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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249422, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339393

RESUMO

Abstract Ninety days study was conducted in hapas installed in earthen ponds. Fish of an average initial weight (220g) were evenly distributed in triplicate groups within fifteen hapas. Five experimental diets labeled as T1 (25% CP and NRC recommended amino acid level) as control diet, T2 (with 2% low protein and 5% amino acid supplementation), T3 (with 2% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation), T4 (with 4% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation) and T5 (with 4% low protein and 20% amino acid supplementation) were prepared. Fish were fed with @3% of their body weight twice a day at 10.00 & 16:00 hour. Significantly higher percent weight gain (420.18 ± 66.84a) and specific growth rate (13499.33±1273.54a) along with improved feed conversion ratio (1.29 ± 0.09b) and hundred percent survivals were recorded during the trial. Furthermore proximate analysis of meat showed significant improvement in the crude protein level (81.77 ± 0.19a) served with diet containing 20% limiting amino acids mixture. Therefore, limiting amino acids can be a source of cost effective feed and use safely in L. rohita diet.


Resumo O estudo de 90 dias foi realizado em hapas instalados em tanques de terra. Peixes com peso inicial médio (220 g) foram distribuídos uniformemente em grupos triplicados em 15 hapas. Cinco dietas experimentais rotuladas como T1 (25% de CP e NRC recomendado nível de aminoácidos) como dieta controle, T2 (com 2% de proteína baixa e 5% de suplementação de aminoácidos), T3 (com 2% de proteína baixa e 10% de suplementação de aminoácidos), T4 (com 4% de baixa proteína e 10% de suplementação de aminoácidos) e T5 (com 4% de baixa proteína e 20% de suplementação de aminoácidos) foram preparadas. Os peixes foram alimentados com 3% do seu peso corporal duas vezes por dia às 10h00 e 16h00. Ganho de peso significativamente maior (420,18 ± 66,84a) e taxa de crescimento específico (13499,33 ± 1273,54a) juntamente com taxa de conversão alimentar melhorada (1, 29 ± 0,09b) e sobrevivência de cem por cento foram registrados durante o ensaio. Além disso, a análise aproximada da carne mostrou melhora significativa no nível de proteína bruta (81,77 ± 0,19a) servida com dieta contendo 20% de mistura de aminoácidos limitantes. Portanto, a limitação de aminoácidos pode ser uma fonte de alimentação econômica e usada com segurança na dieta de L. rohita.

2.
J Diet Suppl ; : 1-7, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014576

RESUMO

Vitamin K acts a cofactor for the gamma-carboxylation of several proteins in the coagulation cascade. The clinical spectrum of vitamin K deficiency (VKD) can be asymptomatic to a significant bleeding. VKD is classically seen in newborns. However, this can manifest later in patients with risks such as sub-optimal nutrition, fat malabsorption, medications including antibiotics. A 17-year-old male with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) Type 1, tracheostomy with ventilator dependent, gastrostomy tube feeding was seen by the gastroenterologist following treatment for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Investigations showed coagulopathy following which he was transferred to the Pediatric ICU. Labs revealed prothrombin time (PT) 114 s [Normal 9.4-12.5 s], INR (International normalized ratio) 12.6 [Normal < 1.1] and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) 90 s [Normal 25.1-36.5 s]. Mixing studies and coagulation assays were consistent with VKD (low Factor VII and Factor IX with normal Factor V). His home blenderized feeding regimen met the caloric requirement but not the adequate intake (AI) values for vitamin K and other minerals. He received intravenous vitamin K (phytonadione) for five consecutive days with resolution of the coagulopathy (PT 13.2 s, PTT 37.1 s, INR 1.2). The patient was discharged on enteral vitamin K and additional supplements following dietary review by a nutritionist. Clinicians should be cognizant of VKD in patients on blenderized tube feeds which may not meet the adequate intake (AI) goals. In patients who are not receiving nutritionally complete formulas or receiving inadequate volumes, it is important to monitor macro and micronutrients.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e253107, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019094

