Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.369
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245867, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285615

RESUMO

Abstract Feral dogs are well-organized hunters of ungulates in many parts of the world, causing great damage to wildlife populations and ultimately to the ecosystem. In Pakistan, the impacts of feral dogs on the wildlife have not been documented yet. In a period of fifteen years (2006-2020), feral dogs have killed hundreds of threatened markhor in Chitral gol national park (CGNP), Pakistan. Despite direct predation other impacts including disturbance and competition with other natural predators, could compromise conservation and management efforts. The population of feral dogs seems to have been increased with the increase of dumping sites by communities. Our findings suggest that there are pressing needs of controlling the feral dogs population and eradicating them from the core zone of CGNP and surrounding buffer communities. Conventional culling of dogs should be coupled with modern techniques like castration and sterilization. Communities should be educated regarding the clean environment, proper disposal of home wastes and, biodiversity conservation.


Resumo Os cães ferozes são caçadores bem organizados de ungulados em muitas partes do mundo, causando grandes danos à população de animais selvagens e, em última instância, ao ecossistema. No Paquistão, os impactos dos cães selvagens na vida selvagem ainda não foram documentados. Em um período de 15 anos (2006-2020), cães selvagens mataram centenas de markhor ameaçados no parque nacional Chitral gol (CGNP), Paquistão. Apesar da predação direta, outros impactos, incluindo distúrbios e competições com outros predadores naturais podem comprometer os esforços de conservação e manejo. A população de cães selvagens parece ter aumentado com o aumento dos locais de despejo pelas comunidades. Nossas descobertas sugerem que há necessidades urgentes para controlar a população de cães selvagens e erradicá-los da zona central do CGNP e das comunidades-tampão vizinhas. O abate convencional de cães deve ser combinado com técnicas modernas como castração e esterilização. As comunidades devem ser educadas sobre o meio ambiente limpo, o descarte adequado de resíduos domésticos e a conservação da biodiversidade.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244311, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285616

RESUMO

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado ​​para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados ​​para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247018, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285617

RESUMO

Abstract The Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda) belongs to family corvidae, order Passeriformes which includes about 100 species. The current study was conducted to gather information about the Population distribution and habitat analysis of D. vagabunda at District Abbottabad, Pakistan. The data were collected on monthly basis both morning and evening times (2018-2019). "The ''Point count Method" was used for population estimation and ''Quadrates Method" for habitat analysis of study area. The result shows an average month-wise population density of D. vagabunda was maximum at Jhangra 0.14±0.039/ha, whereas minimum at Havelian 0.11±0.022/ha. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among monthly population densities of D. vagabunda, however, a significant difference (p<0.05) was found between morning and evening times population of the specie. The present study revealed that importance value index (IVI) of plants species at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 59.6±12.6, 50.1±6.9, 53.4±6.3, 66.8±10 and 60.1±7.7. Likewise, the frequency of shrubs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 33.3±4.2, 45±9.4, 46.7±8.2, 55.6±22.2 and 37.5±8.5. Similarly, the frequency of herbs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 40.4±6.0, 37.5±5.6, 53.3±7.4, 48.5±5.2 and 46.9±7.4 respectively. Our results show the study area as suitable habitat for D. vagabunda.


Resumo A trepadeira Rufous (Dendrocitta vagabunda) pertence à família corvidae, ordem Passeriformes que inclui cerca de 100 espécies. O estudo atual foi realizado para reunir informações sobre a distribuição da população e análise do habitat de D. vagabunda no distrito de Abbottabad, Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados mensalmente pela manhã e à noite (2018-2019). O "método de contagem de pontos" foi usado para estimativa da população e o "método dos quadrados" para análise de habitat da área de estudo. O resultado mostra que uma densidade populacional média mensal de D. vagabunda foi máxima em Jhangra 0,14 ± 0,039 / ha, enquanto a mínima em Havelian 0,11 ± 0,022/ha. Não houve diferença significativa (p> 0,05) entre as densidades populacionais mensais de D. vagabunda, entretanto foi encontrada diferença significativa (p <0,05) entre os períodos matutino e noturno da população da espécie. O presente estudo revelou que o índice de valor de importância (IVI) das espécies de plantas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 59,6 ± 12,6, 50,1 ± 6,9, 53,4 ± 6,3, 66,8 ± 10 e 60,1 ± 7,7. Da mesma forma, a frequência de arbustos em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 33,3 ± 4,2, 45 ± 9,4, 46,7 ± 8,2, 55,6 ± 22,2 e 37,5 ± 8,5. Da mesma forma, a frequência de ervas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi: 40,4 ± 6,0, 37,5 ± 5,6, 53,3 ± 7,4, 48,5 ± 5,2 e 46,9 ± 7,4, respectivamente. Nossos resultados mostram a área de estudo como habitat adequado para D. vagabunda.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246514, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285640

