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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236499, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153462

RESUMO

Abstract Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Resumo O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762553

RESUMO

Abstract Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Resumo O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762069

RESUMO

Abstract Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Resumo O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.

4.
Microorganisms ; 9(11)2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835329

RESUMO

Soil salinity causes severe environmental stress that affects agriculture production and food security throughout the world. Salt-tolerant plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and nitric oxide (NO), a distinctive signaling molecule, can synergistically assist in the alleviation of abiotic stresses and plant growth promotion, but the mechanism by which this happens is still not well known. In the present study, in a potential salt-tolerant rhizobacteria strain, ASN-1, growth up to 15% NaCl concentration was achieved with sugarcane rhizosphere soil. Based on 16S-rRNA gene sequencing analysis, the strain ASN-1 was identified as a Bacillus xiamenensis. Strain ASN-1 exhibits multiple plant-growth-promoting attributes, such as the production of indole-3-acetic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, siderophores, HCN, ammonia, and exopolysaccharides as well as solubilized phosphate solubilization. Biofilm formation showed that NO enhanced the biofilm and root colonization capacity of the PGPR strain ASN-1 with host plants, evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. The greenhouse study showed that, among the different treatments, the combined application of PGPR and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as an NO donor significantly (p ≤ 0.05) enhanced sugarcane plant growth by maintaining the relative water content, electrolyte leakage, gas exchange parameters, osmolytes, and Na+/K+ ratio. Furthermore, PGPR and SNP fertilization reduced the salinity-induced oxidative stress in plants by modulating the antioxidant enzyme activities and stress-related gene expression. Thus, it is believed that the acquisition of advanced information about the synergistic effect of salt-tolerant PGPR and NO fertilization will reduce the use of harmful chemicals and aid in eco-friendly sustainable agricultural production under salt stress conditions.

5.
iScience ; 24(11): 103215, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632327

RESUMO

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a life-threatening disease occurring several weeks after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Deep immune profiling showed acute MIS-C patients had highly activated neutrophils, classical monocytes and memory CD8+ T-cells, with increased frequencies of B-cell plasmablasts and double-negative B-cells. Post treatment samples from the same patients, taken during symptom resolution, identified recovery-associated immune features including increased monocyte CD163 levels, emergence of a new population of immature neutrophils and, in some patients, transiently increased plasma arginase. Plasma profiling identified multiple features shared by MIS-C, Kawasaki Disease and COVID-19 and that therapeutic inhibition of IL-6 may be preferable to IL-1 or TNF-α. We identified several potential mechanisms of action for IVIG, the most commonly used drug to treat MIS-C. Finally, we showed systemic complement activation with high plasma C5b-9 levels is common in MIS-C suggesting complement inhibitors could be used to treat the disease.

6.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686028

RESUMO

Rice is considered a strategic crop for many countries around the world, being the main cash crop for farmers. Water shortage stress occurrence as a result of climate change is among the main threats challenging rice breeders in the last few decades. In the current study, 19 Fn-lines were developed from four populations by crossing a reverse thermo-responsive genic male sterile (rTGMS) line, M.J.5460S, with the three high-quality Egyptian commercial cultivars Giza177, Sakha105, Sakha106 and the promising line GZ7768 as male parents. These newly developed lines, along with their parents, and two water shortage stress-tolerant international genotypes (Azucena and IRAT170), were cultivated under water-shortage stress conditions and compared with their performance under well-watered conditions. Results indicated that the yielding ability of the 19 newly developed lines exceeded those for the two Egyptian parents (Giza177 and Sakha105) under well-watered conditions. The lines M.J5460S/GIZA177-3 and M.J5460S/GIZA177-12 were the best performing genotypes under water shortage stress conditions. The genetic and heritability in broad sense estimates indicated that direct selection for grain yield (GY) under water-shortage stress is highly effective in the current study. Molecular marker analysis revealed that M.J5460S/GIZA177-3 had accumulated the quantitative trait loci (QTL)s, on the chromosomes 2, 3, and 9, which contribute to GY under water-shortage stress from their high yielding tolerant ancestor, M.J5460S. It could be concluded that those lines are high yielding under both well-watered and water-stress conditions harboring several QTLs for yield enhancement under both conditions and that the markers RM555, RM14551, RM3199, RM257, RM242, and RM410 are among the markers that could be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding programs for such stress condition.