RESUMO

Life cycle assessment was carried out for a conventional wooden furniture set produced in Mardan division of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan during 2018-19. Primary data regarding inputs and outputs were collected through questionnaire surveys from 100 conventional wooden furniture set manufacturers, 50 in district Mardan and 50 in district Swabi. In the present study, cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment approach was applied for a functional unit of one conventional wooden furniture set. Production weighted average data were modelled in the environmental impacts modelling software i.e., SimaPro v.8.5. The results showed that textile used in sofa set, wood preservative for polishing and preventing insects attack and petrol used in generator had the highest contribution to all the environmental impact categories evaluated. Total cumulative energy demand for wooden furniture set manufactured was 30,005 MJ with most of the energy acquired from non-renewable fossil fuel resources.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Decoração de Interiores e Mobiliário , Paquistão
4.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e255055, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019107

RESUMO

This study was aimed to investigate Carbofuran (CF)-induced pathological changes in cattle egret. Two hundred cattle egrets were reared and equally divided into four groups and given different CF concentrations (0.03 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0 mg/L (control group)). Hematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, and immunological markers were studied. Our results confirm that CF induces anemic conditions, leukocytosis, elevated liver enzymatic activity, and alterations in renal biomarkers. Moreover, specific microscopic lesions such as multifocal necrosis, pyknotic nuclei, hemorrhages, congestion, and inflammatory cell proliferation were observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus. These findings suggest that CF can induce harmful effects, so the application of this pesticide in the field must be strictly monitored to mitigate the possibility of exposure to non-target species.


Assuntos
Carbofurano , Animais , Aves , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Bovinos
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e249971, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278485

RESUMO

Abstract Stunting is a significant public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. This study assessed the prevalence of stunting and associated risk factors of stunting among preschool and school-going children in flood-affected areas of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting 656 households through multi-stage sampling. Respondent's anthropometric measurements, socio-demographic information and sanitation facilities were explored. A logistic regression model was used to determine determinants of stunting, controlling for all possible confounders. The overall prevalence of stunting in children was 40.5%, among children 36.1% boys and 46.3% of girls were stunted. The prevalence of stunting in under-five children was 50.7%. Female children (OR=1.35, 95% CI:0.94-2.0), children aged 13-24 months (OR=6.5, 95% CI: 3.0-13.9), mothers aged 15-24 years (OR=4.4, 95% CI: 2.6-7.2), joint family (OR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.4-3.0) did not have access to improved drinking water (OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.9-5.9), and the toilet facility (OR=2.8, 95% CI, 1.9-4.3), while the children from district Nowshera (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2) were significantly (P<0.05) associated in univariate analysis. The regression model revealed that child age, maternal age, family type, quality of water, and toilet facility, were the significant (P<0.05) factors contributing to child stunting in the flood-hit areas. Identification of key factors might be helpful for policymakers in designing comprehensive community-based programs for the reduction of stunting in flood-affected areas. In disasters such as flood, the detrimental consequences of the stunting problem could be even more on children. Evidence-based education and care must be provided to the families in the flood-affected regions to reduce the stunting problem. The determinants of stunting should be targeted by making comprehensive policies regarding proper nutrition, livelihood, clean water, and sanitation facilities in flood-hit regions.


