved using the naïve Bayes classifier.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Eletroencefalografia , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Cognição , Humanos , Vias Neurais
17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9826, 2018 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959405

RESUMO

Precision public health approaches are crucial for targeting health policies to regions most affected by disease. We present the first sub-national and spatially explicit burden of disease study in Africa. We used a cross-sectional study design and assessed data from the Kenya population and housing census of 2009 for calculating YLLs (years of life lost) due to premature mortality at the division level (N = 612). We conducted spatial autocorrelation analysis to identify spatial clusters of YLLs and applied boosted regression trees to find statistical associations between locational risk factors and YLLs. We found statistically significant spatial clusters of high numbers of YLLs at the division level in western, northwestern, and northeastern areas of Kenya. Ethnicity and household crowding were the most important and significant risk factors for YLL. Further positive and significantly associated variables were malaria endemicity, northern geographic location, and higher YLL in neighboring divisions. In contrast, higher rates of married people and more precipitation in a division were significantly associated with less YLL. We provide an evidence base and a transferable approach that can guide health policy and intervention in sub-national regions afflicted by disease burden in Kenya and other areas of comparable settings.


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/mortalidade , Modelos Estatísticos , Causas de Morte , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 119(1): 79-80, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066386

RESUMO

Segmental mandibulectomies are performed commonly in patients having benign or malignant pathologies of mandible. For this purpose, Gigli saw is used frequently by most of the maxillofacial surgeons. The two main challenging tasks while using Gigli saw includes passage of the device around the bone which is to be cut and the preservation of the underlying soft tissue from getting damaged by the saw during its movement. Hence, we propose the use of a "Cable guide with hook" which not only helps in easy passage of Gigli saw around the mandible but also prevents injury to the underlying soft tissue while performing mandibulectomy.


Assuntos
Mandíbula , Osteotomia Mandibular , Humanos , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos
20.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 102(2): e591-e598, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29027705

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of spices on forage utilization and nitrogen (N) emission using in vitro and in vivo approach. A 6 × 5 factorial triplicate arrangement was used to assess the in vitro degradability of rice straw with control (without spices) and individual (40 mg/g rice straw) spices (cumin, coriander, clove, black cumin, turmeric) at five different incubation times. In vitro dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) degradability of rice straw were highest in presence of spices except for clove. Clove significantly reduced the total volatile fatty acids concentration, molar proportion of acetate and propionate ratio, but increased propionate production. Acetate and butyrate production were not affected by treatments. The ammonia-nitrogen concentration was lowest for clove and turmeric compared to other spices. Rumen pH was unchanged but gradually decreased over the incubation period. For in vivo study, 12 bucks with average live weight 7.65 ± 0.19 kg were assigned to a completely randomized design with three treatments and four replicates for a 28-day period. Bucks were fed a total mixed ration without (0 g/kg DM) or with (2.5, 7.5 g/kg DM) clove supplementation. DM intake, body weight and apparent total tract digestibility of crude protein (CP) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were not affected by increasing dietary doses of clove but tended (p = .09) to increase DM and OM digestibility. The urinary N and urine urea N concentration of bucks decreased linearly with incremental doses of clove diet. In contrary, clove supplementation had positive effects on plasma urea N and retained N in bucks. We concluded that though some spices had positive effects on ruminal digestion and fermentation, the dosage level assessed in the current study (up to 7.5 g/kg DM clove) can be promoted as an effective dietary approach to mitigate N losses in bucks.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Cabras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cabras/metabolismo , Especiarias , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Rúmen/fisiologia
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