7.
Planta ; 254(5): 107, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694462

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: In ddm1 mutants, the DNA methylation is primarily affected in the heterochromatic region of the chromosomes, which is associated with the segregation distortion of SNPs in the F2 progenies. Segregation distortion (SD) is common in most genetic mapping experiments and a valuable resource to determine how gene loci induce deviation. Meiotic DNA crossing over and SD are under the control of several types of epigenetic modifications. DNA methylation is an important regulatory epigenetic modification that is inherited across generations. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between SD and DNA methylation. The ecotypes Col-0/C24 and chromatin remodeler mutants ddm1-10/Col and ddm1-15/C24 were reciprocally crossed to obtain F2 generations. A total of 300 plants for each reciprocally crossed plant in the F2 generations were subjected to next-generation sequencing to detect the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as DNA markers. All SNPs were analyzed using the Chi-square test method to determine their segregation ratio in F2 generations. Through the segregation ratio, whole-genome SNPs were classified into 16 classes. In class 10, the SNPs in the reciprocal crosses of wild type showed the expected Mendelian ratio of 1:2:1, while those in the reciprocal crosses of ddm1 mutants showed distortion. In contrast, all SNPs in class 16 displayed a normal 1:2:1 ratio, and class 1 showed SD, regardless of wild type or mutants, as assessed using CAPS (cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences) marker analysis to confirm the next-generation sequencing. In ddm1 mutants, the DNA methylation is highly reduced throughout the whole genome and more significantly in the heterochromatic regions of chromosomes. Our results showed that the ddm1 mutants exhibit low levels of DNA methylation, which facilitates the SD of SNPs primarily located in the heterochromatic region of chromosomes by reducing the heterozygous ratio. The present study will provide a strong base for future research focusing on the impact of DNA methylation on trait segregation and plant evolution.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cromatina , Metilação de DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Mutação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
8.
J Immunol ; 207(9): 2288-2296, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588218

RESUMO

B cell signaling for activation via the BCR occurs as an isolated event only in vitro; in real life, BCR signaling takes place within a complex milieu that involves interactions with agents that trigger additional receptors. Chief among these is IL-4. We have shown that BCR signaling is reprogrammed by IL-4 receptor engagement and that this reprogramming involves creation of a new, signalosome-independent, Lyn-dependent alternate signaling pathway in B cells isolated from BALB/cByJ mice. A unique aspect of the alternate pathway is protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) phosphorylation. In dissecting this pathway, we unexpectedly found that Lyn is associated with IL-4Rα, that IL-4 induces Lyn activation, and that Lyn immunoprecipitated from IL-4-treated B cells capably phosphorylates PKCδ in a cell-free system. However, PKCδ phosphorylation does not occur in the absence of BCR triggering in vivo. This raised the question of why IL-4 alone failed to produce PKCδ phosphorylation. We considered the possibility that Lyn and PKCδ may be spatially separated. As expected, before any treatment, Lyn is located primarily in the membrane fraction, whereas PKCδ is located mainly in the cytosol fraction. However, when anti-Ig follows IL-4 treatment, PKCδ is found in the membrane fraction and phosphorylated. This translocation of PKCδ to the membrane fraction is not affected by loss of Lyn, although PKCδ phosphorylation requires Lyn. Thus, PKCδ phosphorylation through the alternate pathway represents the result of signal integration, whereby neither IL-4 nor anti-Ig working alone produces this outcome, but together they achieve this result by Lyn activation (IL-4) and PKCδ translocation (IL-4 followed by anti-Ig).


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C-delta/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fosforilação , Transporte Proteico , Receptor Cross-Talk , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo
9.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(9): 4957-4968, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466071

RESUMO

Avian colibacillosis caused by the zoonotic pathogen Escherichia coli is a common bacterial infection that causes major losses in the poultry sector. Extracts of different medicinal plants and antibiotics have been used against poultry bacterial pathogens. However, overuse of antibiotics and extracts against pathogenic strains leads to the proliferation of multi-drug resistant bacteria. Due to their environmentally friendly nature, nanotechnology and beneficial bacterial strains can be used as effective strategies against poultry infections. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) from Eucalyptus globulus leaves was carried out in this study. Their characterization was done by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) which confirmed their synthesis, structure, and size. In vitro, antimicrobial activities of plant leaf extract, ZnO-NPs, and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were checked against E. coli using well diffusion as well as disc diffusion method. Results proved that the antimicrobial activity of ZnO-NPs and PGPR strains was more enhanced when compared to eucalyptus leaf extract at 36 h. The maximum relative inhibition shown by ZnO-NPs, PGPR strains and eucalyptus leaf extracts was 88%, 67% and 58%, respectively. The effectiveness of ZnO-NPs was also increased with an increase in particle dose and treatment time. The 90 mg/ml of ZnO-NPs was more effective. PGPR strains from all over the tested strains, Pseudomonas sp. (HY8N) exhibited a strong antagonism against the E. coli strain as compared to other PGPR strains used in this study. However, combined application of PGPR (Pseudomonas sp. (HY8N)) and ZnO-NPs augment antagonistic effects and showed maximum 69% antagonism. The study intends to investigate the binding affinity of ZnO-NPs with the suitable receptor of the bacterial pathogen by in silico methods. The binding site conformations showed that the ligand ZnO binds with conserved binding site of penicillin-binding protein 6 (PBP 6) receptor. According to the interactions, ZnO-NPs form the same interaction pattern with respect to other reported ligands, hence it can play a significant role in the inhibition of PBP 6. This research also found that combining ZnO-NPs with Pseudomonas sp. (HY8N) was a novel and effective technique for treating pathogenic bacteria, including multidrug-resistant bacteria.