Resumo A baixa estatura é um problema significativo de saúde pública em países de baixa e média renda. Este estudo avaliou a prevalência de nanismo e os fatores de risco associados de nanismo entre crianças em idade pré-escolar e em idade escolar em áreas afetadas por inundações do Paquistão. Foi realizado um estudo transversal visitando 656 domicílios por meio de amostragem em múltiplos estágios. As medidas antropométricas do entrevistado, informações sociodemográficas e instalações de saneamento foram exploradas. Um modelo de regressão logística foi usado para determinar os determinantes do nanismo, controlando todos os possíveis fatores de confusão. A prevalência geral de baixa estatura em crianças foi de 40,5%, entre as crianças 36,1% dos meninos e 46,3% das meninas com baixa estatura. A prevalência de baixa estatura em crianças menores de 5 anos foi de 50,7%. Crianças do sexo feminino (OR = 1,35, IC de 95%: 0,94-2,0), crianças de 13-24 meses (OR = 6,5, IC de 95%: 3,0-13,9), mães de 15-24 anos (OR = 4,4, IC de 95%: 2,6-7,2), família conjunta (OR = 2,1, IC 95%: 1,4-3,0) não tiveram acesso a água potável de qualidade (OR = 3,3, IC 95%: 1,9-5,9) e a banheiro (OR = 2,8, IC de 95%, 1,9-4,3), enquanto as crianças do distrito de Nowshera (OR = 1,7, IC de 95%: 0,9-3,2) foram significativamente (P < 0,05) associadas na análise univariada. O modelo de regressão revelou que a idade da criança, idade materna, tipo de família, qualidade da água e banheiro foram os fatores significativos (P < 0,05) que contribuíram para a baixa estatura infantil nas áreas afetadas pelas enchentes. A identificação de fatores-chave pode ser útil para os formuladores de políticas no planejamento de programas comunitários abrangentes para a redução da baixa estatura em áreas afetadas pelas enchentes. Em desastres como enchentes, as consequências prejudiciais do problema de baixa estatura podem ser ainda maiores para as crianças. Educação baseada em evidências e cuidados deve ser fornecida às famílias nas regiões afetadas pelas enchentes para reduzir o problema de nanismo. Os determinantes do retardo de crescimento devem ser almejados pela formulação de políticas abrangentes sobre nutrição adequada, meios de subsistência, água potável e instalações de saneamento nas regiões afetadas pelas enchentes.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238769, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285587

RESUMO

Abstract Illnesses caused by human pinworm remains a pediatric health problem in developing nations including Pakistan. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in school children of four districts in Malakand region, Pakistan. Four hundred faecal specimens were screened from May 2014 to July 2017 using normal saline and Lugol Iodine solution. Twenty three (5.75%) individuals were found infected with E. vermicularis. Five children (1.25%) were infected with only E. vermicularis and eighteen (4.5%) were mixed with other helminths. E. vermicularis 23 (5.75%), hookworm 11 (2.75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1.25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0.5%) and Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%) were detected. Age wise 5-8 years were more parasitized followed by 13-15 and 9-12 years of age (0.0296, P<0.05). Male children were highly (0.06700, P<0.05) infected than female. Children in Malakand district were found more infected followed by Dir Upper, similar infection rate was noted in children of districts Lower Dir and Swat (0.0192, P<0.05). Children in primary level were highly (0.0013, P<0.05) infected than those of middle and high levels. Enterobiosis is still the most common parasitic diseases in children. Studies on enterobiosis should be conducted time by time to recognize the hazardous of such parasitic infection in remote areas of the country.


Resumo As doenças causadas pela traça humana continuam sendo um problema de saúde pediátrica nos países em desenvolvimento, incluindo o Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência de Enterobius vermicularis em escolares de quatro distritos na região de Malakand, Paquistão. Quatrocentos espécimes fecais foram selecionados de maio de 2014 a julho de 2017, usando solução salina normal e solução de lugol iodo. Vinte e três (5,75%) indivíduos foram encontrados infectados por E. vermicularis. Cinco crianças (1,25%) foram infectadas apenas com E. vermicularis e dezoito (4,5%) foram misturadas com outros helmintos. Foram detectados E. vermicularis 23 (5,75%), ancilóstomo 11 (2,75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1,25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0,5%) e Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%). Com relação à idade, 5-8 anos foram mais parasitados, seguidos por 13-15 e 9-12 anos de idade (0,0296, P <0,05). Crianças do sexo masculino foram altamente (0,06700, P <0,05) infectadas do que as do sexo feminino. As crianças no distrito de Malakand foram encontradas mais infectadas, seguidas por Dir Upper, taxa de infecção semelhante foi observada em crianças dos distritos Lower Dir e Swat (0,0192, P <0,05). As crianças do nível primário foram altamente (0,0013, P <0,05) infectadas do que as dos níveis médio e alto. A enterobiose ainda é a doença parasitária mais comum em crianças. Os estudos sobre enterobiose devem ser conduzidos periodicamente para reconhecer a periculosidade dessa infecção parasitária em áreas remotas do país.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238891, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249229

