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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253605, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360221

RESUMO

Abstract Local and exotic germplasm of tomato remains a major source for genetic improvement. Assessment of such lines for biotic stresses particularly viral diseases are the most important criteria for selection in Pakistan, where Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) and Tomato Mosaic Virus (ToMV) are the major diseases/viruses. A set of 40 accessions (including indigenous Pakistani lines and exotic germplasm from Europe, the United States, and Asia) were evaluated for their resistance/infection response to ToMV with artificial inoculation under greenhouse conditions. Infection response was quantified through disease scoring and DAS-ELISA test (for ToMV). A subset of 24 lines, was further screened for TYLCV using disease scoring and TAS-ELISA. The tested lines showed significant variability for resistance to ToMV. Only one accession (Acc-17878) was resistant to the ToMV whereas seven accessions i.e. Acc-17890, AVR-261, CLN-312, AVR-321, EUR-333, CLN-352, and CLN-362 expressed resistance to TYLCV. Correlation between phenotypic evaluation was confirmed by the ELISA results in both diseases, although both tools complemented to assess the viral infection status. In future, tomato breeding programs must consider breeding for ToMV and TYLCV resistance (using identified germplasm in our study) so as to deliver virus resistant tomato varieties.


RESUMO O germoplasma local e exótico do tomate continua sendo uma importante fonte de melhoramento genético. A avaliação de linhagens para estresses bióticos, particularmente as doenças virais, é o critério mais importantes para seleção no Paquistão, onde o vírus da folha amarela do tomate (TYLCV) e o vírus do mosaico do tomateiro (ToMV) são as principais doenças/vírus. Um conjunto de 40 acessos (incluindo linhagens indígenas do Paquistão e germoplasma exótico da Europa, dos Estados Unidos e da Ásia) foi avaliado quanto à resistência/resposta à infecção ao ToMV com inoculação artificial em casa de vegetação. A resposta à infecção foi quantificada por meio de pontuação da doença e de teste DAS-ELISA (para ToMV). Um subconjunto de 24 linhas foi posteriormente rastreado para TYLCV usando pontuação de doença e TAS-ELISA. As linhas testadas apresentaram variabilidade significativa para resistência ao ToMV. Apenas um acesso (Acc-17878) foi resistente ao ToMV, enquanto sete acessos (Acc-17890, AVR-261, CLN-312, AVR-321, EUR-333, CLN-352 e CLN-362) expressaram resistência ao TYLCV. A correlação entre a avaliação fenotípica foi confirmada pelos resultados do ELISA nas duas doenças, embora ambas as ferramentas tenham se complementado para avaliar o estado da infecção viral. No futuro, os programas de melhoramento de tomate devem considerar aperfeiçoamentos para resistência ao ToMV e TYLCV (usando germoplasma identificado em nosso estudo) de modo a fornecer variedades de tomate resistentes a vírus.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252575, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355869

RESUMO

Abstract Increased anxiety and depressive symptoms have reported to be its association with long term illness. Because of having unwanted effects of newly available drugs, patients administering anxiolytic drugs usually discontinue the treatment before they are completely recovered. Therefore, there is a serious need to develop new anxiolytic drugs. The anxiolytic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei in animal models was assessed. 24 male mice (Mus musculus genus) were included in the study. Four groups were prepared and each group contained six animals. The groups were vehicle control, positive control (diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as two treatment groups receiving Agaricus blazei hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.50 mg/kg and 273.0 mg/kg orally. The Marble burying test, Nestlet shredding test and Light and Dark box test used to assess anxiolytic activity. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. while hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) was administered via oral route which exhibited marked reduction in number of marbles-burying as compared to vehicle control group. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. and Oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) exhibited significant decrease in nestlet shredding in comparison to vehicle control group. The oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.5mg/kg and 273mg/kg showed elevation in time spent in light box and was comparable to standard treated group while time spent by mice following oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei at a dose of 273.0 mg/kg also showed elevation and was found to be more near to standard treated group (diazepam 1 mg/kg, i.p.).


Resumo O aumento da ansiedade e dos sintomas depressivos têm relatado sua associação com doenças de longa duração. Por causa dos efeitos indesejáveis dos novos medicamentos disponíveis, os pacientes que administram medicamentos ansiolíticos geralmente interrompem o tratamento antes de estarem completamente recuperados. Portanto, há uma necessidade séria de desenvolver novos medicamentos ansiolíticos. Foi avaliado o efeito ansiolítico do extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei em modelos animais. Vinte e quatro camundongos machos (gênero Mus musculus) foram incluídos no estudo. Quatro grupos foram preparados, e cada grupo continha seis animais. Os grupos foram controle de veículo, controle positivo (diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p.), bem como dois grupos de tratamento recebendo extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei na dose de 136,50 mg/kg e 273,0 mg/kg por via oral. O teste de enterrar Marble, o teste de retalhamento Nestlet e o teste de caixa clara e escura são usados ​​para avaliar a atividade ansiolítica. Camundongos foram administrados com diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p., enquanto o extrato hidroalcoólico de AbM (136,50 e 273,0 mg/kg, respectivamente) foi administrado por via oral, que exibiu redução acentuada no número de mármores enterrados em comparação com o grupo de controle de veículo. Camundongos administrados com diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p. e a administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico de AbM (136,50 e 273,0 mg/kg, respectivamente) exibiu diminuição significativa na trituração de ninhos em comparação ao grupo de controle de veículo. A administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico na dose de 136,5mg/kg e 273mg/kg mostrou elevação no tempo gasto na caixa de luz e foi comparável ao grupo tratado padrão, enquanto o tempo gasto por camundongos após a administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei na dose de 273,0 mg/kg também mostrou elevação e foi mais próximo do grupo tratado padrão (diazepam 1 mg/kg, ip).


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Coelhos , Agaricus , Comportamento Exploratório , Modelos Animais de Doenças
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250402, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339404

RESUMO

Abstract We have evaluated the effects of different fish feeds on the body composition, growth, and enzyme activities of Labeo rohita (Rohu). In total, 240 fishes between the average weights of 24.77±2.15g were studied. The treatments were applied in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments of 60 fishes each. Treatments consisted of four different fish feeds [Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4)]. Body composition, growth performance, and enzyme activities were evaluated. There was a significant variation in performance of fishes fed with different type of feed; as fishes having Oryza feed showed the highest weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and best feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared to other groups that were considered to be significant (P ≤ 0.05). High net weight gain was obtained in T4 when compared with T2 and T3. FCR value of T4 was less than T1 but higher than T2, T3 and T2, which showed the lowest values. The specific growth rate was recorded as average in T4, but T2 led a high SGR than T3. Similarly, crude protein level and digestive enzymes activity was recorded significantly highest in fed with Oryza (T1) as compared to AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4). Water quality parameters were recorded significant in all treatments except pH and DO of treatment (T1), significantly different from other treatments. It was concluded that Rohu (Labeo rohita) could show a promising growth rate and protease enzyme activity when fed with the Oryza feed of 25% protein.


Resumo Avaliamos os efeitos de diferentes alimentos para peixes em relação à composição corporal, crescimento e atividades enzimáticas de Labeo rohita (Rohu). No total, foram estudados 240 peixes com pesos médios de 24,77 ± 2,15 g. Os tratamentos foram aplicados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos de 60 peixes cada. Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro alimentos diferentes para peixes: Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3) e Supreme (T4). Foram avaliados a composição corporal, o desempenho de crescimento e as atividades enzimáticas. Houve uma variação significativa no desempenho dos peixes alimentados com diferentes tipos de ração. Peixes com alimentação Oryza apresentaram maior ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento específico (SGR) e melhor taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR) em comparação com outros grupos que foram considerados significativos (P ≤ 0,05). Elevado ganho de peso líquido foi obtido em T4 quando comparado com T2 e T3. O valor da FCR de T4 foi menor que T1, mas maior que T2 e T3, que apresentaram os menores valores. A taxa de crescimento específico foi registrada como média em T4, mas T2 teve uma SGR alta do que T3. Da mesma forma, o nível de proteína bruta e a atividade das enzimas digestivas foram registrados significativamente mais altos nos peixes alimentados com Oryza (T1) em comparação com AMG (T2), Aqua (T3) e Supreme (T4). Os parâmetros de qualidade da água foram registrados como significativos em todos os tratamentos, exceto pH e OD do tratamento (T1), significativamente diferente dos demais tratamentos. Concluiu-se que Rohu (Labeo rohita) pode apresentar uma taxa de crescimento promissora e atividade da enzima protease quando alimentado com Oryza de 25% de proteína.


Assuntos
Animais , Composição Corporal , Peixes
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246514, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285640

RESUMO

Abstract The poultry sector in Pakistan is contributing mainly in bridging gap between demand and supply for protein. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an emerging bacterium causing serious problems in poultry industry of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the M. gallisepticum load in poultry populated regions of Pakistan. Total 600 serum and 600 swab samples were collected, 200 from each broiler, layers and breeders poultry in Rawalpindi and Abbottabad districts. Serum samples were analyzed through ELISA for seroprevalence. Swabs were cultured on Frey's medium followed by PCR and partial mgc2 gene sequencing. Results of seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum showed that layers (75%, n=150) are more positive as compared to breeders (70%, n=140) and broilers (50%, n=100). Typical colonies of the M. gallisepticum were observed in breeder (26.5%), followed by layer (21%) and broilers (9%). A total of 37.1% (n=42) samples were identified positive through PCR out of total 113 cultured based positive samples. A total of six M. gallisepticum isolates of current study showed 98-99 percent similarity with previously reported isolates on the basis of mgc2 gene partial sequencing. The M. gallisepticum was found highly prevalent in different poultry breads. Results of this study would add into basic data and provide a direction for livestock sector to strengthen a control strategy for mycoplasmosis in poultry farms.