RESUMO

Abstract The poultry sector in Pakistan is contributing mainly in bridging gap between demand and supply for protein. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an emerging bacterium causing serious problems in poultry industry of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the M. gallisepticum load in poultry populated regions of Pakistan. Total 600 serum and 600 swab samples were collected, 200 from each broiler, layers and breeders poultry in Rawalpindi and Abbottabad districts. Serum samples were analyzed through ELISA for seroprevalence. Swabs were cultured on Frey's medium followed by PCR and partial mgc2 gene sequencing. Results of seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum showed that layers (75%, n=150) are more positive as compared to breeders (70%, n=140) and broilers (50%, n=100). Typical colonies of the M. gallisepticum were observed in breeder (26.5%), followed by layer (21%) and broilers (9%). A total of 37.1% (n=42) samples were identified positive through PCR out of total 113 cultured based positive samples. A total of six M. gallisepticum isolates of current study showed 98-99 percent similarity with previously reported isolates on the basis of mgc2 gene partial sequencing. The M. gallisepticum was found highly prevalent in different poultry breads. Results of this study would add into basic data and provide a direction for livestock sector to strengthen a control strategy for mycoplasmosis in poultry farms.


Resumo O setor avícola do Paquistão está contribuindo principalmente para preencher a lacuna entre a demanda e a oferta de proteína. Mycoplasma gallisepticum é uma bactéria emergente que causa sérios problemas na indústria avícola do Paquistão. Um estudo transversal foi conduzido para avaliar a carga de M. gallisepticum em regiões de avicultura do Paquistão. Um total de 600 amostras de soro e 600 amostras de esfregaço foi coletado, 200 de cada frango de corte, poedeiras e aves reprodutoras nos distritos de Rawalpindi e Abbottabad. Amostras de soro foram analisadas por ELISA para soroprevalência. As zaragatoas foram cultivadas em meio Frey, seguido de PCR e sequenciação parcial do gene mgc2. Os resultados da soroprevalência de M. gallisepticum mostraram que as poedeiras (75%, n = 150) são mais positivas em comparação com matrizes (70%, n = 140) e frangos de corte (50%, n = 100). Colônias típicas de M. gallisepticum foram observadas em reprodutoras (26,5%), seguidas de poedeiras (21%) e frangos de corte (9%). Um total de 37,1% (n = 42) das amostras foi identificado como positivas por PCR de um total de 113 amostras positivas baseadas em cultura. Um total de seis isolados de M. gallisepticum do estudo atual mostrou 98-99% de similaridade com isolados relatados anteriormente com base no sequenciamento parcial do gene mgc2. O M. gallisepticum foi encontrado com alta prevalência em diferentes pães de aves. Os resultados deste estudo acrescentariam dados básicos e forneceriam orientação para o setor pecuário fortalecer uma estratégia de controle da micoplasmose em granjas avícolas.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251004, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339339

RESUMO

Abstract The supplementation of Selenium-enriched probiotics is effective in reducing oxidative stress and maintaining meat quality stability in broiler chicken especially under heat stress. An experimental study was conducted to perform Comparative analysis of Selenium yeast with inorganic Se in broilers under heat stress. A total of 120 broilers chicks of one day were assigned to 4 groups each consisting 30 chicks fed on same basal diet but different selenium sources. The basal diet of group D1 was not supplemented with Se source (Negative control), group D2 basal diet was supplemented with inorganic selenium (Sodium selenite 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase), group D3 basal diet was supplemented with commercially available organic selenium (Seleno-methionine 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase) and group D4 basal diet was supplemented with self-developed organic selenium (Se-enriched yeast 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase). The performance parameters i.e. feed intake (FI), live body weight (BW) and FCR were not significantly (p>0.05) effected by selenium supplementation in the starter phase but were significantly (p<0.05) effected in the finisher phase. Selenium supplementation significantly (p<0.05) effected serum Se level in different supplemented groups. Higher serum Se value (58.20±0.06) was recorded in D4 group. Similarly significantly lower selenium value was recorded for D4 and higher was recorded for D1 (11.36±0.08). However lower serum Paraoxonase (PON) value was recorded for D4 (13.24±0.01) and higher for D1 (13.33±0.03). Comparatively self-developed Se enriched yeast increased the Se accumulation and improved antioxidant system. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was found higher in D4 (12.333±0.03) followed by D3, D2 and D1 respectively. Whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower (p<0.05) in D4 (0.1437±0.003) followed by D3 (0.1457±0.002). Selenium supplementation increased the bird's survival rate. Birds fed on Se enriched yeast showed higher Se deposition and better antioxidant capacity as compared to other sources of selenium. Se-enriched yeast displayed an improved result on Se deposition in tissues, and oxidative capacity, meat tenderness and immune response level as compared to other sources of selenium.