RESUMO

Abstract Food handlers plays a primary role in the transmission of pathogenically important protozoans and helminth parasites. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal pathogenic protozoans and helminth parasites among food handlers in and around University of Malakand, Lower Dir, Pakistan. Stool samples were collected from 642 food handlers (all of male) in a cross-sectional study from January to November, 2017. Wet Mount Techniques and concentration methods by using salt and formol-ether solutions. Three hundred and eighty four cases (59.8%) were found infected with one more parasites. Most of the individuals were found infected with helminth (47.6%) as compared to intestinal protozoans (0.93%). Seventy two cases (11.2%) of the cases presented mixed infection with both intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites. The order of prevalence for intestinal helminth was Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40.1%), followed by Taeniasa ginata (n=96, 14.9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8.40%) and Trichuris trichura (n=30, 4.60%). For intestinal protozoa, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n = 36, 5.64%) was the only protozoan detected. Mono-parasitism was higher than poly-parasitism. Family size income and education level were the factors significantly (P<0.05) associated in the parasites prevalence. Current research showed that IPIs are primarily the foodborne pathogens still an important public health problem in Pakistan. Effective control programs on parasitic diseases transfer and their associated factors are recommended.


Resumo Os manipuladores de alimentos desempenham um papel fundamental na transmissão de protozoários e helmintos parasitas patogenicamente importantes. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de protozoários patogênicos intestinais e helmintos parasitas entre manipuladores de alimentos na Universidade de Malakand, Lower Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas de 642 manipuladores de alimentos (todos do sexo masculino) em um estudo transversal de janeiro a novembro de 2017. Técnicas de montagem úmida e métodos de concentração usando soluções de sal e formol-éter. Trezentos e oitenta e quatro casos (59,8%) foram encontrados infectados com mais um parasita. A maioria dos indivíduos foi encontrada infectada por helmintos (47,6%) em comparação com protozoários intestinais (0,93%). Setenta e dois casos (11,2%) dos casos apresentavam infecção mista com protozoários intestinais e helmintos parasitas. A ordem de prevalência de helmintos intestinais foi Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40,1%), seguido por Taeniasa ginata (n = 96, 14,9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8,40%) e Trichuris trichura (n = 30, 4,60 %). Para protozoários intestinais, Entamoeba histolytica / dispar (n = 36, 5,64%) foi o único protozoário detectado. Monoparasitismo foi maior do que poliparasitismo. A renda familiar e o nível de escolaridade foram os fatores significativamente (P <0,05) associados na prevalência de parasitos. A pesquisa atual mostrou que os IPIs são principalmente os patógenos de origem alimentar, ainda um importante problema de saúde pública no Paquistão. Programas eficazes de controle da transferência de doenças parasitárias e seus fatores associados são recomendados.

