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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247018, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285617

RESUMO

Abstract The Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda) belongs to family corvidae, order Passeriformes which includes about 100 species. The current study was conducted to gather information about the Population distribution and habitat analysis of D. vagabunda at District Abbottabad, Pakistan. The data were collected on monthly basis both morning and evening times (2018-2019). "The ''Point count Method" was used for population estimation and ''Quadrates Method" for habitat analysis of study area. The result shows an average month-wise population density of D. vagabunda was maximum at Jhangra 0.14±0.039/ha, whereas minimum at Havelian 0.11±0.022/ha. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among monthly population densities of D. vagabunda, however, a significant difference (p<0.05) was found between morning and evening times population of the specie. The present study revealed that importance value index (IVI) of plants species at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 59.6±12.6, 50.1±6.9, 53.4±6.3, 66.8±10 and 60.1±7.7. Likewise, the frequency of shrubs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 33.3±4.2, 45±9.4, 46.7±8.2, 55.6±22.2 and 37.5±8.5. Similarly, the frequency of herbs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 40.4±6.0, 37.5±5.6, 53.3±7.4, 48.5±5.2 and 46.9±7.4 respectively. Our results show the study area as suitable habitat for D. vagabunda.


Resumo A trepadeira Rufous (Dendrocitta vagabunda) pertence à família corvidae, ordem Passeriformes que inclui cerca de 100 espécies. O estudo atual foi realizado para reunir informações sobre a distribuição da população e análise do habitat de D. vagabunda no distrito de Abbottabad, Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados mensalmente pela manhã e à noite (2018-2019). O "método de contagem de pontos" foi usado para estimativa da população e o "método dos quadrados" para análise de habitat da área de estudo. O resultado mostra que uma densidade populacional média mensal de D. vagabunda foi máxima em Jhangra 0,14 ± 0,039 / ha, enquanto a mínima em Havelian 0,11 ± 0,022/ha. Não houve diferença significativa (p> 0,05) entre as densidades populacionais mensais de D. vagabunda, entretanto foi encontrada diferença significativa (p <0,05) entre os períodos matutino e noturno da população da espécie. O presente estudo revelou que o índice de valor de importância (IVI) das espécies de plantas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 59,6 ± 12,6, 50,1 ± 6,9, 53,4 ± 6,3, 66,8 ± 10 e 60,1 ± 7,7. Da mesma forma, a frequência de arbustos em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 33,3 ± 4,2, 45 ± 9,4, 46,7 ± 8,2, 55,6 ± 22,2 e 37,5 ± 8,5. Da mesma forma, a frequência de ervas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi: 40,4 ± 6,0, 37,5 ± 5,6, 53,3 ± 7,4, 48,5 ± 5,2 e 46,9 ± 7,4, respectivamente. Nossos resultados mostram a área de estudo como habitat adequado para D. vagabunda.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247890, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468530

RESUMO

Asiatic black bear is present in variety of habitats like broad-leaves and coniferous forests, extending form sea level to 4300m elevation and change their habitat for food purpose seasonally. The present study was conducted at Kaghan and Siran Valleys, District Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan to assess habitat of black bear. Line transect method was used for observation of bear signs. Twelve meter circular radius plots were selected for the concern vegetation's i.e. (trees, shrubs and herbs) and three to six plots were placed in each transect. At the result of sign survey, thirteen different categories of bear signs were recorded and encounter rate was calculated for each sign. A total of 1858 signs were observed during field surveys. Total (81%) coniferous species were recoded among trees, with the highest appearance of Pinus wallichiana (34.22%) and Spruce spp (27.76%), similarly broad leaves trees (18.56%) were also recoded from habitat plots. Most of the signs were encountered in bushy areas, whereas high number of Viburnum Spp (60.29%) was present. It is indicated that black bear prefers blend of Coniferous Trees, Viburnum and Ferns Species; probably because these plants provide enough food, protection, and meticulous shelter because more than 80% of habitat composed of these three species. Currently habitat destruction and increase in human population are the up-growing issues for wild animals (especially Asiatic black bear), which is highly sensitive to such problems. High levels of conservation efforts are recommended for the protection of black bear habitat and to avoid human interference in their territory.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Acetilcisteína , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Paquistão , Árvores
3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247018, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431914