Resumo A suplementação de probióticos enriquecidos com selênio é eficaz na redução do estresse oxidativo e na manutenção da estabilidade da qualidade da carne em frangos de corte, especialmente sob estresse por calor. Um estudo experimental foi conduzido para realizar uma análise comparativa da levedura selênio com o Se inorgânico em frangos de corte sob estresse térmico. Um total de 120 pintos de um dia foi dividido em 4 grupos, cada um consistindo de 30 pintos alimentados com a mesma dieta basal, mas com diferentes fontes de selênio. A dieta basal do grupo D1 não foi suplementada com fonte de Se (controle negativo), a dieta basal do grupo D2 foi suplementada com selênio inorgânico (selenito de sódio 0,22 mg / kg fase inicial e 0,15 mg / kg fase finalizadora), a dieta basal do grupo D3 foi suplementada com selênio orgânico disponível comercialmente (fase inicial de seleno-metionina 0,22 mg / kg e fase finalizadora de 0,15 mg / kg) e a dieta basal do grupo D4 foi suplementada com selênio orgânico autodesenvolvido (fermento enriquecido com Se 0,22 mg / kg fase inicial e 0,15 mg / kg fase finalizadora). Os parâmetros de desempenho, ou seja, consumo de ração (FI), peso corporal vivo (PC) e FCR não foram significativamente (p > 0,05) afetados pela suplementação de selênio na fase inicial, mas foram significativamente (p < 0,05) afetados na fase final. A suplementação de selênio afetou significativamente (p < 0,05) o nível de Se sérico em diferentes grupos suplementados. O maior valor de Se sérico (58,20 ± 0,06) foi registrado no grupo D4. Da mesma forma, valor de selênio significativamente menor foi registrado para D4 e maior foi registrado para D1 (11,36 ± 0,08). No entanto, um valor mais baixo de Paraoxonase (PON) sérica foi registrado para D4 (13,24 ± 0,01) e mais alto para D1 (13,33 ± 0,03). A levedura enriquecida com Se comparativamente autodesenvolvida aumentou o acúmulo de Se e melhorou o sistema antioxidante. A glutationa peroxidase (GPx) foi encontrada maior em D4 (12,333 ± 0,03) seguido por D3, D2 e ​​D1 respectivamente. Enquanto a superóxido dismutase (SOD) foi significativamente menor (p < 0,05) em D4 (0,1437 ± 0,003) seguido por D3 (0,1457 ± 0,002). A suplementação de selênio aumentou a taxa de sobrevivência da ave. Aves alimentadas com levedura enriquecida com Se apresentaram maior deposição de Se e melhor capacidade antioxidante em comparação com outras fontes de selênio. A levedura enriquecida com Se apresentou um resultado melhorado na deposição de Se nos tecidos, capacidade oxidativa, maciez da carne e nível de resposta imune em comparação com outras fontes de selênio.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249229, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339374

RESUMO

Abstract Birds are very valuable indicators of species richness and endemic patterns in a specified ecosystem, which eventually help the scientist to measure the environmental degradation. The aim of present study was to know human knowledge and attitude toward urban birds in Faisalabad city, Pakistan. The study conducted in four consecutive months: November 2019 to February 2020. Population of birds was noted from eight residential towns of Faisalabad city, data were collected through questionnaire. Faisalabad has a reasonably large population of birds and present data show that, there is a significant difference between favorite bird of residential areas and institutions. The pigeon received the most likeness in bird population among residential area residents, while the myna received the least. The most popular bird in Faisalabad institutions was the sparrow, while the least popular bird was the common myna. Bird adaptation percentage of residential areas and institutional areas of Faisalabad was the highest for parrot and sparrow respectively. People in residential areas and institutions, on the other hand, adapted least to common myna. It is concluded that people of the study area like birds and offered food and high population of birds are present in study area.


Resumo Os pássaros são indicadores muito valiosos da riqueza de espécies e padrões endêmicos em um determinado ecossistema, o que acaba ajudando o cientista a medir a degradação ambiental. O objetivo do presente estudo foi conhecer o conhecimento humano e a atitude em relação às aves urbanas na cidade de Faisalabad, Paquistão. O estudo foi conduzido em quatro meses consecutivos: novembro de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020. A população de pássaros foi observada em oito cidades residenciais da cidade de Faisalabad, os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário. Faisalabad tem uma população razoavelmente grande de pássaros, e os dados atuais mostram que há uma diferença significativa entre as aves favoritas de áreas residenciais e instituições. O pombo recebeu mais semelhanças na população de pássaros entre os residentes de áreas residenciais, enquanto o myna recebeu menos. A ave mais popular nas instituições de Faisalabad era o pardal, enquanto a ave menos popular era o myna comum. A porcentagem de adaptação de pássaros em áreas residenciais e institucionais de Faisalabad foi a mais alta para papagaios e pardais, respectivamente. As pessoas em áreas residenciais e instituições, por outro lado, se adaptaram menos ao myna comum. Conclui-se que pessoas da área de estudo como pássaros e alimentos oferecidos e alta população de pássaros estão presentes na área de estudo.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246436, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339391

RESUMO

Abstract Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.