8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238769, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249232

RESUMO

Abstract Illnesses caused by human pinworm remains a pediatric health problem in developing nations including Pakistan. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in school children of four districts in Malakand region, Pakistan. Four hundred faecal specimens were screened from May 2014 to July 2017 using normal saline and Lugol Iodine solution. Twenty three (5.75%) individuals were found infected with E. vermicularis. Five children (1.25%) were infected with only E. vermicularis and eighteen (4.5%) were mixed with other helminths. E. vermicularis 23 (5.75%), hookworm 11 (2.75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1.25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0.5%) and Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%) were detected. Age wise 5-8 years were more parasitized followed by 13-15 and 9-12 years of age (0.0296, P<0.05). Male children were highly (0.06700, P<0.05) infected than female. Children in Malakand district were found more infected followed by Dir Upper, similar infection rate was noted in children of districts Lower Dir and Swat (0.0192, P<0.05). Children in primary level were highly (0.0013, P<0.05) infected than those of middle and high levels. Enterobiosis is still the most common parasitic diseases in children. Studies on enterobiosis should be conducted time by time to recognize the hazardous of such parasitic infection in remote areas of the country.


Resumo As doenças causadas pela traça humana continuam sendo um problema de saúde pediátrica nos países em desenvolvimento, incluindo o Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência de Enterobius vermicularis em escolares de quatro distritos na região de Malakand, Paquistão. Quatrocentos espécimes fecais foram selecionados de maio de 2014 a julho de 2017, usando solução salina normal e solução de lugol iodo. Vinte e três (5,75%) indivíduos foram encontrados infectados por E. vermicularis. Cinco crianças (1,25%) foram infectadas apenas com E. vermicularis e dezoito (4,5%) foram misturadas com outros helmintos. Foram detectados E. vermicularis 23 (5,75%), ancilóstomo 11 (2,75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1,25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0,5%) e Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%). Com relação à idade, 5-8 anos foram mais parasitados, seguidos por 13-15 e 9-12 anos de idade (0,0296, P <0,05). Crianças do sexo masculino foram altamente (0,06700, P <0,05) infectadas do que as do sexo feminino. As crianças no distrito de Malakand foram encontradas mais infectadas, seguidas por Dir Upper, taxa de infecção semelhante foi observada em crianças dos distritos Lower Dir e Swat (0,0192, P <0,05). As crianças do nível primário foram altamente (0,0013, P <0,05) infectadas do que as dos níveis médio e alto. A enterobiose ainda é a doença parasitária mais comum em crianças. Os estudos sobre enterobiose devem ser conduzidos periodicamente para reconhecer a periculosidade dessa infecção parasitária em áreas remotas do país.

9.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(23): 7231-7237, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919222

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and an increasing burden in terms of incidence, morbidity and mortality. It accounts for about 28.7% of all new cancers in women. In 2015, the Saudi cancer registry shows that breast cancer was graded first among women and it accounts for 16.7% of all cancers reported among Saudi nationals. This study was designed to assess breast cancer screening knowledge and practices among women in the Asir region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study recruiting 1,021 female participants was performed. The variables included breast cancer knowledge, socio-demographic features, breast self-examination knowledge and practice. Descriptive statistics was used to compare and analyze the collected data while chi-square test was used to check the statistical significance among the selected variables. Saudi married women from Asir region were the participants of this cross-sectional study. RESULTS: Our findings suggested that participants had a satisfactory level of knowledge about breast self-examination and mammograms at a rate of > 90% and 44.76% respectively. Over 90% of participants had good breast self-exam knowledge, however, only 6.37% was always performed breast self-examination. Similarly, nearly 40% of participants performed mammograms, while 40.5% were unaware. Leaflets and doctors were the primary sources of information for participants regarding the information of breast cancer screening. CONCLUSIONS: Breast self-examination is a crucial approach to the timely detection of breast cancer and is subsequently critical for effective treatment. From the findings of this study we concluded that most women in the Asir region have a good awareness of breast cancer screening methods. However, either screening of self-examination or mammogram for breast cancer was not carried out thoroughly and regularly. This means that we must continue to emphasize the importance of primary health care in the earliest stages of breast cancer.