10.
ACS Omega ; 6(30): 19427-19434, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368530

RESUMO

Toxic elements (Cd, Pb, and As) accumulate into the environment by industrialization and natural phenomena and then pass to organisms. Analysis of toxic elements in food must be accurately carried out on a regular basis so as to avoid any adverse impact. Salted foods are difficult samples and accurate analysis of As is not easy due to salt interference. In this study, analysis of As was carried without influence of salts in three types of salted foods via an analytical method, which was validated using spiking recovery experiments and by analyzing certified reference materials. As a result, toxic elements were detected in all samples but none of these exceeded the World Health Organization recommended limits. Among the As species, arsenobetaine (AsB) was the most abundant, while inorganic As was below the detection limit in all samples. All the analyzed salted food samples appeared to be safe for consumption. In addition, the analysis of sea shrimp, freshwater shrimp, and seawater verified As bioaccumulation in these organisms from the environment.

11.
Cardiol Ther ; 10(2): 515-529, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389941

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prescribing patterns and suboptimal adherence present methodological challenges for real-world head-to-head comparisons of ticagrelor and clopidogrel in intent-to-treat studies. The aim of this study was to compare ticagrelor and clopidogrel in an on-treatment population. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used the Optum™ Clinformatics™ database to identify patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) discharged on ticagrelor or clopidogrel between January 1, 2012 and September 30, 2019. The primary end point was hospitalization for myocardial infarction (MI); the secondary end point was hospitalization for major bleeding. The ticagrelor and clopidogrel cohorts were balanced by propensity score matching (PSM) 1:3 for demographic and clinical characteristics. Outcomes were ascertained from day 31 until day 365 or end of follow-up. RESULTS: Of 339,387 patients with ACS, 14,110 ticagrelor- and 57,482 clopidogrel-treated patients met the study criteria. After PSM, 13,373 ticagrelor- and 29,656 clopidogrel-treated patients provided 4945 and 13,895 patient-years of data, respectively, for the primary end point. Hospitalization for MI was significantly lower in the ticagrelor compared to the clopidogrel cohort (2.22 vs. 3.52 per 100 patient-years; 36.8% relative risk reduction [RRR]; P < 0.0001). Hospitalization for major bleeding was similar in the ticagrelor and clopidogrel cohorts (2.04 vs. 2.06 per 100 patient-years; 1.1% RRR, P = 0.9214). CONCLUSIONS: In this real-world on-treatment analysis, hospitalization for MI was significantly lower with ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel, with similar rates of hospitalization for major bleeding. Study findings underscore the importance of being on the appropriate guideline-recommended therapy and support the use of ticagrelor over clopidogrel.

12.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205352

RESUMO

Abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity, heavy metals, variations in temperature, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, are antagonistic to plant growth and development, resulting in an overall decrease in plant yield. These stresses have direct effects on the rhizosphere, thus severely affect the root growth, and thereby affecting the overall plant growth, health, and productivity. However, the growth-promoting rhizobacteria that colonize the rhizosphere/endorhizosphere protect the roots from the adverse effects of abiotic stress and facilitate plant growth by various direct and indirect mechanisms. In the rhizosphere, plants are constantly interacting with thousands of these microorganisms, yet it is not very clear when and how these complex root, rhizosphere, and rhizobacteria interactions occur under abiotic stresses. Therefore, the present review attempts to focus on root-rhizosphere and rhizobacterial interactions under stresses, how roots respond to these interactions, and the role of rhizobacteria under these stresses. Further, the review focuses on the underlying mechanisms employed by rhizobacteria for improving root architecture and plant tolerance to abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas , Rizosfera , Estresse Fisiológico , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
13.
Open Vet J ; 11(2): 180-187, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307074