Resumo A aplicação de diferentes fertilizantes para verificar a eficiência da expressão do gene Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) em uma das principais culturas comercializadas (algodão) contra espécies de lepidópteros é uma grande preocupação. A expressão do nível de proteína Cry pode ser controlada pela melhoria dos níveis de nutrientes. Portanto, o mito da resposta da toxina Cry a diferentes combinações de fertilizantes NP foi explorado em três cultivares de algodão Bt. As combinações incluem três níveis de nitrogênio e três níveis de fertilizantes de fósforo. A análise de PCR (reação em cadeia da polimerase) específica para o gene (s) Immunostrips e Cry (s) foi usada para a presença do gene Bt que revelou a presença do gene Cry1Ac apenas. Além disso, o kit ELISA (ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática) foi usado para quantificar a expressão da proteína Cry1Ac. Sob várias taxas de fertilizantes NP, o nível de proteína de toxina exibiu diferenças altamente significativas. A média do nível mais alto de toxina foi de 2,3740 e 2,1732 µg / g sob o tratamento da combinação N150P75 kg ha-1, enquanto a média do nível mais baixo de toxina foi de 0,9158 e 0,7641 µg / g no nível de N50P25 kg ha-1 em 80 e 120 DAS (dias após a semeadura), respectivamente. Concluiu-se com a pesquisa que o uso de fertilizantes NP tem relação positiva com a expressão da toxina Cry1Ac no algodão Bt. Recomendamos o uso do nível de N150P50 kg ha-1 como o fertilizante mais econômico e praticável em vez da dose padrão N100P50 kg ha-1 para obter o nível desejado de nível de Cry1Ac para resistência de planta de longa duração (<1,5). A dose revisada de fertilizante pode ajudar os agricultores a evitar o desenvolvimento de resistência cruzada em contradição com as pragas de insetos.

8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250402, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339404

RESUMO

Abstract We have evaluated the effects of different fish feeds on the body composition, growth, and enzyme activities of Labeo rohita (Rohu). In total, 240 fishes between the average weights of 24.77±2.15g were studied. The treatments were applied in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments of 60 fishes each. Treatments consisted of four different fish feeds [Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4)]. Body composition, growth performance, and enzyme activities were evaluated. There was a significant variation in performance of fishes fed with different type of feed; as fishes having Oryza feed showed the highest weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and best feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared to other groups that were considered to be significant (P ≤ 0.05). High net weight gain was obtained in T4 when compared with T2 and T3. FCR value of T4 was less than T1 but higher than T2, T3 and T2, which showed the lowest values. The specific growth rate was recorded as average in T4, but T2 led a high SGR than T3. Similarly, crude protein level and digestive enzymes activity was recorded significantly highest in fed with Oryza (T1) as compared to AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4). Water quality parameters were recorded significant in all treatments except pH and DO of treatment (T1), significantly different from other treatments. It was concluded that Rohu (Labeo rohita) could show a promising growth rate and protease enzyme activity when fed with the Oryza feed of 25% protein.


Resumo Avaliamos os efeitos de diferentes alimentos para peixes em relação à composição corporal, crescimento e atividades enzimáticas de Labeo rohita (Rohu). No total, foram estudados 240 peixes com pesos médios de 24,77 ± 2,15 g. Os tratamentos foram aplicados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos de 60 peixes cada. Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro alimentos diferentes para peixes: Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3) e Supreme (T4). Foram avaliados a composição corporal, o desempenho de crescimento e as atividades enzimáticas. Houve uma variação significativa no desempenho dos peixes alimentados com diferentes tipos de ração. Peixes com alimentação Oryza apresentaram maior ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento específico (SGR) e melhor taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR) em comparação com outros grupos que foram considerados significativos (P ≤ 0,05). Elevado ganho de peso líquido foi obtido em T4 quando comparado com T2 e T3. O valor da FCR de T4 foi menor que T1, mas maior que T2 e T3, que apresentaram os menores valores. A taxa de crescimento específico foi registrada como média em T4, mas T2 teve uma SGR alta do que T3. Da mesma forma, o nível de proteína bruta e a atividade das enzimas digestivas foram registrados significativamente mais altos nos peixes alimentados com Oryza (T1) em comparação com AMG (T2), Aqua (T3) e Supreme (T4). Os parâmetros de qualidade da água foram registrados como significativos em todos os tratamentos, exceto pH e OD do tratamento (T1), significativamente diferente dos demais tratamentos. Concluiu-se que Rohu (Labeo rohita) pode apresentar uma taxa de crescimento promissora e atividade da enzima protease quando alimentado com Oryza de 25% de proteína.

9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238874, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249231