RESUMO

The Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda) belongs to family corvidae, order Passeriformes which includes about 100 species. The current study was conducted to gather information about the Population distribution and habitat analysis of D. vagabunda at District Abbottabad, Pakistan. The data were collected on monthly basis both morning and evening times (2018-2019). "The ''Point count Method" was used for population estimation and ''Quadrates Method" for habitat analysis of study area. The result shows an average month-wise population density of D. vagabunda was maximum at Jhangra 0.14±0.039/ha, whereas minimum at Havelian 0.11±0.022/ha. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among monthly population densities of D. vagabunda, however, a significant difference (p<0.05) was found between morning and evening times population of the specie. The present study revealed that importance value index (IVI) of plants species at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 59.6±12.6, 50.1±6.9, 53.4±6.3, 66.8±10 and 60.1±7.7. Likewise, the frequency of shrubs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 33.3±4.2, 45±9.4, 46.7±8.2, 55.6±22.2 and 37.5±8.5. Similarly, the frequency of herbs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 40.4±6.0, 37.5±5.6, 53.3±7.4, 48.5±5.2 and 46.9±7.4 respectively. Our results show the study area as suitable habitat for D. vagabunda.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Animais , Paquistão , Densidade Demográfica
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 829-838, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142523

RESUMO

Abstract In vitro and screen house experiments were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of thirteen phytochemicals from Artemisia elegantissimia and A. incisa on root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cv. Rio Grande. A positive control (Carbofuran) and negative control (H2O) were also used for comparison. Effectiveness of phytochemicals against juveniles (J2s) mortality and egg hatch inhibition were evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation at three concentrations viz; 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL in vitro conditions. Amongst thirteen phytochemicals, Isoscopletin (Coumarin), Carbofuran and Apigenin (Flavonoid) showed the highest mortality and egg hatch inhibition of M. incognita at all intervals. Inhibition of eggs and J2s mortality were the greatest (90.0%) and (96.0%) at 0.3 mg/mL concentration. Application of phytochemicals caused reduction in number of galls, galling index, and egg masses on tomato plant and enhanced plant growth parameters under screen house conditions. Gall numbers (1.50), galling index (1.00), number of juveniles (4.83) and egg masses (4.00) were greatly reduced and plant growth parameters such as; plant height (28.48 cm), fresh (72.13 g) and dry shoot weights (35.99 g), and root fresh (6.58 g) and dry weights (1.43 g) were increased significantly by using Isoscopletin. In structure activity relationship, juveniles of M. incognita, exhibited variations in their shape and postures upon death when exposed to different concentrations of phytochemicals of Artemisia spp. The present study suggests that Artemisia based phytochemicals possess strong nematicidal effects and can be used effectively in an integrated disease management program against root knot nematodes.


Resumo Experimentos in vitro e de triagem foram conduzidos para investigar a eficácia de treze constituintes fitoquímicos de Artemisia elegantissimia e A. incisa no nematóide de galhas, Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cv. Rio Grande. Um controle positivo (carbofuran) e controle negativo (H2O) também foram utilizados para comparação. A eficácia dos fitoquímicos contra a mortalidade juvenil (J2s) e a inibição da eclosão de ovos foram avaliadas após 24, 48 e 72 horas de incubação em três concentrações, tais como: 0,1; 0,2 e 0,3 mg/mL em condições in vitro. Dentre os treze fitoquímicos, isoscopletina (cumarina), carbofurano e apigenina (flavonoide) apresentaram a maior mortalidade e a inibição da eclosão de ovos de M. incognita em todos os intervalos. A inibição da mortalidade dos ovos e J2s foi a maior (90,0%) e (96,0%) na concentração de 0,3 mg/mL. A aplicação de fitoquímicos causou redução no número de galhas, índice de fricção e massa de ovos no tomateiro e melhorou os parâmetros de crescimento das plantas em condições de triagem. Números de galhas (1,50), índice de insetos galhadores (1,00), número de juvenis (4,83) e massas de ovos (4,00) foram bastante reduzidos e os parâmetros de crescimento das plantas, como altura da planta (28,48 cm), peso fresco (72,13 g) e seco (35,99 g), raiz fresca (6,58 g) e peso seco (1,43 g) foram significativamente aumentados usando isoscopletina. Na relação atividade estrutura, juvenis de M. incognita, exibiram variações em sua forma e posturas após a morte quando expostos a diferentes concentrações de fitoquímicos de Artemisia spp. O presente estudo sugere que os fitoquímicos à base de artemísia possuem fortes efeitos nematicidas e podem ser usados ​​eficazmente em um programa integrado de controle de doenças contra nematóides de galhas.