10.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e250821, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755812

RESUMO

The present study aimed to determine the effect of different levels of protein on the growth, body composition, amino acid profile and serology of Channa marulius fingerlings. The experiment was conducted in ten happas installed in earthen ponds, each stocked with 10 fishes for 90 days. Four commercial fish feeds having 25%, 30%, 32% and 40% crude protein (CP) levels were fed to fish at 3% of their wet body weight three times a day. The results of the study revealed that highest weight gain, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were observed in 30% protein feed. Meanwhile, moisture content was higher in fish fed with 30% CP feed while highest crude protein was recorded in 40% CP fed fish. Lowest fat content was observed in 32% CP feed. Amino acid profile of fish revealed better results in 30% CP feed. Total protein, glucose and globulin were also highest in fish feeding 30% CP feed, while albumin was highest in 40% CP feed. It is concluded that 30% CP feed showed better results in terms of growth, amino acid profile and serological parameters without effecting fish body composition.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Peixes , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Composição Corporal , Dieta , Paquistão , Lagoas
11.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249211, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730605

RESUMO

This study was conducted to estimate the diversity and the occurrence of commercially important finfish species collected by twenty fish sampling site of Sindh and Baluchistan coasts of the Arabian Sea in Pakistan from January to December 2019. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of seawater were analyzed from these selected sites and found to be within suitable ranges required for fish growth and survive. A total of 81287 fish individuals were collected and identified as 49 species belonging to 26 families in our study. The most diversified family was Sparidae (13 species) followed by Carangidae and Lutjanidae (4 species), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 species), and Sciaenidae (2 species). The remaining 20 families were represented by only one species. The values of Shannon diversity index calculated for the four selected habitats revealed that high fish diversity was reported at Sonmiani Coast (H'=1.81), while less at Ormara Coast (H'=0.23). Likewise, Evenness index (E) was high at Sonmiani Coast (E=0.50) and less fish diversity was reported at Ormara Coast (E=0.06). Reducing risks to threatened marine species in coastal habitats also requires conservation actions at multiple scales. Thus, it was concluded that our study could be valuable in providing the more information's regarding to the diversity of finfish species and their occurrence along the Pakistan Coast. Further, to better understand the effects, regular monitoring and conservation measures should be taken to mitigate the influence of anthropogenic activities and protect finfish diversity from further decline.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Peixes , Humanos , Água do Mar
12.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e250916, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705952

RESUMO

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Moringa , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Folhas de Planta
13.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249422, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495169

RESUMO

Ninety days study was conducted in hapas installed in earthen ponds. Fish of an average initial weight (220g) were evenly distributed in triplicate groups within fifteen hapas. Five experimental diets labeled as T1 (25% CP and NRC recommended amino acid level) as control diet, T2 (with 2% low protein and 5% amino acid supplementation), T3 (with 2% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation), T4 (with 4% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation) and T5 (with 4% low protein and 20% amino acid supplementation) were prepared. Fish were fed with @3% of their body weight twice a day at 10.00 & 16:00 hour. Significantly higher percent weight gain (420.18 ± 66.84a) and specific growth rate (13499.33±1273.54a) along with improved feed conversion ratio (1.29 ± 0.09b) and hundred percent survivals were recorded during the trial. Furthermore proximate analysis of meat showed significant improvement in the crude protein level (81.77 ± 0.19a) served with diet containing 20% limiting amino acids mixture. Therefore, limiting amino acids can be a source of cost effective feed and use safely in L. rohita diet.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Cyprinidae , Aminoácidos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais
14.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 353-359, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508343