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This research was aimed to explore the helminth parasitic diseases in Schizothorax plagiostomus (the snow trout) from river Swat and river Panjkora, Pakistan. Collection of 360 fish specimens have done from the lower, middle and upper reaches of both the rivers through gill nets, cast nets, dragon nets and hooks. All the samples were examined in the University of Malakand, Zoology Department for helminth parasites during the months from January 2015 to December 2016. Of the total examined fish samples 21.9% (n=79) were infected with Rhabdochona spp including 17.7% (n=32/180) in river Swat and 26.6% (n=47/180) in river Panjkora. Highest month-wise prevalence (p=0.09878,p<0.05) was reported in May (30%), then by February and October each (26.6%) while the lowest during August (13.3%). Highest prevalence (p=0.9723, p<0.05) was reported in summer season (26.6%), while lowest in the winter season (20%). Adults were highly infected (p=< 0.0001) in prevalence (63.7%) followed by sub-adults (13.2%) while no infection was found in juvenile specimens. Females fish samples had higher (p=0.0277, p>0.05) prevalence (28.8%) than males (16.6%). Fishes of the lower reaches had highest (p=0.0029, P>0.05) prevalence (31.7%) followed by middle reaches (16.5%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in samples of fish collected from upper reaches (9.87%). Present study address that Rhabdochona spp in the intestine of snow trout has a long term relationship and call as a natural infection in cyprinids and zoonotic risk to human.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo explorar as doenças parasitárias por helmintos em Schizothorax plagiostomus (a truta das neves) do rio Swat e do rio Panjkora, Paquistão. A coleta de 360 ​​espécimes de peixes foi feita nos trechos inferior, médio e superior de ambos os rios por meio de redes de emalhar, de lançamento, de dragão e anzóis. Todas as amostras foram examinadas na Universidade de Malakand, Departamento de Zoologia, para helmintos parasitas durante os meses de janeiro de 2015 a dezembro de 2016. Do total de amostras de peixes examinadas, 21,9% (n = 79) estavam infectados com Rhabdochona spp, incluindo 17,7% (n = 32/180) no rio Swat e 26,6% (n = 47/180) no rio Panjkora. A maior prevalência no mês (p = 0,09878, p <0,05) foi relatada em maio (30%), depois em fevereiro e outubro cada (26,6%), enquanto a menor em agosto (13,3%). A maior prevalência (p = 0,9723, p <0,05) foi relatada no verão (26,6%), enquanto a menor no inverno (20%). Os adultos foram altamente infectados (p = <0,0001) na prevalência (63,7%), seguidos por subadultos (13,2%), enquanto nenhuma infecção foi encontrada em espécimes juvenis. As amostras de peixes do sexo feminino tiveram maior (p = 0,0277, p> 0,05) prevalência (28,8%) do que o masculino (16,6%). Os peixes do curso inferior tiveram maior (p = 0,0029, P> 0,05) prevalência (31,7%) seguida do curso médio (16,5%), enquanto a menor prevalência foi observada em amostras de peixes coletados do curso superior (9,87%). O presente estudo aborda que Rhabdochona spp no ​​intestino da truta das neves tem uma relação de longo prazo e pode ser considerada uma infecção natural em ciprinídeos e risco zoonótico para humanos.

10.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243511, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285591

RESUMO

Abstract Vegetable oils have their specific physicochemical properties due to which they are playing vital role in human nutritional diet for health benefits. Cottonseed oil is obtained from various species of cotton seeds that are famous to be grown mainly for their fiber quality. The most prominently used specie is Gossypium hirsutum. It is obvious that the seeds of different variety of cotton vary as grown in diverse agroclimatic conditions with respect to oil, fats and protein contents. Cottonseed oil is routinely used for cooking and food manufacturing products. Cottonseed oil obtained after proper extraction/processing steps from crude state to refined oil in a variety of ways. Cotton crop is considered for their dual-use purpose, for fiber quality and oil production to promote health benefits in the world. Keeping in view the above facts, this review clearly demonstrated an overview about physicochemical and functional properties of cottonseed oil to promote health benefits associated with the use of this oil. The overall characteristics and all concerned health benefits of CSO will further improve their usefulness is a compact way. We have summarized a brief multi-dimensional features of CSO in all aspects up to the best of our knowledge for the end researchers who can further research in the respective aspect.


Resumo Os óleos vegetais têm propriedades físico-químicas específicas que desempenham um papel vital na dieta nutricional humana em benefício à saúde. O óleo de semente de algodão, utilizado rotineiramente no preparo e na fabricação de alimentos, é obtido através de várias espécies de sementes de algodão, famosas pela alta qualidade de sua fibra., cuja espécie mais utilizada é Gossypium hirsutum. As sementes variam, em relação ao teor do óleo, da gordura e das proteínas, de acordo com o cultivo e as diversas condições agroclimáticas. O óleo de algodão é obtido após etapas adequadas de extração das sementes e processamento do estado bruto ao refinado. Assim, a presente revisão demonstra, de maneira geral, as propriedades físico-químicas e funcionais do óleo de semente de algodão e seus benefícios à saúde humana, resumindo suas características multidimensionais. As características gerais e todos os benefícios do composto podem melhorar ainda mais se utilizadas de forma compacta, auxiliando futuros pesquisadores.

11.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243150, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339334