Resumo O setor avícola do Paquistão está contribuindo principalmente para preencher a lacuna entre a demanda e a oferta de proteína. Mycoplasma gallisepticum é uma bactéria emergente que causa sérios problemas na indústria avícola do Paquistão. Um estudo transversal foi conduzido para avaliar a carga de M. gallisepticum em regiões de avicultura do Paquistão. Um total de 600 amostras de soro e 600 amostras de esfregaço foi coletado, 200 de cada frango de corte, poedeiras e aves reprodutoras nos distritos de Rawalpindi e Abbottabad. Amostras de soro foram analisadas por ELISA para soroprevalência. As zaragatoas foram cultivadas em meio Frey, seguido de PCR e sequenciação parcial do gene mgc2. Os resultados da soroprevalência de M. gallisepticum mostraram que as poedeiras (75%, n = 150) são mais positivas em comparação com matrizes (70%, n = 140) e frangos de corte (50%, n = 100). Colônias típicas de M. gallisepticum foram observadas em reprodutoras (26,5%), seguidas de poedeiras (21%) e frangos de corte (9%). Um total de 37,1% (n = 42) das amostras foi identificado como positivas por PCR de um total de 113 amostras positivas baseadas em cultura. Um total de seis isolados de M. gallisepticum do estudo atual mostrou 98-99% de similaridade com isolados relatados anteriormente com base no sequenciamento parcial do gene mgc2. O M. gallisepticum foi encontrado com alta prevalência em diferentes pães de aves. Os resultados deste estudo acrescentariam dados básicos e forneceriam orientação para o setor pecuário fortalecer uma estratégia de controle da micoplasmose em granjas avícolas.


Assuntos
Animais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/genética , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Galinhas , Estudos Transversais
5.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765550

RESUMO

We have evaluated the effects of different fish feeds on the body composition, growth, and enzyme activities of Labeo rohita (Rohu). In total, 240 fishes between the average weights of 24.77±2.15g were studied. The treatments were applied in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments of 60 fishes each. Treatments consisted of four different fish feeds [Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4)]. Body composition, growth performance, and enzyme activities were evaluated. There was a significant variation in performance of fishes fed with different type of feed; as fishes having Oryza feed showed the highest weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and best feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared to other groups that were considered to be significant (P ≤ 0.05). High net weight gain was obtained in T4 when compared with T2 and T3. FCR value of T4 was less than T1 but higher than T2, T3 and T2, which showed the lowest values. The specific growth rate was recorded as average in T4, but T2 led a high SGR than T3. Similarly, crude protein level and digestive enzymes activity was recorded significantly highest in fed with Oryza (T1) as compared to AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4). Water quality parameters were recorded significant in all treatments except pH and DO of treatment (T1), significantly different from other treatments. It was concluded that Rohu (Labeo rohita) could show a promising growth rate and protease enzyme activity when fed with the Oryza feed of 25% protein.(AU)


Avaliamos os efeitos de diferentes alimentos para peixes em relação à composição corporal, crescimento e atividades enzimáticas de Labeo rohita (Rohu). No total, foram estudados 240 peixes com pesos médios de 24,77 ± 2,15 g. Os tratamentos foram aplicados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos de 60 peixes cada. Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro alimentos diferentes para peixes: Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3) e Supreme (T4). Foram avaliados a composição corporal, o desempenho de crescimento e as atividades enzimáticas. Houve uma variação significativa no desempenho dos peixes alimentados com diferentes tipos de ração. Peixes com alimentação Oryza apresentaram maior ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento específico (SGR) e melhor taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR) em comparação com outros grupos que foram considerados significativos (P ≤ 0,05). Elevado ganho de peso líquido foi obtido em T4 quando comparado com T2 e T3. O valor da FCR de T4 foi menor que T1, mas maior que T2 e T3, que apresentaram os menores valores. A taxa de crescimento específico foi registrada como média em T4, mas T2 teve uma SGR alta do que T3. Da mesma forma, o nível de proteína bruta e a atividade das enzimas digestivas foram registrados significativamente mais altos nos peixes alimentados com Oryza (T1) em comparação com AMG (T2), Aqua (T3) e Supreme (T4). Os parâmetros de qualidade da água foram registrados como significativos em todos os tratamentos, exceto pH e OD do tratamento (T1), significativamente diferente dos demais tratamentos. Concluiu-se que Rohu (Labeo rohita) pode apresentar uma taxa de crescimento promissora e atividade da enzima protease quando alimentado com Oryza de 25% de proteína.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ativação Enzimática , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo
6.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-7, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765471

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is an important foodborne pathogen associated to food intoxication and other multiple infections in human being. Its presence in salted food is a serious issue due to its salt tolerance potential. A study was conducted to analyze the presence of enterotoxins producing drug resistance S. aureus in salted sea fish from Gwadar. Freshly persevered samples (n=50) of salted fish were subjected to analyze the presence of S. aureus using 16S rRNA and Nuc genes primers. The isolates were then evaluated for drug resistance and enterotoxins producing potential using specific primers for MecA (methicillin resistance gene), (SEA) staphylococcal enterotoxin A and (SEB) staphylococcal enterotoxin B genes. Total 13/50 (26%) of the samples were found positive for the presence of S. aureus, preliminary confirmed with biochemical profiling and finally with the help of target genes presence. The isolates were found showing 100% resistant to methicillin, which were molecularly confirmed by the presence of MecA gene present in genome. The isolates 5/13 (38%) were positive for SEA and 3/13 (23%) for SEB genes, whereas 2/13 (15%) were confirmed having both SEA and SEB genes in its genome. It was also confirmed that all the isolates were capable to form biofilm over the glass surfaces. It was concluded that the study confirmed the presence of enterotoxigenic methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aurous (MRSA) in salted fish product, that poses gross food safety concern. Preventive and control measures are necessary to handle this serious food safety concern.(AU)