RESUMO

Curcumin is a potent antimicrobial herb used traditionally as a spice in culinary. This study was designed to evaluate the antiviral effects of curcuma longa extract against H9 influenza virus. A total of 60 embryonated eggs were equally divided into 5 groups with 12 eggs in each group. Group 1 (G1) served as uninfected negative control. Whereas Group 2 (G2) was kept as positive control infected with known virus @ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Group 3 (G3) was offered Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml and H9N2 virus (@ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Similarly, Group 4 (G4) was inoculated with extract of Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml per egg, whereas Group 5 (G5) was given Ribazole @ 0.2 ml/ egg. The crude extract and virus were administered on the 15th day of incubation and were checked after every 24 hours up to 96th hour post inoculation by random selection of 3 eggs. Death and survival rate were noted in all groups. Gross and histopathological lesions were also observed. Results revealed that Curcuma longa extract had significantly (p<0.05) reduced the mortality rate of embryos infected with H9N2 virus. In G3, increased lymphocytes and mild fatty changes were seen in liver. Whereas, mature RBCs, plasma cells and some lymphoblast's were observed in Spleen. Similarly, the bursa follicles were with lymphocytic aggregation. The G4 (Curcuma longa) and G5 (Ribazole) were with maximum embryo survival after 48 and 72 h post inoculation. This study revealed potential antiviral activity of Curcuma longa against H9N2 influenza viruses and can be opted as alternative to antibiotics and antiviral drugs to minimize the antimicrobial resistance in human and animal population.

16.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 671-677, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226454

RESUMO

Neonatal sepsis is associated with increased mortality and morbidity including prolonged hospital stay. Management of such cases is difficult, costly and need expert centers in many cases. Therefore, continued surveillance is mandatory to identify risk factors of neonatal sepsis which help optimizing its management. With the above idea, this cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in the department of Neonatology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2017 to December 2017 to observe the effects of maternal and neonatal risk factors in the development of neonatal sepsis and to determine risk factors of neonatal sepsis. Ninety four neonates (0-28 days) who were admitted in NICU with suspected sepsis were included in this study by purposive sampling technique. After admission written informed consent from parents or guardians obtained and histories were obtained including perinatal history and full physical examination of the infants were done and septic screening were sent. All the relevant information was recorded in a pre-designed questionnaire and all data were compiled, tabulated and then analyzed by SPSS version 21.0. Among 94 cases, 72.3% were preterm and 27.6% were term. There was male predominance and male/ female ratio was 1.9:1. Most (76.6%) of the patient admitted within 72 hours of birth. Most (83%) had low birth weight (<2500gm). Most came from rural area 61(64.9%) and also from low income family 59(62.8%). Premature onset of labour 40(42.6%), PROM >18 hours 36(38.3%), vaginal route of delivery 52(55.3%), instrumental resuscitation 15(16%), prelacteal feeding 11(11.7%), bottle feeding 15(16%) were the antenatal, natal and postnatal risk factors in this study. Also the neonatal factors, like prematurity, resuscitation at birth and low APGAR score carried the significant risk of developing sepsis. Poor feeding, lethargy, respiratory distress, jaundice were more common presenting symptoms. Tachycardia, tachypnea, chest indrawing, cyanosis hypothermia, hyperthermia and apnoea were found as more common presenting sign of sepsis in this study. Based on result it is concluded that prolonged rupture of membrane>18 hours, vaginal route of delivery, preterm birth, instrumental resuscitation, prelacteal feeding, bottle feeding were the major perinatal risk factors in this study.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal , Nascimento Prematuro , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Sepse Neonatal/diagnóstico , Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
17.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e249971, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259717

RESUMO

Stunting is a significant public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. This study assessed the prevalence of stunting and associated risk factors of stunting among preschool and school-going children in flood-affected areas of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting 656 households through multi-stage sampling. Respondent's anthropometric measurements, socio-demographic information and sanitation facilities were explored. A logistic regression model was used to determine determinants of stunting, controlling for all possible confounders. The overall prevalence of stunting in children was 40.5%, among children 36.1% boys and 46.3% of girls were stunted. The prevalence of stunting in under-five children was 50.7%. Female children (OR=1.35, 95% CI:0.94-2.0), children aged 13-24 months (OR=6.5, 95% CI: 3.0-13.9), mothers aged 15-24 years (OR=4.4, 95% CI: 2.6-7.2), joint family (OR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.4-3.0) did not have access to improved drinking water (OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.9-5.9), and the toilet facility (OR=2.8, 95% CI, 1.9-4.3), while the children from district Nowshera (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2) were significantly (P<0.05) associated in univariate analysis. The regression model revealed that child age, maternal age, family type, quality of water, and toilet facility, were the significant (P<0.05) factors contributing to child stunting in the flood-hit areas. Identification of key factors might be helpful for policymakers in designing comprehensive community-based programs for the reduction of stunting in flood-affected areas. In disasters such as flood, the detrimental consequences of the stunting problem could be even more on children. Evidence-based education and care must be provided to the families in the flood-affected regions to reduce the stunting problem. The determinants of stunting should be targeted by making comprehensive policies regarding proper nutrition, livelihood, clean water, and sanitation facilities in flood-hit regions.


Assuntos
Inundações , Transtornos do Crescimento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas
18.
S Afr J Surg ; 59(2): 66a-66f, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212575

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare, slow-growing, spindle cell neoplasm with low to intermediate grade malignant potential, commonly found in young and middle-aged adults, more in males than females. DFSP mostly originates in the dermis; rarely, it may be located in the deeper tissues without dermal involvement. Typically, DFSP appears as a multinodular mass, which then spreads into the subcutaneous tissues and muscle; it rarely dedifferentiates to high-grade fibrosarcoma, and more rarely, it may metastasise. We describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in three female patients with histologically proven DFSP and review the literature.


Assuntos
Dermatofibrossarcoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Cirurgiões , Dermatofibrossarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Dermatofibrossarcoma/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia
19.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238769, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037078

RESUMO

Illnesses caused by human pinworm remains a pediatric health problem in developing nations including Pakistan. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in school children of four districts in Malakand region, Pakistan. Four hundred faecal specimens were screened from May 2014 to July 2017 using normal saline and Lugol Iodine solution. Twenty three (5.75%) individuals were found infected with E. vermicularis. Five children (1.25%) were infected with only E. vermicularis and eighteen (4.5%) were mixed with other helminths. E. vermicularis 23 (5.75%), hookworm 11 (2.75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1.25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0.5%) and Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%) were detected. Age wise 5-8 years were more parasitized followed by 13-15 and 9-12 years of age (0.0296, P<0.05). Male children were highly (0.06700, P<0.05) infected than female. Children in Malakand district were found more infected followed by Dir Upper, similar infection rate was noted in children of districts Lower Dir and Swat (0.0192, P<0.05). Children in primary level were highly (0.0013, P<0.05) infected than those of middle and high levels. Enterobiosis is still the most common parasitic diseases in children. Studies on enterobiosis should be conducted time by time to recognize the hazardous of such parasitic infection in remote areas of the country.


Assuntos
Enterobíase , Helmintos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Enterobíase/epidemiologia , Enterobius , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
20.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238891, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037080

RESUMO

Food handlers plays a primary role in the transmission of pathogenically important protozoans and helminth parasites. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal pathogenic protozoans and helminth parasites among food handlers in and around University of Malakand, Lower Dir, Pakistan. Stool samples were collected from 642 food handlers (all of male) in a cross-sectional study from January to November, 2017. Wet Mount Techniques and concentration methods by using salt and formol-ether solutions. Three hundred and eighty four cases (59.8%) were found infected with one more parasites. Most of the individuals were found infected with helminth (47.6%) as compared to intestinal protozoans (0.93%). Seventy two cases (11.2%) of the cases presented mixed infection with both intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites. The order of prevalence for intestinal helminth was Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40.1%), followed by Taeniasa ginata (n=96, 14.9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8.40%) and Trichuris trichura (n=30, 4.60%). For intestinal protozoa, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n = 36, 5.64%) was the only protozoan detected. Mono-parasitism was higher than poly-parasitism. Family size income and education level were the factors significantly (P<0.05) associated in the parasites prevalence. Current research showed that IPIs are primarily the foodborne pathogens still an important public health problem in Pakistan. Effective control programs on parasitic diseases transfer and their associated factors are recommended.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Fezes , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública
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