RESUMO

Abstract Present study was conducted among school children to recognize the prevalence of IPIs in rural communities of district Dir Lower, Pakistan. A sum of 324 samples of stool were collected (210 boys and 114 girls). Used direct smear method and formol ether sedimentation concentration technique for processing the samples. The result shows that 82% (n=266) were found infected comprised 64.8% male and 35.1% females. Children of the age group 10 to 12 years were found extremely infected 94.2% while 4-6 year age group were having minimum ratio of infection 72%. Current study shows mono parasitism in 50.6% of the students while 22.2% were infected with 2 species and 7.40% were infected with three species of parasites. Seven species of intestinal parasites were reported include Ascaris lumbricoid in male (n=122) 58.0% and in female (n=65) 57.0% followed by Hook worm (n=88) 41.9% and (n=44) 38.5%; Tania saginata (n=44) 20.9% and (n=24) 21.0%; Entrobius vermicularis (n=32) 15.2% and (n=16) 14.0%; Trichuris trichura (n=25) 11.9% and (n=22) 19.2%; Hymenolepis nana (n=24) 11.4% and (n=18) 15.7% and Entameoba histolytica (n=16) 7.61% and (n=14) 12.2% in male and females respectively. The study indicates that most occurring intestinal parasite in the current study were Ascaris lumbricoides 58.0% (n=122) followed by hookworms 41.9% (n=88). Male students were more infected than females in the present study.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido entre crianças em idade escolar para reconhecer a prevalência de IPIs em comunidades rurais do distrito de Dir Lower, Paquistão. Foram coletadas 324 amostras de fezes (210 meninos e 114 meninas). Método de esfregaço direto usado e técnica de concentração de sedimentação de formol éter para processar as amostras. O resultado mostra que 82% (n = 266) dos infectados eram 64,8% do sexo masculino e 35,1% do feminino. Crianças da faixa etária de 10 a 12 anos foram encontradas extremamente infectadas 94,2%, enquanto a faixa etária de 4 a 6 anos apresentava proporção mínima de infecção de 72%. O estudo atual mostra monoparasitismo em 50,6% dos alunos, enquanto 22,2% estavam infectados com 2 espécies e 7,40% estavam infectados com três espécies de parasitas. Sete espécies de parasitas intestinais foram relatadas incluindo Ascaris lumbricoid em machos (n = 122) 58,0% e em fêmeas (n = 65) 57,0% seguido por anzol (n = 88) 41,9% e (n = 44) 38,5%; Tania saginata (n = 44) 20,9% e (n = 24) 21,0%; Entrobius vermicularis (n = 32) 15,2% e (n = 16) 14,0%; Trichuris trichura (n = 25) 11,9% e (n = 22) 19,2%; Hymenolepis nana (n = 24) 11,4% e (n = 18) 15,7% e Entameoba histolytica (n = 16) 7,61% e (n = 14) 12,2% em homens e mulheres, respectivamente. O estudo indica que os parasitas intestinais que mais ocorreram no presente estudo foram Ascaris lumbricoides 58,0% (n = 122), seguidos por ancilóstomos 41,9% (n = 88). Estudantes do sexo masculino foram mais infectados do que do sexo feminino no presente estudo.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762574

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This research was aimed to explore the helminth parasitic diseases in Schizothorax plagiostomus (the snow trout) from river Swat and river Panjkora, Pakistan. Collection of 360 fish specimens have done from the lower, middle and upper reaches of both the rivers through gill nets, cast nets, dragon nets and hooks. All the samples were examined in the University of Malakand, Zoology Department for helminth parasites during the months from January 2015 to December 2016. Of the total examined fish samples 21.9% (n=79) were infected with Rhabdochona spp including 17.7% (n=32/180) in river Swat and 26.6% (n=47/180) in river Panjkora. Highest month-wise prevalence (p=0.09878,p 0.05) was reported in May (30%), then by February and October each (26.6%) while the lowest during August (13.3%). Highest prevalence (p=0.9723, p 0.05) was reported in summer season (26.6%), while lowest in the winter season (20%). Adults were highly infected (p= 0.0001) in prevalence (63.7%) followed by sub-adults (13.2%) while no infection was found in juvenile specimens. Females fish samples had higher (p=0.0277, p>0.05) prevalence (28.8%) than males (16.6%). Fishes of the lower reaches had highest (p=0.0029, P>0.05) prevalence (31.7%) followed by middle reaches (16.5%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in samples of fish collected from upper reaches (9.87%). Present study address that Rhabdochona spp in the intestine of snow trout has a long term relationship and call as a natural infection in cyprinids and zoonotic risk to human.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo explorar as doenças parasitárias por helmintos em Schizothorax plagiostomus (a truta das neves) do rio Swat e do rio Panjkora, Paquistão. A coleta de 360 espécimes de peixes foi feita nos trechos inferior, médio e superior de ambos os rios por meio de redes de emalhar, de lançamento, de dragão e anzóis. Todas as amostras foram examinadas na Universidade de Malakand, Departamento de Zoologia, para helmintos parasitas durante os meses de janeiro de 2015 a dezembro de 2016. Do total de amostras de peixes examinadas, 21,9% (n = 79) estavam infectados com Rhabdochona spp, incluindo 17,7% (n = 32/180) no rio Swat e 26,6% (n = 47/180) no rio Panjkora. A maior prevalência no mês (p = 0,09878, p 0,05) foi relatada em maio (30%), depois em fevereiro e outubro cada (26,6%), enquanto a menor em agosto (13,3%). A maior prevalência (p = 0,9723, p 0,05) foi relatada no verão (26,6%), enquanto a menor no inverno (20%). Os adultos foram altamente infectados (p = 0,0001) na prevalência (63,7%), seguidos por subadultos (13,2%), enquanto nenhuma infecção foi encontrada em espécimes juvenis. As amostras de peixes do sexo feminino tiveram maior (p = 0,0277, p> 0,05) prevalência (28,8%) do que o masculino (16,6%). Os peixes do curso inferior tiveram maior (p = 0,0029, P> 0,05) prevalência (31,7%) seguida do curso médio (16,5%), enquanto a menor prevalência foi observada em amostras de peixes coletados do curso superior (9,87%). O presente estudo aborda que Rhabdochona spp no intestino da truta das neves tem uma relação de longo prazo e pode ser considerada uma infecção natural em ciprinídeos e risco zoonótico para humanos.