RESUMO

Background: Camel is vital to daily life as a source of food and means of transportation, and just as importantly, its milk and urine have been used as medicine for diverse ailments since ancient times for people living in the desert region. Aim: The current study was planned to investigate the effect of different watering regimes on physiological and hematological parameters of lactating Marecha camels during the summer season. Methods: For this purpose, 12 lactating she-camels of almost similar age (8-13 years) and parity (2-5) were selected in a completely randomized design with four animals per treatment at the Camel Breeding and Research Station Rakh Mahni District Bhakkar. The trial was completed in 60 days, while 7 days were given as an acclimatization period for adaptation. The treatments were as follows: Group-1 (G-1) considered as the control had access to water once in a day; Group-2 (G-2) had access to water once in 4 days, and Group-3 (G-3) had access to water once in 6 days. Animals were housed individually for feeding and watering in an intensive management system. The same feed consisting of green fodder (Lucerne) and gram straw (Cicer arientinum) was offered to all animals. The average ambient temperature and relative humidity were 39°C-41°C and 55%-63%, respectively. Result: The mean values (p < 0.001) of water intake were found to be 82.94 ± 1.34 l in G-3, which was higher than G-1 and G-2. Blood analysis showed that packed cell volume, white blood cells, and hemoglobin were affected significantly (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, and p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion: No serious changes in complete blood count and physiological parameters were reported in this study. So, this shows that the camel is unique in its physiological adaptation in hot and hostile environments.


Assuntos
Camelus , Lactação , Animais , Melhoramento Vegetal , Gravidez , Estações do Ano , Água
14.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066866

RESUMO

Twelve lactating healthy Marecha she-camels in the early lactation stage during the summer at Camel Breeding and Research Station Rakh-Mahni (Pakistan) were included. All animals were fed with Medicago sativa and Cicer arientinum ad libitum and divided into three groups in relation to the access to water, after a period of seven days of adaptation to experimental conditions. Group 1 (G1) was considered as control having access to water once every day; Group 2 (G2) had access once every 4 days, while Group 3 (G3) had access once every 6 days. The duration of the study was 60 days with an adaptation period to experimental conditions of 7 days before the onset of the study. Dry matter intake (DMI) was calculated on a dry matter basis. On average the ambient temperature and relative humidity during the trial were 39-41 °C and 55-63%, respectively. The DMI, water intake, milk production, and body weight changes were affected (p < 0.001) during various watering regimes. The mean values of water intake were found to be 82.94 ± 1.34 L higher in G3 than G1 and G2.

15.
Am J Cardiol ; 151: 70-77, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053629

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is common in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (MI), but incidence and predictors of new onset HF after hospitalization for MI are less well characterized. We evaluated patients hospitalized for acute MI without preceding or concurrent HF in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) CathPCI and Chest Pain-MI registries linked with claims data between April 2010 and March 2017. Cumulative incidence and independent predictors of HF after discharge were determined, and a simplified risk score was developed to predict incident HF following MI. In 337,274 patients with acute MI and no history of HF, 8.0% developed incident HF within 1 year after discharge and 18.8% developed HF within 5 years. Significant predictors of HF after MI included advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) (HR 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.23-2.46 for Stage IV vs Stage I, and HR 2.18, 95% CI 2.07-2.29 for Stage V vs. Stage I), recurrent MI following index MI (HR 2.24, 95% CI 2.19-2.28), African-American race (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.40-1.48), and diabetes (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.37-1.42). A risk score of 8 variables predicted HF with modest discrimination (optimism-corrected c-statistic 0.64) and good calibration. In conclusion, nearly 1 in 5 patients in a large nationally representative cohort without preceding or concurrent heart failure at time of MI developed incident HF within 5 years after discharge. Advanced CKD and recurrent MI were the strongest predictors of future HF. Increased recognition of specific risk factors for HF may help inform care strategies following MI.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etnologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Food Sci Biotechnol ; 30(3): 355-366, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33868746

RESUMO

This study was designed to analyze the volatile organic compounds in the leaves of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. and Artemisia annua L. from Korea. For extraction of volatile compounds, headspace-solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) were applied and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). From the results, SDE extraction was found to give the highest concentration of volatile compounds with an average concentration of 1,237.79 mg/kg for A. annua L. leaves compared to 1,122.73 mg/kg by HS-SPME technique. A total of 116 volatile organic compounds were identified, including 76 similar volatile organic compounds detected by both the methods of extraction in leaves of subject species at varying concentrations. Among these 33 volatile organic compounds were reported for the first time from the subject plant species. Thus the present research findings extend the characterization of volatile organic compounds from leaves of A. annua L. and A. artemisiifolia L. species and reported some distinguishing compounds which may be used for their discrimination.