Staphylococcus aureus é um importante patógeno de origem alimentar associado à intoxicação alimentar e outras infecções múltiplas em seres humanos. Sua presença em alimentos salgados é um problema sério devido ao seu potencial de tolerância ao sal. Um estudo foi realizado para analisar a presença de enterotoxinas produtoras de resistência a drogas S. aureus em peixes salgados do mar de Gwadar. Amostras recém-perseveradas (n = 50) de peixes salgados foram submetidas à análise da presença de S. aureus usando os primers dos genes 16S rRNA e Nuc. Os isolados foram então avaliados quanto à resistência a drogas e potencial de produção de enterotoxinas usando primers específicos para os genes MecA (gene de resistência à meticilina), (SEA) enterotoxina A estafilocócica e (SEB) enterotoxina B estafilocócica genes. Um total de 13/50 (26%) das amostras foi considerado positivas para a presença de S. aureus, confirmadas preliminarmente com perfis bioquímicos e finalmente com a ajuda da presença de genes-alvo. Os isolados foram encontrados com 100% de resistência à meticilina, os quais foram confirmados molecularmente pela presença do gene MecA no genoma. Os isolados 5/13 (38%) foram positivos para SEA e 3/13 (23%) para genes SEB, enquanto 2/13 (15%) foram confirmados tendo os genes SEA e SEB em seu genoma. Também foi verificado que todos os isolados foram capazes de formar biofilme sobre as superfícies de vidro. Concluiu-se que o estudo confirmou a presença de Staphylococcus aurous resistente à meticilina enterotoxigênica (MRSA) em produtos de peixe salgado, o que representa uma grande preocupação para a segurança alimentar. Medidas preventivas e de controle são necessárias para lidar com essa grave preocupação com a segurança alimentar.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Peixes/genética , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle
7.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-6, 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765431

RESUMO

The poultry sector in Pakistan is contributing mainly in bridging gap between demand and supply for protein. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an emerging bacterium causing serious problems in poultry industry of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the M. gallisepticum load in poultry populated regions of Pakistan. Total 600 serum and 600 swab samples were collected, 200 from each broiler, layers and breeders poultry in Rawalpindi and Abbottabad districts. Serum samples were analyzed through ELISA for seroprevalence. Swabs were cultured on Freys medium followed by PCR and partial mgc2 gene sequencing. Results of seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum showed that layers (75%, n=150) are more positive as compared to breeders (70%, n=140) and broilers (50%, n=100). Typical colonies of the M. gallisepticum were observed in breeder (26.5%), followed by layer (21%) and broilers (9%). A total of 37.1% (n=42) samples were identified positive through PCR out of total 113 cultured based positive samples. A total of six M. gallisepticum isolates of current study showed 98-99 percent similarity with previously reported isolates on the basis of mgc2 gene partial sequencing. The M. gallisepticum was found highly prevalent in different poultry breads. Results of this study would add into basic data and provide a direction for livestock sector to strengthen a control strategy for mycoplasmosis in poultry farms.(AU)


O setor avícola do Paquistão está contribuindo principalmente para preencher a lacuna entre a demanda e a oferta de proteína. Mycoplasma gallisepticum é uma bactéria emergente que causa sérios problemas na indústria avícola do Paquistão. Um estudo transversal foi conduzido para avaliar a carga de M. gallisepticum em regiões de avicultura do Paquistão. Um total de 600 amostras de soro e 600 amostras de esfregaço foi coletado, 200 de cada frango de corte, poedeiras e aves reprodutoras nos distritos de Rawalpindi e Abbottabad. Amostras de soro foram analisadas por ELISA para soroprevalência. As zaragatoas foram cultivadas em meio Frey, seguido de PCR e sequenciação parcial do gene mgc2. Os resultados da soroprevalência de M. gallisepticum mostraram que as poedeiras (75%, n = 150) são mais positivas em comparação com matrizes (70%, n = 140) e frangos de corte (50%, n = 100). Colônias típicas de M. gallisepticum foram observadas em reprodutoras (26,5%), seguidas de poedeiras (21%) e frangos de corte (9%). Um total de 37,1% (n = 42) das amostras foi identificado como positivas por PCR de um total de 113 amostras positivas baseadas em cultura. Um total de seis isolados de M. gallisepticum do estudo atual mostrou 98-99% de similaridade com isolados relatados anteriormente com base no sequenciamento parcial do gene mgc2. O M. gallisepticum foi encontrado com alta prevalência em diferentes pães de aves. Os resultados deste estudo acrescentariam dados básicos e forneceriam orientação para o setor pecuário fortalecer uma estratégia de controle da micoplasmose em granjas avícolas.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aves Domésticas/sangue , Aves Domésticas/genética , Mycoplasma/patogenicidade , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
8.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e256920, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475992