13.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 264: 120253, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391992

RESUMO

Globally, the environmental pollution is one of the major issues causing toxicity towards human and aquatic life. We have developed a facile and innovative sensing approach for detection of sulphide ions (S2-) present in the aqueous media using Ag0 decorated Cr2S3 NPs embedded on PVP matrix (Ag/Cr2S3-PVP). Based on the SPR phenomena, the detection of S2- ions was established. The nanohybrid was characterized using various techniques such as UV-vis spectrophotometer, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction analysis(XRD), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The yellowish colour of Ag/Cr2S3-PVP nanohybrid turned to brown colour in presence of S2- ions. The selectivity and sensitivity of the prepared probe was studied against the other interfering metal ions. In addition, the effect of different concentration of S2- ions in the nanohybrid solution was investigated and the Limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 6.6 nM. The good linearity was found over the range of 10 nM to 100 µM with R2 value of 0.981. The paper strip based probe was developed for rapid onsite monitoring of S2- ions. The proposed method is found to be cost-effective, rapid, and simple. We have validated the practical applicability of the prepared probe for determining the concentration of S2- ions in real water samples.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Sulfetos , Água
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(20): 6319-6325, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of near infra-red gallium-aluminium-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser (805 nm) irradiation on proliferation and differentiation of rat femoral bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) cultured in osteogenic medium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BMSCs were obtained from femurs of 60 Sprague Dawley rats (200 gm). The control group comprised isolated BMSCs supplemented with an osteogenic differentiation medium. On the other hand, in the experimental group, the BMSCs were irradiated with a near-infrared laser in addition to an osteogenic differentiation medium. The experimental group was irradiated with a soft tissue laser comprising of allium-aluminium-arsenic (Ga-Al-Ar) Diode at a near-infrared wavelength of 805 nm in continuous mode. The different output powers applied were 0.5 W, 1.0 W, 1.5 W and 2.0 W respectively. Various energy levels of 1, 4, 7 and 10 J were used for irradiation. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay and Alizarin staining were performed to confirm osteogenic differentiation. Statistical analysis was done using a one-way ANOVA and a p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: According to our findings, 1.27 J/cm2 was the optimal energy density value that significantly increased the BMSC proliferation at the output of 1.5 W with the power density of 1.27 W/cm2. On 1.27 J/cm2, there was a significant difference compared to the control group on the first day, and the osteogenic differentiation increased significantly on the 4th day compared to the 1st day. CONCLUSIONS: According to our findings, 1.27 J/cm2 was the optimal energy density value that significantly increased the BMSC proliferation at the output of 1.5 W with the power density of 1.27 W/cm2.

15.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242922, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817020

RESUMO

Seven hundred and twenty four fish specimens were captured from March to September 2016. The materials used in the current study were cast nets, hand nets. Eight cyprinid fish species were studied for their length-weight relationships. Parameter b in the LWR was 3.03, 3.06, 3.02, 2.29, 2.82, 3.43, 2.73 and 2.47 for Schizothorax plagiostomus, Schizothorax esocinus, Racoma labiata, Tor putitora, Barilius vagra, Garra gotyla, Puntius ticto and Arassius auratus respectively. Current study is the first attempt on the LWRs of cyprinid species, provide a baseline approach for conservation and /management of local fish fauna of economic importance.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Rios , Animais , Paquistão
16.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2016 American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines proposed thyroid lobectomy for low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC); however, this approach is yet to be widely adopted. The aim of the study was to review our practice over three years following the publication of these guidelines identifying patients who underwent lobectomy-only for low-risk DTC in two regional units in the same multidisciplinary team (MDT). METHOD: A retrospective review of patients who were operated between January 2016 and December 2018 was carried out. RESULTS: In total, 288 patients undergoing thyroid surgery were included. The preoperative distribution of cytology was: Thy 1 or 2 in 46, THY3a in 57, THY3f in 154, THY4 in 18 and THY5 in 13 patients. Median size of nodules was 26mm (range 1-70mm). DTC was diagnosed in 95 patients (33%). Overall, 39% (n = 37) of patients underwent completion thyroidectomy according to ATA recommendations on size or adverse histological features. The only variable associated with likelihood of completion was tumour size (p < 0.05, OR 1.14). Ten patients were discharged following surgery with no further follow-up as they had T1a/b well-differentiated DTC with no high-risk histological features. CONCLUSION: Lobectomy-only appears to be the current surgical practice in two-thirds of patients presenting to our regional units with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. In the context of the current drive to reduce the extent of treatment for low-risk thyroid cancer, there is a need for a more homogeneous approach to these patients and for protocols for long-term follow-up after lobectomy-only.