17.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810565

RESUMO

Bacteria that surround plant roots and exert beneficial effects on plant growth are known as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). In addition to the plant growth-promotion, PGPR also imparts resistance against salinity and oxidative stress and needs to be studied. Such PGPR can function as dynamic bioinoculants under salinity conditions. The present study reports the isolation of phytase positive multifarious Klebsiella variicola SURYA6 isolated from wheat rhizosphere in Kolhapur, India. The isolate produced various plant growth-promoting (PGP), salinity ameliorating, and antioxidant traits. It produced organic acid, yielded a higher phosphorous solubilization index (9.3), maximum phytase activity (376.67 ± 2.77 U/mL), and copious amounts of siderophore (79.0%). The isolate also produced salt ameliorating traits such as indole acetic acid (78.45 ± 1.9 µg/mL), 1 aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (0.991 M/mg/h), and exopolysaccharides (32.2 ± 1.2 g/L). In addition to these, the isolate also produced higher activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (13.86 IU/mg protein), catalase (0.053 IU/mg protein), and glutathione oxidase (22.12 µg/mg protein) at various salt levels. The isolate exhibited optimum growth and maximum secretion of these metabolites during the log-phase growth. It exhibited sensitivity to a wide range of antibiotics and did not produce hemolysis on blood agar, indicative of its non-pathogenic nature. The potential of K. variicola to produce copious amounts of various PGP, salt ameliorating, and antioxidant metabolites make it a potential bioinoculant for salinity stress management.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Klebsiella/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Estresse Salino , Microbiologia do Solo , Triticum/microbiologia , Estresse Oxidativo
18.
Microbiol Res ; 249: 126771, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930840

RESUMO

Drought stress is expected to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in many parts of the world, with potential negative impacts on plant growth and productivity. The plants have evolved complex physiological and biochemical mechanisms to respond and adjust to water-deficient environments. The physiological and biochemical mechanisms associated with water-stress tolerance and water-use efficiency have been extensively studied. Besides these adaptive and mitigating strategies, the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play a significant role in alleviating plant drought stress. These beneficial microorganisms colonize the endo-rhizosphere/rhizosphere of plants and enhance drought tolerance. The common mechanism by which these microorganisms improve drought tolerance included the production of volatile compounds, phytohormones, siderophores, exopolysaccharides, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACC deaminase), accumulation of antioxidant, stress-induced metabolites such as osmotic solutes proline, alternation in leaf and root morphology and regulation of the stress-responsive genes. The PGPR is an easy and efficient alternative approach to genetic manipulation and crop enhancement practices because plant breeding and genetic modification are time-consuming and expensive processes for obtaining stress-tolerant varieties. In this review, we will elaborate on PGPR's mechanistic approaches in enhancing the plant stress tolerance to cope with the drought stress.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Secas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Rizosfera , Estresse Fisiológico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carbono-Carbono Liases/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Genes de Plantas , Engenharia Genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário
19.
Environ Res ; 197: 111031, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744268

RESUMO

Extraction and exploration of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) to satisfy the rising world population's fossil fuel demand is playing havoc with human beings and other life forms by contaminating the ecosystem, particularly the soil. In the current review, we highlighted the sources of PHs contamination, factors affecting the PHs accumulation in soil, mechanisms of uptake, translocation and potential toxic effects of PHs on plants. In plants, PHs reduce the seed germination andnutrients translocation, and induce oxidative stress, disturb the plant metabolic activity and inhibit the plant physiology and morphology that ultimately reduce plant yield. Moreover, the defense strategy in plants to mitigate the PHs toxicity and other potential remediation techniques, including the use of organic manure, compost, plant hormones, and biochar, and application of microbe-assisted remediation, and phytoremediation are also discussed in the current review. These remediation strategies not only help to remediate PHs pollutionin the soil rhizosphere but also enhance the morphological and physiological attributes of plant and results to improve crop yield under PHs contaminated soils. This review aims to provide significant information on ecological importance of PHs stress in various interdisciplinary investigations and critical remediation techniques to mitigate the contamination of PHs in agricultural soils.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ecossistema , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos/toxicidade , Petróleo/toxicidade , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
20.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e236499, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729383

RESUMO

Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Assuntos
Chuva , Roedores , Agricultura , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Paquistão , Ratos , Simbiose
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