RESUMO

Natural products have long been proven very effective against various challenging diseases including cancer and bacterial infections. Galium tricorne is one of the important source of natural products, which has not been explored till date in spite of its profound ethnomedicinal prominence. The current study has been designed to explore the biological potential of G. tricorne and to extract and isolate chemical constituents from its aerial part and seeds respectively along with identification of their chemical constituents. Phytochemical screening was performed to figure out the presence of secondary metabolite in G. tricorne. Crude Methanolic extract (Gt.Crd), which was obtained from the aerial part while the fatty acids were extracted from the seeds, which were later on analyzed by GCMS. Similarly, Well Diffusion and MTT method were used for antibacterial activity and cancer cell line assay respectively. To evaluate the cytotoxic potential, brine shrimps were used. Likewise, in Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis a total number of 23 compounds were identified in Gt.Crd extract out of which 7 compounds were sorted out to have some sort of toxicity profile. In the same fashion, 5 fatty acids were identified in the seeds of G. tricorne. Moreover, among the fractions, chloroform fraction (Gt.Chf) exhibited greater zone of inhibition (ZOI) 20.37 mm followed by Gt.Crd 18.40 mm against S. aureus and S. pyogenes respectively. In cytotoxicity Gt.Chf was more active followed by ethyl acetate fraction (Gt.Eta) by exhibiting 88.32±0.62% (LC50=60 µg/mL) and 73.95±2.25% (LC50=80 µg/mL) respectively at 1000 µg/mL concentration of the tested sample. Gt.Chf exhibited greater cell line inhibitory activity (IC50=61 µg/mL) against HeLa cell line. Similarly, Gt.Crd displayed IC50 values of 167.84 µg/mL and 175.46 µg/mL against HeLa and NIH/3T3 cell line respectively. Based on the literature review and screenings, it may be concluded that the aerial part and seeds of G. tricorne are the rich sources of bioactive compounds. The results of the current study also authenticate the scientific background for the ethnomedicinal uses of G. tricorne.


Assuntos
Galium , Ácidos Graxos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Células HeLa , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes , Staphylococcus aureus
9.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e253605, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137839

RESUMO

Local and exotic germplasm of tomato remains a major source for genetic improvement. Assessment of such lines for biotic stresses particularly viral diseases are the most important criteria for selection in Pakistan, where Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) and Tomato Mosaic Virus (ToMV) are the major diseases/viruses. A set of 40 accessions (including indigenous Pakistani lines and exotic germplasm from Europe, the United States, and Asia) were evaluated for their resistance/infection response to ToMV with artificial inoculation under greenhouse conditions. Infection response was quantified through disease scoring and DAS-ELISA test (for ToMV). A subset of 24 lines, was further screened for TYLCV using disease scoring and TAS-ELISA. The tested lines showed significant variability for resistance to ToMV. Only one accession (Acc-17878) was resistant to the ToMV whereas seven accessions i.e. Acc-17890, AVR-261, CLN-312, AVR-321, EUR-333, CLN-352, and CLN-362 expressed resistance to TYLCV. Correlation between phenotypic evaluation was confirmed by the ELISA results in both diseases, although both tools complemented to assess the viral infection status. In future, tomato breeding programs must consider breeding for ToMV and TYLCV resistance (using identified germplasm in our study) so as to deliver virus resistant tomato varieties.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Begomovirus , Paquistão , Doenças das Plantas , Tobamovirus
10.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 78(1): 47-53, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35035043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related disorders are a major health problem among Indian male professionals because of the unique nature of socioeconomic and demographic conditions. Various studies have highlighted the association between alcohol-related disorders and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction, but the evidence accrued so far is inconclusive. In our study, we have assessed early morning serum total cortisol concentration among Indian adult male population affected with alcohol-related disorder. METHODS: A case-based cross-sectional study in which all consecutive patients admitted in the psychiatry ward of a tertiary care hospital with diagnosis of 'alcohol-related disorders', who were meeting all the inclusion criteria, and who had none of the exclusion criteria were part of the study. Diseased controls and healthy controls were chosen by applying strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Serum early morning (0400 h) total cortisol levels were estimated using automated quantitative enzyme-linked fluorescent assay technique. RESULTS: 98 psychiatric patients and 50 healthy controls were evaluated. Out of these 98 patients 66 patients were diagnosed cases of alcohol-related disorder. Morning serum total cortisol levels in patients with alcohol-related disorders was found to be significantly different from healthy controls. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that alcohol-related disorders are associated with chronic changes in HPA axis and significant alteration of early morning serum total cortisol levels were demonstrated in this group of patients.

11.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e252575, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932635

RESUMO

Increased anxiety and depressive symptoms have reported to be its association with long term illness. Because of having unwanted effects of newly available drugs, patients administering anxiolytic drugs usually discontinue the treatment before they are completely recovered. Therefore, there is a serious need to develop new anxiolytic drugs. The anxiolytic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei in animal models was assessed. 24 male mice (Mus musculus genus) were included in the study. Four groups were prepared and each group contained six animals. The groups were vehicle control, positive control (diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as two treatment groups receiving Agaricus blazei hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.50 mg/kg and 273.0 mg/kg orally. The Marble burying test, Nestlet shredding test and Light and Dark box test used to assess anxiolytic activity. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. while hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) was administered via oral route which exhibited marked reduction in number of marbles-burying as compared to vehicle control group. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. and Oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) exhibited significant decrease in nestlet shredding in comparison to vehicle control group. The oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.5mg/kg and 273mg/kg showed elevation in time spent in light box and was comparable to standard treated group while time spent by mice following oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei at a dose of 273.0 mg/kg also showed elevation and was found to be more near to standard treated group (diazepam 1 mg/kg, i.p.).


Assuntos
Agaricus , Comportamento Exploratório , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos
12.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 583, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacy practice education requires the development of proficiencies and an understanding of clinical microbiology. Learning in this area could be delivered using practical laboratory exercises, or potentially, simulation-based education. Simulation has previously successfully enhanced learning in health professional education. The current global climate due to COVID-19 has further highlighted the important role of technology-enhanced learning in delivering outcomes that meet the requisite learning objectives of a course. The aim of the present study was to compare the impact of a commercially available virtual microbiology simulation (VUMIE™) with a traditional wet laboratory (wetlab) on learner knowledge, skills and confidence in a second-year integrated pharmacotherapeutics course for Bachelor of Pharmacy students. METHODS: A randomised, crossover study was employed to determine whether the simulation intervention (VUMIE™) improves learning outcomes (knowledge, skills and confidence) of pharmacy students, when compared to a traditional wetlab intervention. Each student completed three 1-2 h length sessions, for both the wetlab and VUMIE™ interventions (6 sessions total). Data was collected using surveys deployed at baseline (pre-interventions), post-intervention 1 or 2 (VUMIE™ or wetlab) and endpoint (post-interventions 1 and 2). Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS Statistics 25 and Instat™ software. RESULTS: Response rates were approximately 50% at initial survey and approximately 25% at endpoint survey. VUMIE™ produced higher post-intervention knowledge scores for the multiple-choice questions compared to the wetlab, however, the highest score was achieved at endpoint. Both interventions produced statistically significant differences for mean scores compared to baseline (pre-VUMIE™ and wetlab) across the domains of knowledge, skills and confidence. VUMIE™ produced higher post-intervention mean scores for knowledge, skills and confidence compared to post-intervention mean scores for the wetlab, however there was no statistical significance between the mean score for the two interventions, thus the VUMIE™ activity produced learning outcomes comparable to the wetlab activity. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest VUMIE™ provides similar effects on students' knowledge, skills, and confidence as a wetlab. The simulation's implementation was not cost-prohibitive, provided students with a physically and psychologically safe learning environment, and the benefit of being able to repeat activities, supporting deliberate practice.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação em Farmácia , Farmácia , Estudantes de Farmácia , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 929-935, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605458

RESUMO

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has rapidly become the procedure of choice for the treatment of calculus cholecystitis for having clear advantage over open method in reducing surgical morbidity, postoperative pain and complication. But still patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy complain of considerable pain especially on first post-operative day necessitating use of better methods for postoperative analgesia. This quasi experimental study was done in Surgery Unit III, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital from July 2016 to June 2017 to assess the role of intraperitoneal normal saline instillation following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in relieving postoperative pain. In this study total 200 patients of calculus cholecystitis were enrolled according to inclusion and exclusion criteria and assigned equally into two groups by non-equivalent control group design. Both the control group and experimental group were managed according to the standard protocol and operated in routine operation theater. The experimental group (n=100) was additionally instilled with 25-30ml/kg body weight of normal saline at 37°C at the gallbladder bed and subdiaphragmatic space at the end of surgery and all the data were recorded in individual case record form. Among the sample most of the patients were between 25-60 years of ages with the peak age being between 43-51 years. Eighty one percent (81%) of the total patients were female with male female ratio being 1:5.25 in Control group and 1:3.54 in Experimental group. The VAS scores for visceral pain in experimental group were significantly less than that of control group at 6 hours (p<0.001), 12 hours (p<0.001), 24 hours (p<0.001) and 48 hours (p=0.026). The VAS scores for shoulder tip pain in experimental group were also significantly less than that of control group at 6 hours (p<0.001), 12 hours (p<0.018) and 24 hours (p=0.004). The administration of analgesics was also significantly less in the experimental group than in control group at 6 hours (p<0.001), 12 hours (p<0.001), 24 hours (p=0.313) and 48 hours (p=0.297) with no significant differences at 72 hours. The mean hospital stay in this study was 2.2±0.7 days in the control group and 2.1±0.8 days in the experimental group showing no significant difference (p>0.05). Intraperitoneal normal saline instillation following laparoscopic cholecystectomy may be an eminent choice for reducing postoperative pain improving patient's experience.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia Laparoscópica , Solução Salina , Adulto , Analgésicos , Anestésicos Locais , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle
14.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250402, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614125

RESUMO

We have evaluated the effects of different fish feeds on the body composition, growth, and enzyme activities of Labeo rohita (Rohu). In total, 240 fishes between the average weights of 24.77±2.15g were studied. The treatments were applied in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments of 60 fishes each. Treatments consisted of four different fish feeds [Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4)]. Body composition, growth performance, and enzyme activities were evaluated. There was a significant variation in performance of fishes fed with different type of feed; as fishes having Oryza feed showed the highest weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and best feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared to other groups that were considered to be significant (P ≤ 0.05). High net weight gain was obtained in T4 when compared with T2 and T3. FCR value of T4 was less than T1 but higher than T2, T3 and T2, which showed the lowest values. The specific growth rate was recorded as average in T4, but T2 led a high SGR than T3. Similarly, crude protein level and digestive enzymes activity was recorded significantly highest in fed with Oryza (T1) as compared to AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4). Water quality parameters were recorded significant in all treatments except pH and DO of treatment (T1), significantly different from other treatments. It was concluded that Rohu (Labeo rohita) could show a promising growth rate and protease enzyme activity when fed with the Oryza feed of 25% protein.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Peixes , Animais
15.
Immunohematology ; 37(3): 113-117, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591376

RESUMO

Genotyping can be used to identify rare blood group antigens and to solve suspected blood group discrepancies, particularly when serologic methods are limited. Unfortunately, only a few such studies have been performed in Pakistan. The present study was conducted to determine the frequency of Dombrock blood group alleles by genotyping samples from blood donors from the north of Pakistan. Blood samples were taken with consent from 300 blood donors; DNA was extracted and tested for DO*01 and DO*02 alleles by sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR-SSP), followed by gel electrophoresis. Allele frequencies were calculated. The observed and expected genotype frequencies were compared using the χ2 test. The allele frequencies for DO*01 and DO*02 were 0.40 and 0.60, respectively. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This study in Pakistani blood donors provides Dombrock blood group allele frequencies by PCR-SSP. This approach is efficient and economical and can be applied in developing countries. The findings can contribute to the development of in-house red blood cell panels, identification of rare blood types, and establishment of a national rare blood donor program.Genotyping can be used to identify rare blood group antigens and to solve suspected blood group discrepancies, particularly when serologic methods are limited. Unfortunately, only a few such studies have been performed in Pakistan. The present study was conducted to determine the frequency of Dombrock blood group alleles by genotyping samples from blood donors from the north of Pakistan. Blood samples were taken with consent from 300 blood donors; DNA was extracted and tested for DO*01 and DO*02 alleles by sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR-SSP), followed by gel electrophoresis. Allele frequencies were calculated. The observed and expected genotype frequencies were compared using the χ2 test. The allele frequencies for DO*01 and DO*02 were 0.40 and 0.60, respectively. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This study in Pakistani blood donors provides Dombrock blood group allele frequencies by PCR-SSP. This approach is efficient and economical and can be applied in developing countries. The findings can contribute to the development of in-house red blood cell panels, identification of rare blood types, and establishment of a national rare blood donor program.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos , Alelos , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Paquistão
16.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 353-359, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508343

RESUMO

Curcumin is a potent antimicrobial herb used traditionally as a spice in culinary. This study was designed to evaluate the antiviral effects of curcuma longa extract against H9 influenza virus. A total of 60 embryonated eggs were equally divided into 5 groups with 12 eggs in each group. Group 1 (G1) served as uninfected negative control. Whereas Group 2 (G2) was kept as positive control infected with known virus @ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Group 3 (G3) was offered Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml and H9N2 virus (@ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Similarly, Group 4 (G4) was inoculated with extract of Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml per egg, whereas Group 5 (G5) was given Ribazole @ 0.2 ml/ egg. The crude extract and virus were administered on the 15th day of incubation and were checked after every 24 hours up to 96th hour post inoculation by random selection of 3 eggs. Death and survival rate were noted in all groups. Gross and histopathological lesions were also observed. Results revealed that Curcuma longa extract had significantly (p<0.05) reduced the mortality rate of embryos infected with H9N2 virus. In G3, increased lymphocytes and mild fatty changes were seen in liver. Whereas, mature RBCs, plasma cells and some lymphoblast's were observed in Spleen. Similarly, the bursa follicles were with lymphocytic aggregation. The G4 (Curcuma longa) and G5 (Ribazole) were with maximum embryo survival after 48 and 72 h post inoculation. This study revealed potential antiviral activity of Curcuma longa against H9N2 influenza viruses and can be opted as alternative to antibiotics and antiviral drugs to minimize the antimicrobial resistance in human and animal population.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Curcuma , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2 , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Embrião de Galinha , Curcuma/química , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Reprod Immunol ; 148: 103369, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492567

RESUMO

This study investigated if immunomodulatory treatment improves the in-vitro fertilization (IVF) success rates of women with two or more recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL) and repeated implantation failures (RIF) with cellular immune abnormalities and thrombophilia. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 197 RPL patients who received immunomodulatory and anticoagulation treatment undergoing IVF cycles (fresh or frozen embryo transfer). Patients were divided into four groups; Group 1: women with RPL but without RIF, Group 2: women with RPL and RIF (≥3), Group 3: women with RPL after IVF cycles (>2) and without RIF, and Group 4: women with RPL after IVF cycles and RIF. Patients received immunomodulatory treatment with prednisone-only or prednisone and intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) and anticoagulation treatment with low molecular weight heparin and low dose aspirin. IVF success rates of study groups were compared to those of the historical controls. The pregnancy rate of IVF cycles with immunomodulatory treatment was significantly increased in all patients (48.2 % vs. 33.0 %, P < 0.001), Group 1 (54.2 % vs. 30.5 %, P < 0.005) and Group 2 (33.3 % vs. 11.0 %, P < 0.005) as compared to historical controls. The live birth rates per ET cycle were significantly improved for all patients (1.8 % vs. 39.6 %, P < 0.001), and study groups compared to their historical controls (Group 1, 43.1 % vs. 0 %; Group 2, 33.3 % vs. 2.5 %; Group 3, 45.5 % vs. 2.3 %; and Group 4, 16.7 % vs. 1.2 %, P < 0.001, respectively). Immunomodulatory and anticoagulation treatment significantly improved the reproductive outcomes of IVF cycles in women with a history of RPL and/or RIF of immune etiologies.


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Imunização , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247701, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468529

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is an important foodborne pathogen associated to food intoxication and other multiple infections in human being. Its presence in salted food is a serious issue due to its salt tolerance potential. A study was conducted to analyze the presence of enterotoxins producing drug resistance S. aureus in salted sea fish from Gwadar. Freshly persevered samples (n=50) of salted fish were subjected to analyze the presence of S. aureus using 16S rRNA and Nuc genes primers. The isolates were then evaluated for drug resistance and enterotoxins producing potential using specific primers for MecA (methicillin resistance gene), (SEA) staphylococcal enterotoxin A and (SEB) staphylococcal enterotoxin B genes. Total 13/50 (26%) of the samples were found positive for the presence of S. aureus, preliminary confirmed with biochemical profiling and finally with the help of target genes presence. The isolates were found showing 100% resistant to methicillin, which were molecularly confirmed by the presence of MecA gene present in genome. The isolates 5/13 (38%) were positive for SEA and 3/13 (23%) for SEB genes, whereas 2/13 (15%) were confirmed having both SEA and SEB genes in its genome. It was also confirmed that all the isolates were capable to form biofilm over the glass surfaces. It was concluded that the study confirmed the presence of enterotoxigenic methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aurous (MRSA) in salted fish product, that poses gross food safety concern. Preventive and control measures are necessary to handle this serious food safety concern.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Animais , Produtos Pesqueiros , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
19.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246514, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378682

RESUMO

The poultry sector in Pakistan is contributing mainly in bridging gap between demand and supply for protein. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an emerging bacterium causing serious problems in poultry industry of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the M. gallisepticum load in poultry populated regions of Pakistan. Total 600 serum and 600 swab samples were collected, 200 from each broiler, layers and breeders poultry in Rawalpindi and Abbottabad districts. Serum samples were analyzed through ELISA for seroprevalence. Swabs were cultured on Frey's medium followed by PCR and partial mgc2 gene sequencing. Results of seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum showed that layers (75%, n=150) are more positive as compared to breeders (70%, n=140) and broilers (50%, n=100). Typical colonies of the M. gallisepticum were observed in breeder (26.5%), followed by layer (21%) and broilers (9%). A total of 37.1% (n=42) samples were identified positive through PCR out of total 113 cultured based positive samples. A total of six M. gallisepticum isolates of current study showed 98-99 percent similarity with previously reported isolates on the basis of mgc2 gene partial sequencing. The M. gallisepticum was found highly prevalent in different poultry breads. Results of this study would add into basic data and provide a direction for livestock sector to strengthen a control strategy for mycoplasmosis in poultry farms.


Assuntos
Mycoplasma gallisepticum , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Estudos Transversais , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/genética , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
20.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(4): 464-469, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851665

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge, perceptions, and attitude of young doctors and nurses at Kind Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) Jeddah, KSA, regarding the effectiveness of telemedicine in dealing with the patients for either follow-up or continuous monitoring of chronic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out on the young doctors and nursing staff at KAUH. An online questionnaire addressing all the required fields, i.e., background essential demography, perceptions, acceptance, and knowledge regarding telemedicine's utility, was sent to the targeted population of health care workers. Completed responses were analyzed statistically as per study objectives. RESULTS: The response rate in our study was 85%. A total of 335 participants responded to our questionnaire. One hundred seventy-one (51.1%) were doctors, whereas one hundred sixty-four (48.9%) were the nursing staff. Among doctors, 50 (29.4%) were recent graduates, whereas, in the nursing side, 77 (46.7%) were the senior nursing students. The knowledge and attitude of the young nursing staff were relatively better than the senior staff taking part in the study and the trends were found statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Our study participants, being young, were enthusiastic, had good knowledge regarding the advantages and limitations of telemedicine in managing the selected groups of patients. Their perception and attitude were quite positive. This is an encouraging trend in the promotion of telemedicine as an established way of managing patients with special requirements in an effective way. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of telemedicine in emergencies to protect both patients and health care workers by reducing chronic patients' avoidable hospital visits.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem , Telemedicina , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Percepção , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
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