5.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 80(4): 829-838, Oct.-Dec. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-30906

RESUMO

In vitro and screen house experiments were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of thirteen phytochemicals from Artemisia elegantissimia and A. incisa on root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cv. Rio Grande. A positive control (Carbofuran) and negative control (H2O) were also used for comparison. Effectiveness of phytochemicals against juveniles (J2s) mortality and egg hatch inhibition were evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation at three concentrations viz; 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL in vitro conditions. Amongst thirteen phytochemicals, Isoscopletin (Coumarin), Carbofuran and Apigenin (Flavonoid) showed the highest mortality and egg hatch inhibition of M. incognita at all intervals. Inhibition of eggs and J2s mortality were the greatest (90.0%) and (96.0%) at 0.3 mg/mL concentration. Application of phytochemicals caused reduction in number of galls, galling index, and egg masses on tomato plant and enhanced plant growth parameters under screen house conditions. Gall numbers (1.50), galling index (1.00), number of juveniles (4.83) and egg masses (4.00) were greatly reduced and plant growth parameters such as; plant height (28.48 cm), fresh (72.13 g) and dry shoot weights (35.99 g), and root fresh (6.58 g) and dry weights (1.43 g) were increased significantly by using Isoscopletin. In structure activity relationship, juveniles of M. incognita, exhibited variations in their shape and postures upon death when exposed to different concentrations of phytochemicals of Artemisia spp. The present study suggests that Artemisia based phytochemicals possess strong nematicidal effects and can be used effectively in an integrated disease management program against root knot nematodes.(AU)


Experimentos in vitro e de triagem foram conduzidos para investigar a eficácia de treze constituintes fitoquímicos de Artemisia elegantissimia e A. incisa no nematóide de galhas, Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cv. Rio Grande. Um controle positivo (carbofuran) e controle negativo (H2O) também foram utilizados para comparação. A eficácia dos fitoquímicos contra a mortalidade juvenil (J2s) e a inibição da eclosão de ovos foram avaliadas após 24, 48 e 72 horas de incubação em três concentrações, tais como: 0,1; 0,2 e 0,3 mg/mL em condições in vitro. Dentre os treze fitoquímicos, isoscopletina (cumarina), carbofurano e apigenina (flavonoide) apresentaram a maior mortalidade e a inibição da eclosão de ovos de M. incognita em todos os intervalos. A inibição da mortalidade dos ovos e J2s foi a maior (90,0%) e (96,0%) na concentração de 0,3 mg/mL. A aplicação de fitoquímicos causou redução no número de galhas, índice de fricção e massa de ovos no tomateiro e melhorou os parâmetros de crescimento das plantas em condições de triagem. Números de galhas (1,50), índice de insetos galhadores (1,00), número de juvenis (4,83) e massas de ovos (4,00) foram bastante reduzidos e os parâmetros de crescimento das plantas, como altura da planta (28,48 cm), peso fresco (72,13 g) e seco (35,99 g), raiz fresca (6,58 g) e peso seco (1,43 g) foram significativamente aumentados usando isoscopletina. Na relação atividade estrutura, juvenis de M. incognita, exibiram variações em sua forma e posturas após a morte quando expostos a diferentes concentrações de fitoquímicos de Artemisia spp. O presente estudo sugere que os fitoquímicos à base de artemísia possuem fortes efeitos nematicidas e podem ser usados eficazmente em um programa integrado de controle de doenças contra nematóides de galhas.(AU)


Assuntos
Tylenchoidea , Artemisia , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Pragas da Agricultura
6.
Braz J Biol ; 80(4): 829-838, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800766

RESUMO

In vitro and screen house experiments were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of thirteen phytochemicals from Artemisia elegantissimia and A. incisa on root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cv. Rio Grande. A positive control (Carbofuran) and negative control (H2O) were also used for comparison. Effectiveness of phytochemicals against juveniles (J2s) mortality and egg hatch inhibition were evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation at three concentrations viz; 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL in vitro conditions. Amongst thirteen phytochemicals, Isoscopletin (Coumarin), Carbofuran and Apigenin (Flavonoid) showed the highest mortality and egg hatch inhibition of M. incognita at all intervals. Inhibition of eggs and J2s mortality were the greatest (90.0%) and (96.0%) at 0.3 mg/mL concentration. Application of phytochemicals caused reduction in number of galls, galling index, and egg masses on tomato plant and enhanced plant growth parameters under screen house conditions. Gall numbers (1.50), galling index (1.00), number of juveniles (4.83) and egg masses (4.00) were greatly reduced and plant growth parameters such as; plant height (28.48 cm), fresh (72.13 g) and dry shoot weights (35.99 g), and root fresh (6.58 g) and dry weights (1.43 g) were increased significantly by using Isoscopletin. In structure activity relationship, juveniles of M. incognita, exhibited variations in their shape and postures upon death when exposed to different concentrations of phytochemicals of Artemisia spp. The present study suggests that Artemisia based phytochemicals possess strong nematicidal effects and can be used effectively in an integrated disease management program against root knot nematodes.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Lycopersicon esculentum , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas
7.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-23857

RESUMO

Abstract In vitro and screen house experiments were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of thirteen phytochemicals from Artemisia elegantissimia and A. incisa on root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cv. Rio Grande. A positive control (Carbofuran) and negative control (H2O) were also used for comparison. Effectiveness of phytochemicals against juveniles (J2s) mortality and egg hatch inhibition were evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation at three concentrations viz; 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL in vitro conditions. Amongst thirteen phytochemicals, Isoscopletin (Coumarin), Carbofuran and Apigenin (Flavonoid) showed the highest mortality and egg hatch inhibition of M. incognita at all intervals. Inhibition of eggs and J2s mortality were the greatest (90.0%) and (96.0%) at 0.3 mg/mL concentration. Application of phytochemicals caused reduction in number of galls, galling index, and egg masses on tomato plant and enhanced plant growth parameters under screen house conditions. Gall numbers (1.50), galling index (1.00), number of juveniles (4.83) and egg masses (4.00) were greatly reduced and plant growth parameters such as; plant height (28.48 cm), fresh (72.13 g) and dry shoot weights (35.99 g), and root fresh (6.58 g) and dry weights (1.43 g) were increased significantly by using Isoscopletin. In structure activity relationship, juveniles of M. incognita, exhibited variations in their shape and postures upon death when exposed to different concentrations of phytochemicals of Artemisia spp. The present study suggests that Artemisia based phytochemicals possess strong nematicidal effects and can be used effectively in an integrated disease management program against root knot nematodes.


Resumo Experimentos in vitro e de triagem foram conduzidos para investigar a eficácia de treze constituintes fitoquímicos de Artemisia elegantissimia e A. incisa no nematóide de galhas, Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cv. Rio Grande. Um controle positivo (carbofuran) e controle negativo (H2O) também foram utilizados para comparação. A eficácia dos fitoquímicos contra a mortalidade juvenil (J2s) e a inibição da eclosão de ovos foram avaliadas após 24, 48 e 72 horas de incubação em três concentrações, tais como: 0,1; 0,2 e 0,3 mg/mL em condições in vitro. Dentre os treze fitoquímicos, isoscopletina (cumarina), carbofurano e apigenina (flavonoide) apresentaram a maior mortalidade e a inibição da eclosão de ovos de M. incognita em todos os intervalos. A inibição da mortalidade dos ovos e J2s foi a maior (90,0%) e (96,0%) na concentração de 0,3 mg/mL. A aplicação de fitoquímicos causou redução no número de galhas, índice de fricção e massa de ovos no tomateiro e melhorou os parâmetros de crescimento das plantas em condições de triagem. Números de galhas (1,50), índice de insetos galhadores (1,00), número de juvenis (4,83) e massas de ovos (4,00) foram bastante reduzidos e os parâmetros de crescimento das plantas, como altura da planta (28,48 cm), peso fresco (72,13 g) e seco (35,99 g), raiz fresca (6,58 g) e peso seco (1,43 g) foram significativamente aumentados usando isoscopletina. Na relação atividade estrutura, juvenis de M. incognita, exibiram variações em sua forma e posturas após a morte quando expostos a diferentes concentrações de fitoquímicos de Artemisia spp. O presente estudo sugere que os fitoquímicos à base de artemísia possuem fortes efeitos nematicidas e podem ser usados eficazmente em um programa integrado de controle de doenças contra nematóides de galhas.

9.
J Tradit Complement Med ; 6(2): 172-5, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27114941

RESUMO

Albizzia lebbeck Benth. (Mimosaceae) is a medicinal tree used to treat several inflammatory ailments in the Indian traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous (AE) and ethanolic (EE) extracts of the leaves of A. lebbeck to support the ethnopharmacological claims. The study was carried out using Wistar rats (100-150 g). The AE and EE were prepared using the Soxhlet extraction process. The anti-inflammatory activity of the AE and EE of the leaves of A. lebbeck were studied using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. The AE and EE of the leaves of A. lebbeck at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg p.o. (oral administration) showed a dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of carrageenan-induced hind paw edema with maximum percentage inhibition (PI) values of 22.34, 30.85, 39.36 and 22.53, 32.98, 42.55, respectively. The AE and EE at doses of 50, 100, 200 mg/kg p.o. significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited granuloma formation with PI values of 19.07, 27.57, 38.55 and 23.93, 32.23, 42.33, respectively. The AE and EE of the leaves of A. lebbeck showed significant (p < 0.05) anti-inflammatory activity.

10.
Indian J Pharm Sci ; 77(3): 299-305, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26180275

RESUMO

Inappropriate initial antibiotics for pneumonia infection are usually linked to extended intensive care unit stay and are associated with an increased risk of mortality. This study evaluates the impact of inappropriate initial antibiotics on the length of intensive care unit stay, risk of mortality and the co-predictors that influences these outcomes. This retrospective study was conducted in an intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. The types of pneumonia investigated were hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Three different time points were defined as the initiation of appropriate antibiotics at 24 h, between 24 to 48 h and at more than 48 h after obtaining a culture. Patients had either hospital-acquired pneumonia (59.1%) or ventilator-associated pneumonia (40.9%). The length of intensive care unit stay ranged from 1 to 52 days (mean; 9.78±10.02 days). Patients who received appropriate antibiotic agent at 24 h had a significantly shorter length of intensive care unit stay (5.62 d, P<0.001). The co-predictors that contributed to an extended intensive care unit stay were the time of availability of susceptibility results and concomitant diseases, namely cancer and sepsis. The only predictor of intensive care unit death was cancer. The results support the need for early appropriate initial antibiotic therapy in hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia infections.

11.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 70(1-2): 25-30, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25854769

RESUMO

Albizia lebbeck Benth. is extensively used in Indian traditional medicine for treating several painful and inflammatory disorders. The possible central analgesic activity and the underlying mechanism of action of the aqueous (AE) and ethanolic extracts (EE) of the leaves of A. lebbeck were investigated in Wistar rats using Eddy's hot plate and the tail flick tests. In order to investigate the underlying mechanism of action, rats were pretreated with naloxone, bicuculline or methysergide and then were administered a per os (p.o.) dose of AE or EE. AE and EE caused a significant (p<0.05) elevation in the mean basal reaction time in the hot plate method and an increase in the latency time in the tail flick method. In rats pretreated with bicuculline and methysergide, a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the analgesic activity was observed in comparison to AE and EE. Thus, AE and EE exhibited significant central analgesic activity and act possibly via the GABAergic and serotonergic pathways. The flavonoids and saponins found in the leaves could be responsible for the observed effect.


Assuntos
Albizzia , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/química , Neurônios GABAérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Solventes/química , Albizzia/química , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Antagonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/farmacologia , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Dor/metabolismo , Dor/fisiopatologia , Dor/psicologia , Limiar da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Pentazocina/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta , Plantas Medicinais , Ratos Wistar , Tempo de Reação , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/metabolismo , Antagonistas da Serotonina/farmacologia
12.
Mymensingh Med J ; 23(1): 24-7, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24584368

RESUMO

The diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a challenge in clinical practice. Traditional diagnostic methods are very useful for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB but have a low yield when applied to pleural fluid. It is produced during the inflammatory process triggered by the M. tuberculosis. Usefulness of adenosine deaminase (ADA) estimation in pleural fluid has been shown as a reliable chemical bio-marker specially when there is suspicion of tuberculosis in endemic areas. ADA level was determined in the pleural fluid of 100 patients present with pleural effusion admitted at Mymensingh Medical College Hospital during the period of March 2012 to September 2012. ADA level was >40IU/L among the 52 tubercular pleural effusion patients with sensitivity & specificity is 100% and 66% respectively. Thus is evident that ADA level can be used along with conventional methods for diagnosis of pleural TB.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural/enzimologia , Tuberculose Pleural/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pleural/enzimologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Indian J Pharm Sci ; 76(6): 504-9, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25593383

RESUMO

Peripheral arterial disease, being a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis, carries a high risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Secondary medical prevention therapies of same magnitude as that for coronary artery disease are recommended for peripheral arterial disease patients also. Available evidence indicates that this condition commonly remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. There is lack of any report about management of these patients in India. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the atherosclerotic risk factor profile and pattern of drug prescription for patients of peripheral arterial disease at a tertiary care teaching hospital and to compare this management with standard guidelines. Data were collected from prescriptions of patients attending cardiothoracic and vascular surgery outpatient department with diagnosis of atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease from July 2012 to Jun 2013. One hundred twenty prescriptions were analysed. The mean age (±SD) of patients was 53±7.18 years and 23.3% were females. History of smoking, either past or present, was present in 91.6% patients. History of ischemic heart disease was present in 25%, while 26.7% patients were diabetic. Mean number of cardiovascular risk factors was 2.6. The percentage of eligible patients who were receiving a particular drug was 100% for aspirin and statins, 48.3% for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, 46.7% for beta blockers and 66.7% for cilostazol. The vascular surgeons of this centre are using antiplatelet agents and statins adequately for peripheral arterial disease. The prescription of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, beta blockers and cilostazol is low. Exercise therapy and smoking cessation need more attention.

14.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 114(12): 675-81, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24329504

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of our study was to investigate the functional roles of H3R agonist and antagonist in the development of hepatic functions impairment in immunized rabbits. METHODS: The study comprised of six groups containing 18 rabbits in each. Group-I (negative control) and group-II (positive control) received sterile distilled water intramuscularly while Group III-VI received histamine (100 µgkg-1, s.c.), R-[-]-α-methylhistamine (H3R-agonist, 10 µgkg-1, s.c.), iodophenpropit (H3R-antagonist, 1 µgkg-1, i.m.), and the combination of iodophenpropit (1 µgkg-1, i.m.) plus histamine (100 µgkg-1, s.c.), respectively, b.i.d. (12 hours [8 am and 8 pm]) for 10 days. Groups II-VI were immunized on day 3 with intravenous injection of sheep red blood cells (1×109 cells/ml). RESULTS: On each experimental day, the mean values of serum enzymes and bilirubin in group-I and group-II showed no changes while in groups III, IV, V, and VI, these enzymes and bilirubin levels showed significant changes (p<0.05), when compared with their values within the group. Profile of ALT and AST production revealed that ALT and AST levels moderately were changed due to degeneration of the liver. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that R-[-]-α-methylhistamine showed moderate, and histamine and iodophenpropit showed mild degeneration of liver functions; while iodophenpropit plus histamine showed hepatic functions similar to control group. This study suggests that H3R antagonist in combination with histamine may be a non-toxic therapeutic target for histamine research (Fig. 7, Ref. 28). Text in PDF www.elis.sk.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Agonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/farmacologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/farmacologia , Imunização/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Coelhos
15.
Genet Mol Res ; 12(4): 4371-82, 2013 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24222217

RESUMO

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of Helicoverpa armigera Hub. (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) (GenBank accession No. EU729322) was cloned and expressed. The target gene H.a-ALP, having an open reading frame of 1608 bp, was reverse-transcribed from cDNA by the polymerase chain reaction. The open reading frame of the target gene was cloned into the pET-32a expression vector to obtain recombinant protein in Escherichia coli DE-3 cells for the subsequent production of polyclonal antibody. New Zealand white rabbits were used for production of anti-pET-32a-H.a-ALP. The production of antibody was also optimized by employing ELISA for titer determination. The produced antiserum was processed and used as an antibody. Western blot results showed that the polyclonal antibody produced was capable of effectively binding target protein not only from H. armigera but also from other lepidopterans such as Mythimna separata and Plutella xylostella. This antibody was also used to detect levels of ALP within different instars of H. armigera. Thus, it is concluded that this antibody-based assay is very useful for the effective detection of gene-specific expression. Furthermore, it may also be used to detect the expression levels and tissue localization of ALP, as well as in other physiological studies involving this enzyme.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Anticorpos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Mariposas/enzimologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/imunologia , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Coelhos , Titulometria
16.
Genet Mol Res ; 12(4): 4393-404, 2013 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24222219

RESUMO

The molecular and biochemical effects of an insecticidal toxin extracted from Meloidae beetles were investigated on Helicoverpa armigera. The toxin was identified as cantharidin, a well-known natural compound produced by beetles of family Meloidae and Oedemeridae. Furthermore, the effect of the toxin on the metabolic enzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), responsible for the metabolism of insecticides, was also investigated. Results of a diet incorporation bioassay performed under laboratory conditions showed that the LC50 value of cantharidin was 0.068 mg/g. The body weight of the insect was also significantly reduced by cantharidin treatment. The LC10 concentration of cantharidin, 0.01 mg/g, was also tested to determine its effect on ALP and GST. Our results showed that cantharidin significantly inhibited ALP activity after 48 h, whereas GST activity was significantly inhibited after 24 h. The decline of ALP and GST transcript levels was also validated by semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis. It may be concluded from the results that ALPs and GSTs may be targets of the cantharidin intoxication mechanism. Moreover, the inability of ALP and GST to metabolize cantharidin shows that the mechanism of detoxification for cantharidin is different from that for conventional insecticides. On the basis of our investigations, the chemical structure of insecticides may be modified using a model structure of cantharidin, to avoid metabolism by metabolic enzymes.


Assuntos
Cantaridina/farmacologia , Besouros/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatase Alcalina/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfatase Alcalina/química , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Cantaridina/química , Clonagem Molecular , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Repressão Enzimática , Glutationa Transferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Glutationa Transferase/química , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/enzimologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dose Letal Mediana , Mariposas/enzimologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 20(7): 403-12, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23764899

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer cells exhibit limited cytotoxicity towards Tiazofurin, a pro-drug metabolized by cytosolic nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase2 (NMNAT2) to thiazole-4-carboxamide adenine dinucleotide, a potent inhibitor of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase required for cellular guanylate synthesis. We tested the hypothesis that colorectal cancer cells that exhibit low levels of NMNAT2 and are refractory to Tiazofurin can be rendered sensitive to Tiazofurin by overexpressing NMNAT2. Transfection of hNMNAT2 resulted in a six- and threefold cytoplasmic overexpression in Caco2 and HT29 cell lines correlating with Tiazofurin-induced enhanced cell-kill. Folate receptors expressed on the cell surface of 30-50% colorectal carcinomas were exploited for cellular targeting with Tiazofurin encapsulated in folate-tethered nanoparticles. Our results indicated that in wild-type colorectal cancer cells, free Tiazofurin-induced EC50 cell-kill was 1500-2000 µM, which was reduced to 66-156 µM in hNMNAT2-overexpressed cells treated with Tiazofurin encapsulated in non-targeted nanoparticles. This efficacy was improved threefold by encapsulating Tiazofurin in folate-tethered nanoparticles to obtain an EC(50) cell-kill of 22-59 µM, an equivalent of 100-300 mg m(-2) (one-tenth of the approved dose of Tiazofurin in humans), which will result in minimal toxicity leading to cancer cell-kill. This proof-of-principle study suggests that resistance of colorectal cancer cell-kill to Tiazofurin can be overcome by sequentially overexpressing hNMNAT2 and then facilitating the uptake of Tiazofurin by folate-tethered nanoparticles, which enter cells via folate receptors.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica , Nicotinamida-Nucleotídeo Adenililtransferase/metabolismo , Ribavirina/análogos & derivados , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Portadores de Fármacos/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Fluoresceínas/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Guanosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Humanos , IMP Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Nicotinamida-Nucleotídeo Adenililtransferase/genética , Transporte Proteico , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Ribavirina/metabolismo , Ribavirina/farmacologia , Transfecção
18.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 17(4): 552-8, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23467958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The current investigation was carried out to explore the pharmacological basis of the crude extract of Conyza bonariensis (Cb.Cr) for its use in constipation and diarrhea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The plant extract of Conyza bonariensis (C. bonariensis) was prepared, isolated guinea-pig ileum and rabbit jejunum preparations were used to evaluate its gut modulator effects. RESULTS: The Cb.Cr (0.3-10 mg/mL) exhibited spasmogenic effect in isolated guinea-pig ileum preparation, which was about 19-84% of the acetylcholine maximum. Pretreatment of the tissues with atropine (0.1 µM) abolished the contractile effect, similar to acetylcholine. Among the fractions, only the butanol fraction exhibited atropine sensitive contractile effect. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, Cb.Cr produced appreciable atropine-sensitive spasmogenic effect at lower concentrations (0.03-0.3 mg/mL) followed by spasmolytic effect at next higher concentration (1.0 and 3.0 mg/mL). Cb.Cr caused an inhibition of the high K+ induced contraction in isolated rabbit jejunum preparation with EC50 value of 0.62 mg/mL. Similarly, verapamil, a standard calcium blocker, inhibited high K+ induced contraction in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations. Cb.Cr caused a right ward shift in the Ca++ concentration response curve, similar to verapamil. Among various fractions of C. bonariensis, only hexane and ethylacetate fractions showed spasmolytic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The crude extract of C. bonariensis contains spasmogenic and spasmolytic constituents, which explains its medicinal use in constipation and diarrhea.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Conyza/química , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Cobaias , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Coelhos
19.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 113(11): 641-7, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23137201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recently accumulating evidence has highlighted the role of histamine in inflammation and immune reaction by histamine H4-receptor, however the role of histamine via H4-receptor in immunomodulation is still unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the immunomodulatory role of histamine H4-receptor on antibody generation profile in rabbit. METHODS: The cohort study comprised of 108 rabbits in six groups. Each group consisted of 18 rabbits. Group I (negative control) remained non-immunized and received vehicle (sterile distilled water, 1 mlkg-1 × b.i.d., s.c. for 10 days (3 days prior to immunization until 7 days after immunization)). Group II (positive control) received vehicle (1 mlkg-1 × b.i.d., s.c. for 10 day), while group III-VI received histamine (100 µgkg-1 × b.i.d., s.c.), H4-agonist (clobenpropit dihydrobromide, 10 µgkg-1 × b.i.d., s.c.), and H4-antagonist (JNJ 7777120, 10 µgkg-1 × b.i.d., i.m.) and DMSO (control group for H4R-antagonist, 1 mlkg-1 × b.i.d., i.m.) respectively for 10 days. Group II-VI were immunized with intravenous injection of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) on day 3. Immunological parameters [immunoglobulins (Ig), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin G (IgG)] assessed by the whole SRBC-ELISA method and direct hemagglutination assay. RESULTS: Histamine could influence a detectable antibody response to SRBC as early as day 7 postimmunization (post-I), which lasted until day 58 post-I, whereas H4-receptor by H4R-antagonist treatment showed a similar profile of antibody (Ig, IgM, and IgG) generation as the positive control group. On the other hand, H4R-agonist treatment showed immunostimulant activity as compared to other experimental groups. The results were found statistically significant (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Histamine H4-receptor in biological system modulates immunological function and stimulates antibody production only by exogenously administered agonists not by endogenous histamine (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref. 26).


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos/fisiologia , Imunização , Imunoglobulinas/biossíntese , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/fisiologia , Receptores Histamínicos/fisiologia , Animais , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Feminino , Testes de Hemaglutinação , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Coelhos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/agonistas , Receptores Histamínicos H4 , Ovinos , Tioureia/análogos & derivados , Tioureia/farmacologia
20.
J Parasitol Res ; 2012: 237280, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22900144

RESUMO

Host-parasite interactions are complex, compounded by factors that are capable of shifting the balance in either direction. The host's age, behaviour, immunological status, and environmental change can affect the association that is beneficial to the host whereas evasion of the host's immune response favours the parasite. In fish, some infections that induce mortality are age and temperature dependent. Environmental change, especially habitat degradation by anthropogenic pollutants and oceanographic alterations induced by climatic, can influence parasitic-host interaction. The outcome of these associations will hinge on susceptibility and resistance.

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