17.
Chemosphere ; : 132735, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756947

RESUMO

Water pollution is becoming an inevitable problem in today's world. Tons and tons of wastewater with hazardous pollutants are getting discharged into the clean water bodies every day. In this regard, photocatalytic environmental remediation using nanotechnology such as the use of organic, metal and non-metal based semiconductor photocatalysts for photodegradation of pollutants has gained enormous attention in the past few decades. This review is focused particularly on graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) which is a cheap, metal-free, polymeric photoactive compound and it is used as a potential photocatalyst in wastewater treatment. Though, pristine g-C3N4 is a good photocatalyst, it has certain drawbacks such as poor visible light absorption capacity, quicker recombination of photoelectrons and holes, delayed mass and charge transfer, etc. As a result, the pristine g-C3N4 catalyst is modified into novel 0D, 1D, 2D and 3D morphologies such as nano-quantum dots, nanorods, nanotubes, nanowires, nanosheets, nanoflakes, nanospheres, nanoshells, etc. It was also tailored into novel composites along with various compounds through doping, metal deposition, heterojunction formation, etc., to enhance the photocatalytic property of pure g-C3N4. The modified catalysts showed promising photocatalytic performance such as degradation of majority of pollutants in the environment. It also showed excellent results in the removal or reduction of heavy metals. This review provides a detailed record of g-C3N4 and its diverse photocatalytic applications in the past years and it provides knowledge for the development of such similar novel compounds in the future.

18.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 583, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacy practice education requires the development of proficiencies and an understanding of clinical microbiology. Learning in this area could be delivered using practical laboratory exercises, or potentially, simulation-based education. Simulation has previously successfully enhanced learning in health professional education. The current global climate due to COVID-19 has further highlighted the important role of technology-enhanced learning in delivering outcomes that meet the requisite learning objectives of a course. The aim of the present study was to compare the impact of a commercially available virtual microbiology simulation (VUMIE™) with a traditional wet laboratory (wetlab) on learner knowledge, skills and confidence in a second-year integrated pharmacotherapeutics course for Bachelor of Pharmacy students. METHODS: A randomised, crossover study was employed to determine whether the simulation intervention (VUMIE™) improves learning outcomes (knowledge, skills and confidence) of pharmacy students, when compared to a traditional wetlab intervention. Each student completed three 1-2 h length sessions, for both the wetlab and VUMIE™ interventions (6 sessions total). Data was collected using surveys deployed at baseline (pre-interventions), post-intervention 1 or 2 (VUMIE™ or wetlab) and endpoint (post-interventions 1 and 2). Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS Statistics 25 and Instat™ software. RESULTS: Response rates were approximately 50% at initial survey and approximately 25% at endpoint survey. VUMIE™ produced higher post-intervention knowledge scores for the multiple-choice questions compared to the wetlab, however, the highest score was achieved at endpoint. Both interventions produced statistically significant differences for mean scores compared to baseline (pre-VUMIE™ and wetlab) across the domains of knowledge, skills and confidence. VUMIE™ produced higher post-intervention mean scores for knowledge, skills and confidence compared to post-intervention mean scores for the wetlab, however there was no statistical significance between the mean score for the two interventions, thus the VUMIE™ activity produced learning outcomes comparable to the wetlab activity. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest VUMIE™ provides similar effects on students' knowledge, skills, and confidence as a wetlab. The simulation's implementation was not cost-prohibitive, provided students with a physically and psychologically safe learning environment, and the benefit of being able to repeat activities, supporting deliberate practice.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação em Farmácia , Farmácia , Estudantes de Farmácia , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774598

RESUMO

L-Cysteine (L-cys) plays very crucial role in biological systems. The study reports the colorimetric detection of L-cys at nanomolar level using chitosan capped Ag decorated NiS nanocomposite (chit-Ag/NiS NCs).The chemical reduction and co-precipitation methods were adopted to prepare chit-Ag/NiS NCs. The fabricated NCs was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), FT-Raman, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The chit-Ag/NiS NCs particularly detect L-cys even in other amino acids presence. The chit-Ag/NiS NCs showed the surface charge of -26 ± 39.9 mV. The detection of L-cys was indicated by disappearance of yellowish-brown color of Chit-Ag/NiS NCs to colorless. A good linear correlation was found between absorbance vs logarithmic concentration of L-cys (1 µM to 1 nM) with R2 value of 0.99. The chit-Ag/NiS NCs impregnated cotton swabs was prepared for real time detection of L-cys and the prepared probe was found to be highly selective and specific. The effect of pH, temperature and salinity influencing the L-cys detection was studied. Also, the antimicrobial activity of Chit-Ag/NiS NCs was investigated against gram negative (E. coli) and gram positive (B. subtilis) bacteria.

20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 824, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792658

RESUMO

Globally, the production of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) increased due to its wide applications including cosmetics, paints etc., and gets accumulated in the environment during their production, use or end-of-life. The toxic effects of the NPs vary with the presence of various surface modification agents. In the current report, toxic effect of bare and capped ZnO NPs with polymeric surface modifying agent including polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is studied against adult as well as embryonic zebra fish. The surface capped NPs showed great variation in toxicity levels. It was observed that ZnO-PVA showed highly reduced toxic effects relative to ZnO-PEG and ZnO-PVP. Further, various environmental agents including humic acid can also have an impact on NPs toxicity. ZnO particles showed increased toxic effect in humic acid presence. The uptake of ZnO particles by D. rerio was high in the order of PVP-, PEG- and PVA- followed by bare-ZnO. The current investigation found that ZnO NPs dissolution and uptake are the major factors which cause the toxicity against adult as well as embryonic zebra fishes respectively.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Óxido de Zinco , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Polietilenoglicóis/toxicidade , Álcool de Polivinil/toxicidade , Povidona/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA