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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245867, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285615

RESUMO

Abstract Feral dogs are well-organized hunters of ungulates in many parts of the world, causing great damage to wildlife populations and ultimately to the ecosystem. In Pakistan, the impacts of feral dogs on the wildlife have not been documented yet. In a period of fifteen years (2006-2020), feral dogs have killed hundreds of threatened markhor in Chitral gol national park (CGNP), Pakistan. Despite direct predation other impacts including disturbance and competition with other natural predators, could compromise conservation and management efforts. The population of feral dogs seems to have been increased with the increase of dumping sites by communities. Our findings suggest that there are pressing needs of controlling the feral dogs population and eradicating them from the core zone of CGNP and surrounding buffer communities. Conventional culling of dogs should be coupled with modern techniques like castration and sterilization. Communities should be educated regarding the clean environment, proper disposal of home wastes and, biodiversity conservation.


Resumo Os cães ferozes são caçadores bem organizados de ungulados em muitas partes do mundo, causando grandes danos à população de animais selvagens e, em última instância, ao ecossistema. No Paquistão, os impactos dos cães selvagens na vida selvagem ainda não foram documentados. Em um período de 15 anos (2006-2020), cães selvagens mataram centenas de markhor ameaçados no parque nacional Chitral gol (CGNP), Paquistão. Apesar da predação direta, outros impactos, incluindo distúrbios e competições com outros predadores naturais podem comprometer os esforços de conservação e manejo. A população de cães selvagens parece ter aumentado com o aumento dos locais de despejo pelas comunidades. Nossas descobertas sugerem que há necessidades urgentes para controlar a população de cães selvagens e erradicá-los da zona central do CGNP e das comunidades-tampão vizinhas. O abate convencional de cães deve ser combinado com técnicas modernas como castração e esterilização. As comunidades devem ser educadas sobre o meio ambiente limpo, o descarte adequado de resíduos domésticos e a conservação da biodiversidade.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244311, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285616

RESUMO

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado ​​para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados ​​para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247018, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285617

RESUMO

Abstract The Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda) belongs to family corvidae, order Passeriformes which includes about 100 species. The current study was conducted to gather information about the Population distribution and habitat analysis of D. vagabunda at District Abbottabad, Pakistan. The data were collected on monthly basis both morning and evening times (2018-2019). "The ''Point count Method" was used for population estimation and ''Quadrates Method" for habitat analysis of study area. The result shows an average month-wise population density of D. vagabunda was maximum at Jhangra 0.14±0.039/ha, whereas minimum at Havelian 0.11±0.022/ha. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among monthly population densities of D. vagabunda, however, a significant difference (p<0.05) was found between morning and evening times population of the specie. The present study revealed that importance value index (IVI) of plants species at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 59.6±12.6, 50.1±6.9, 53.4±6.3, 66.8±10 and 60.1±7.7. Likewise, the frequency of shrubs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 33.3±4.2, 45±9.4, 46.7±8.2, 55.6±22.2 and 37.5±8.5. Similarly, the frequency of herbs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 40.4±6.0, 37.5±5.6, 53.3±7.4, 48.5±5.2 and 46.9±7.4 respectively. Our results show the study area as suitable habitat for D. vagabunda.


Resumo A trepadeira Rufous (Dendrocitta vagabunda) pertence à família corvidae, ordem Passeriformes que inclui cerca de 100 espécies. O estudo atual foi realizado para reunir informações sobre a distribuição da população e análise do habitat de D. vagabunda no distrito de Abbottabad, Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados mensalmente pela manhã e à noite (2018-2019). O "método de contagem de pontos" foi usado para estimativa da população e o "método dos quadrados" para análise de habitat da área de estudo. O resultado mostra que uma densidade populacional média mensal de D. vagabunda foi máxima em Jhangra 0,14 ± 0,039 / ha, enquanto a mínima em Havelian 0,11 ± 0,022/ha. Não houve diferença significativa (p> 0,05) entre as densidades populacionais mensais de D. vagabunda, entretanto foi encontrada diferença significativa (p <0,05) entre os períodos matutino e noturno da população da espécie. O presente estudo revelou que o índice de valor de importância (IVI) das espécies de plantas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 59,6 ± 12,6, 50,1 ± 6,9, 53,4 ± 6,3, 66,8 ± 10 e 60,1 ± 7,7. Da mesma forma, a frequência de arbustos em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 33,3 ± 4,2, 45 ± 9,4, 46,7 ± 8,2, 55,6 ± 22,2 e 37,5 ± 8,5. Da mesma forma, a frequência de ervas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi: 40,4 ± 6,0, 37,5 ± 5,6, 53,3 ± 7,4, 48,5 ± 5,2 e 46,9 ± 7,4, respectivamente. Nossos resultados mostram a área de estudo como habitat adequado para D. vagabunda.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246514, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285640

RESUMO

Abstract The poultry sector in Pakistan is contributing mainly in bridging gap between demand and supply for protein. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an emerging bacterium causing serious problems in poultry industry of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the M. gallisepticum load in poultry populated regions of Pakistan. Total 600 serum and 600 swab samples were collected, 200 from each broiler, layers and breeders poultry in Rawalpindi and Abbottabad districts. Serum samples were analyzed through ELISA for seroprevalence. Swabs were cultured on Frey's medium followed by PCR and partial mgc2 gene sequencing. Results of seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum showed that layers (75%, n=150) are more positive as compared to breeders (70%, n=140) and broilers (50%, n=100). Typical colonies of the M. gallisepticum were observed in breeder (26.5%), followed by layer (21%) and broilers (9%). A total of 37.1% (n=42) samples were identified positive through PCR out of total 113 cultured based positive samples. A total of six M. gallisepticum isolates of current study showed 98-99 percent similarity with previously reported isolates on the basis of mgc2 gene partial sequencing. The M. gallisepticum was found highly prevalent in different poultry breads. Results of this study would add into basic data and provide a direction for livestock sector to strengthen a control strategy for mycoplasmosis in poultry farms.


Resumo O setor avícola do Paquistão está contribuindo principalmente para preencher a lacuna entre a demanda e a oferta de proteína. Mycoplasma gallisepticum é uma bactéria emergente que causa sérios problemas na indústria avícola do Paquistão. Um estudo transversal foi conduzido para avaliar a carga de M. gallisepticum em regiões de avicultura do Paquistão. Um total de 600 amostras de soro e 600 amostras de esfregaço foi coletado, 200 de cada frango de corte, poedeiras e aves reprodutoras nos distritos de Rawalpindi e Abbottabad. Amostras de soro foram analisadas por ELISA para soroprevalência. As zaragatoas foram cultivadas em meio Frey, seguido de PCR e sequenciação parcial do gene mgc2. Os resultados da soroprevalência de M. gallisepticum mostraram que as poedeiras (75%, n = 150) são mais positivas em comparação com matrizes (70%, n = 140) e frangos de corte (50%, n = 100). Colônias típicas de M. gallisepticum foram observadas em reprodutoras (26,5%), seguidas de poedeiras (21%) e frangos de corte (9%). Um total de 37,1% (n = 42) das amostras foi identificado como positivas por PCR de um total de 113 amostras positivas baseadas em cultura. Um total de seis isolados de M. gallisepticum do estudo atual mostrou 98-99% de similaridade com isolados relatados anteriormente com base no sequenciamento parcial do gene mgc2. O M. gallisepticum foi encontrado com alta prevalência em diferentes pães de aves. Os resultados deste estudo acrescentariam dados básicos e forneceriam orientação para o setor pecuário fortalecer uma estratégia de controle da micoplasmose em granjas avícolas.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243511, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285591

RESUMO

Abstract Vegetable oils have their specific physicochemical properties due to which they are playing vital role in human nutritional diet for health benefits. Cottonseed oil is obtained from various species of cotton seeds that are famous to be grown mainly for their fiber quality. The most prominently used specie is Gossypium hirsutum. It is obvious that the seeds of different variety of cotton vary as grown in diverse agroclimatic conditions with respect to oil, fats and protein contents. Cottonseed oil is routinely used for cooking and food manufacturing products. Cottonseed oil obtained after proper extraction/processing steps from crude state to refined oil in a variety of ways. Cotton crop is considered for their dual-use purpose, for fiber quality and oil production to promote health benefits in the world. Keeping in view the above facts, this review clearly demonstrated an overview about physicochemical and functional properties of cottonseed oil to promote health benefits associated with the use of this oil. The overall characteristics and all concerned health benefits of CSO will further improve their usefulness is a compact way. We have summarized a brief multi-dimensional features of CSO in all aspects up to the best of our knowledge for the end researchers who can further research in the respective aspect.


Resumo Os óleos vegetais têm propriedades físico-químicas específicas que desempenham um papel vital na dieta nutricional humana em benefício à saúde. O óleo de semente de algodão, utilizado rotineiramente no preparo e na fabricação de alimentos, é obtido através de várias espécies de sementes de algodão, famosas pela alta qualidade de sua fibra., cuja espécie mais utilizada é Gossypium hirsutum. As sementes variam, em relação ao teor do óleo, da gordura e das proteínas, de acordo com o cultivo e as diversas condições agroclimáticas. O óleo de algodão é obtido após etapas adequadas de extração das sementes e processamento do estado bruto ao refinado. Assim, a presente revisão demonstra, de maneira geral, as propriedades físico-químicas e funcionais do óleo de semente de algodão e seus benefícios à saúde humana, resumindo suas características multidimensionais. As características gerais e todos os benefícios do composto podem melhorar ainda mais se utilizadas de forma compacta, auxiliando futuros pesquisadores.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762574

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This research was aimed to explore the helminth parasitic diseases in Schizothorax plagiostomus (the snow trout) from river Swat and river Panjkora, Pakistan. Collection of 360 fish specimens have done from the lower, middle and upper reaches of both the rivers through gill nets, cast nets, dragon nets and hooks. All the samples were examined in the University of Malakand, Zoology Department for helminth parasites during the months from January 2015 to December 2016. Of the total examined fish samples 21.9% (n=79) were infected with Rhabdochona spp including 17.7% (n=32/180) in river Swat and 26.6% (n=47/180) in river Panjkora. Highest month-wise prevalence (p=0.09878,p 0.05) was reported in May (30%), then by February and October each (26.6%) while the lowest during August (13.3%). Highest prevalence (p=0.9723, p 0.05) was reported in summer season (26.6%), while lowest in the winter season (20%). Adults were highly infected (p= 0.0001) in prevalence (63.7%) followed by sub-adults (13.2%) while no infection was found in juvenile specimens. Females fish samples had higher (p=0.0277, p>0.05) prevalence (28.8%) than males (16.6%). Fishes of the lower reaches had highest (p=0.0029, P>0.05) prevalence (31.7%) followed by middle reaches (16.5%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in samples of fish collected from upper reaches (9.87%). Present study address that Rhabdochona spp in the intestine of snow trout has a long term relationship and call as a natural infection in cyprinids and zoonotic risk to human.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo explorar as doenças parasitárias por helmintos em Schizothorax plagiostomus (a truta das neves) do rio Swat e do rio Panjkora, Paquistão. A coleta de 360 espécimes de peixes foi feita nos trechos inferior, médio e superior de ambos os rios por meio de redes de emalhar, de lançamento, de dragão e anzóis. Todas as amostras foram examinadas na Universidade de Malakand, Departamento de Zoologia, para helmintos parasitas durante os meses de janeiro de 2015 a dezembro de 2016. Do total de amostras de peixes examinadas, 21,9% (n = 79) estavam infectados com Rhabdochona spp, incluindo 17,7% (n = 32/180) no rio Swat e 26,6% (n = 47/180) no rio Panjkora. A maior prevalência no mês (p = 0,09878, p 0,05) foi relatada em maio (30%), depois em fevereiro e outubro cada (26,6%), enquanto a menor em agosto (13,3%). A maior prevalência (p = 0,9723, p 0,05) foi relatada no verão (26,6%), enquanto a menor no inverno (20%). Os adultos foram altamente infectados (p = 0,0001) na prevalência (63,7%), seguidos por subadultos (13,2%), enquanto nenhuma infecção foi encontrada em espécimes juvenis. As amostras de peixes do sexo feminino tiveram maior (p = 0,0277, p> 0,05) prevalência (28,8%) do que o masculino (16,6%). Os peixes do curso inferior tiveram maior (p = 0,0029, P> 0,05) prevalência (31,7%) seguida do curso médio (16,5%), enquanto a menor prevalência foi observada em amostras de peixes coletados do curso superior (9,87%). O presente estudo aborda que Rhabdochona spp no intestino da truta das neves tem uma relação de longo prazo e pode ser considerada uma infecção natural em ciprinídeos e risco zoonótico para humanos.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238874, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249231

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This research was aimed to explore the helminth parasitic diseases in Schizothorax plagiostomus (the snow trout) from river Swat and river Panjkora, Pakistan. Collection of 360 fish specimens have done from the lower, middle and upper reaches of both the rivers through gill nets, cast nets, dragon nets and hooks. All the samples were examined in the University of Malakand, Zoology Department for helminth parasites during the months from January 2015 to December 2016. Of the total examined fish samples 21.9% (n=79) were infected with Rhabdochona spp including 17.7% (n=32/180) in river Swat and 26.6% (n=47/180) in river Panjkora. Highest month-wise prevalence (p=0.09878,p<0.05) was reported in May (30%), then by February and October each (26.6%) while the lowest during August (13.3%). Highest prevalence (p=0.9723, p<0.05) was reported in summer season (26.6%), while lowest in the winter season (20%). Adults were highly infected (p=< 0.0001) in prevalence (63.7%) followed by sub-adults (13.2%) while no infection was found in juvenile specimens. Females fish samples had higher (p=0.0277, p>0.05) prevalence (28.8%) than males (16.6%). Fishes of the lower reaches had highest (p=0.0029, P>0.05) prevalence (31.7%) followed by middle reaches (16.5%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in samples of fish collected from upper reaches (9.87%). Present study address that Rhabdochona spp in the intestine of snow trout has a long term relationship and call as a natural infection in cyprinids and zoonotic risk to human.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo explorar as doenças parasitárias por helmintos em Schizothorax plagiostomus (a truta das neves) do rio Swat e do rio Panjkora, Paquistão. A coleta de 360 ​​espécimes de peixes foi feita nos trechos inferior, médio e superior de ambos os rios por meio de redes de emalhar, de lançamento, de dragão e anzóis. Todas as amostras foram examinadas na Universidade de Malakand, Departamento de Zoologia, para helmintos parasitas durante os meses de janeiro de 2015 a dezembro de 2016. Do total de amostras de peixes examinadas, 21,9% (n = 79) estavam infectados com Rhabdochona spp, incluindo 17,7% (n = 32/180) no rio Swat e 26,6% (n = 47/180) no rio Panjkora. A maior prevalência no mês (p = 0,09878, p <0,05) foi relatada em maio (30%), depois em fevereiro e outubro cada (26,6%), enquanto a menor em agosto (13,3%). A maior prevalência (p = 0,9723, p <0,05) foi relatada no verão (26,6%), enquanto a menor no inverno (20%). Os adultos foram altamente infectados (p = <0,0001) na prevalência (63,7%), seguidos por subadultos (13,2%), enquanto nenhuma infecção foi encontrada em espécimes juvenis. As amostras de peixes do sexo feminino tiveram maior (p = 0,0277, p> 0,05) prevalência (28,8%) do que o masculino (16,6%). Os peixes do curso inferior tiveram maior (p = 0,0029, P> 0,05) prevalência (31,7%) seguida do curso médio (16,5%), enquanto a menor prevalência foi observada em amostras de peixes coletados do curso superior (9,87%). O presente estudo aborda que Rhabdochona spp no ​​intestino da truta das neves tem uma relação de longo prazo e pode ser considerada uma infecção natural em ciprinídeos e risco zoonótico para humanos.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(12): 125001, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597087

RESUMO

Inertial confinement fusion implosions designed to have minimal fluid motion at peak compression often show significant linear flows in the laboratory, attributable per simulations to percent-level imbalances in the laser drive illumination symmetry. We present experimental results which intentionally varied the mode 1 drive imbalance by up to 4% to test hydrodynamic predictions of flows and the resultant imploded core asymmetries and performance, as measured by a combination of DT neutron spectroscopy and high-resolution x-ray core imaging. Neutron yields decrease by up to 50%, and anisotropic neutron Doppler broadening increases by 20%, in agreement with simulations. Furthermore, a tracer jet from the capsule fill-tube perturbation that is entrained by the hot-spot flow confirms the average flow speeds deduced from neutron spectroscopy.

9.
Cancer Control ; 28: 10732748211039764, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radon is a predominant indoor air pollutant and second leading cause of lung cancer in radon-prone areas. Despite the gravity of the health risk, residents in Canada have inadequate perception and taken minimal protective actions. Better perception of a risk motivates people to take preventive measures. Scholarship about radon health risk perception is lacking in Canada. We applied a mixed methods population health approach to explore the determinants shaping perception and actions of a resident population in Canada. METHODS: We conducted mixed surveys (n = 557) and qualitative bilingual interviews (n = 35) with both homeowners and tenants of Ottawa-Gatineau areas. The study explored residents' risk perception and adaptations factors. Descriptive, correlational and regression analyses described and established associations between quantitative variables. Thematic, inductive analyses identified themes in the qualitative data. A mixed methods analysis triangulated both results to draw a holistic perception of the health risk. RESULTS: Residents' quantitative perceptions of radon health risk, smoking at home, synergistic risk perception, social influence and care for family were associated significantly with their intention to test for radon levels in their home, actual testing and mitigation. These results were explained further with the qualitative findings. Residents who had dual cognitive and emotional awareness of the risk were motivated enough to take preventive actions. Caring for family, knowing others who contracted lung cancer and financial capability were enablers, whereas lack of awareness and homeownership, cost of mitigation and stigma were obstacles to preventive actions. We also explored the dual subjective and objective aspects of risk perception that are influenced by micro- and macro-level determinants. CONCLUSIONS: Inducing protective action to reduce risk requires comprehensive population-level interventions considering dual perceptions of the risk that can modify the risk determinants. Future research can explore the dual aspects of risk perception and unequal distribution of the risk factors.

10.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 929-935, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605458

RESUMO

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has rapidly become the procedure of choice for the treatment of calculus cholecystitis for having clear advantage over open method in reducing surgical morbidity, postoperative pain and complication. But still patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy complain of considerable pain especially on first post-operative day necessitating use of better methods for postoperative analgesia. This quasi experimental study was done in Surgery Unit III, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital from July 2016 to June 2017 to assess the role of intraperitoneal normal saline instillation following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in relieving postoperative pain. In this study total 200 patients of calculus cholecystitis were enrolled according to inclusion and exclusion criteria and assigned equally into two groups by non-equivalent control group design. Both the control group and experimental group were managed according to the standard protocol and operated in routine operation theater. The experimental group (n=100) was additionally instilled with 25-30ml/kg body weight of normal saline at 37°C at the gallbladder bed and subdiaphragmatic space at the end of surgery and all the data were recorded in individual case record form. Among the sample most of the patients were between 25-60 years of ages with the peak age being between 43-51 years. Eighty one percent (81%) of the total patients were female with male female ratio being 1:5.25 in Control group and 1:3.54 in Experimental group. The VAS scores for visceral pain in experimental group were significantly less than that of control group at 6 hours (p<0.001), 12 hours (p<0.001), 24 hours (p<0.001) and 48 hours (p=0.026). The VAS scores for shoulder tip pain in experimental group were also significantly less than that of control group at 6 hours (p<0.001), 12 hours (p<0.018) and 24 hours (p=0.004). The administration of analgesics was also significantly less in the experimental group than in control group at 6 hours (p<0.001), 12 hours (p<0.001), 24 hours (p=0.313) and 48 hours (p=0.297) with no significant differences at 72 hours. The mean hospital stay in this study was 2.2±0.7 days in the control group and 2.1±0.8 days in the experimental group showing no significant difference (p>0.05). Intraperitoneal normal saline instillation following laparoscopic cholecystectomy may be an eminent choice for reducing postoperative pain improving patient's experience.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia Laparoscópica , Solução Salina , Adulto , Analgésicos , Anestésicos Locais , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle
11.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 1146-1153, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605489

RESUMO

Hydrocephalus (HCP) is occurred when there is inequality in the formation and absorption of CSF to such a level which causes accumulation of fluid and causing raised intracranial pressure. Hydrocephalus is the most frequent neurosurgical problem encountered in the paediatric age group. CSF diversion surgically is needed as treatment for certain condition. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt (VPS) are most widely used CSF diversion procedure. Therefore, this study was conducted for comparing the surgical outcome of ETV and VP shunt in obstructive hydrocephalus. This is a prospective experimental study conducted in the Department of Neurosurgery, Dhaka Medical College and Hospital (DMCH) and Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2017 to December 2019. Paediatric patients of both sex and 6 months to 18 years of age with obstructive hydrocephalus undergone endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) or ventriculo-peritoneal shunt (VP shunt) were included after fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria. The patients divided into two groups (Group A and Group B). The Group A included 30 patients who treated by Endoscopic third ventriculostomy and the Group B include 30 patients, who was treated by Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. Surgical outcome was analyzed in two procedures separately. In Group A (ETV group) symptomatic improvement, GCS score improves earlier and post-operative complications relatively less than Group B (VP shunt group). But in VP shunt group 3 months follow up reveals- improvement of papilledema, Occipital frontal circumference (OFC) regression and fontanelle size improvement was more than that of ETV group. This study concluded with suggesting that Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is technologically superior surgical technique than VP shunt. Though ETV showed relatively more immediate procedural failure and intraventricular hemorrhage but long-term outcome is better and also associated with lower incidence of infection and re-operation in comparison to VP shunt.


Assuntos
Hidrocefalia , Terceiro Ventrículo , Bangladesh , Criança , Drenagem , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 1154-1162, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605490

RESUMO

Determinants of pre-hospital delay after myocardial infarction, strictly among South-Asian rural community, till now is largely unknown. And Bangladesh is not an exception. It is a fact that though around two third of its population still live in villages, we do not know what factors are having influence on such delay. To find out these primers of time consumption before seeking medical help, this is a picture of a medical college hospital situated in a rural precinct. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among 98 patients came with Myocardial Infarction (MI) who had met inclusion and exclusion criteria from July 2019 and December 2019. Both STEMI & NSTEMI patients were selected as they have similar attributes. Data was collected in the coronary care unit using a preformed questionnaire. Among 98 MI patients, where 16 female and 82 male patients had average age 53±12 years. Average income rural community was around 100 USD. Almost 50% of sample were illiterate or below 5th grade. On average 6.6 hours (95% CI: 3.5-12.3) were required to reach CCU after symptom onset, whereas distance to first medical contact (FMC) was about 10.2 Km (95% CI: 6.4-16.2). Median distance to nearest PCI-capable hospital was 140 Km (IQR- 20 Km). Only 28% of patients could reach hospital within 2 hours, where 85% had onset of symptom while they were at home. Tertiary level medical college (74.5%) followed by Upazilla (Sub-urban) government health complex (22.4%) were frequent site of FMC. Principle mode of transport to hospital was CNG-three-wheeler (75% of cases). Logistic regression analysis showed only low literacy was as significant predictor about more than 2 hours pre-hospital delay (OR=2.58; p=0.043). Other factors such as low income (OR=2.51; p=0.126), diabetes mellitus (OR=2.99; p=0.059), female sex (OR=1.56; p=0.753), house wife (OR=1.88; p=0.547), previous MI (OR=1.52; p=1.000), symptom ignorance (OR=2.14; p=0.455) increases pre-hospital delay and distance to FMC <10 Km (OR=0.44; p=0.079) no significant prediction of pre-hospital delay after myocardial infarction. As rural community has less access to education low literacy has a significant impact on pre-hospital delay after myocardial infarction. So measures should be taken in rural areas through patient education and social awareness program regarding MI symptom and danger of delayed medical attention.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , População Rural , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250402, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614125

RESUMO

We have evaluated the effects of different fish feeds on the body composition, growth, and enzyme activities of Labeo rohita (Rohu). In total, 240 fishes between the average weights of 24.77±2.15g were studied. The treatments were applied in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments of 60 fishes each. Treatments consisted of four different fish feeds [Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4)]. Body composition, growth performance, and enzyme activities were evaluated. There was a significant variation in performance of fishes fed with different type of feed; as fishes having Oryza feed showed the highest weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and best feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared to other groups that were considered to be significant (P ≤ 0.05). High net weight gain was obtained in T4 when compared with T2 and T3. FCR value of T4 was less than T1 but higher than T2, T3 and T2, which showed the lowest values. The specific growth rate was recorded as average in T4, but T2 led a high SGR than T3. Similarly, crude protein level and digestive enzymes activity was recorded significantly highest in fed with Oryza (T1) as compared to AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4). Water quality parameters were recorded significant in all treatments except pH and DO of treatment (T1), significantly different from other treatments. It was concluded that Rohu (Labeo rohita) could show a promising growth rate and protease enzyme activity when fed with the Oryza feed of 25% protein.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Peixes , Animais
14.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e251004, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614126

RESUMO

The supplementation of Selenium-enriched probiotics is effective in reducing oxidative stress and maintaining meat quality stability in broiler chicken especially under heat stress. An experimental study was conducted to perform Comparative analysis of Selenium yeast with inorganic Se in broilers under heat stress. A total of 120 broilers chicks of one day were assigned to 4 groups each consisting 30 chicks fed on same basal diet but different selenium sources. The basal diet of group D1 was not supplemented with Se source (Negative control), group D2 basal diet was supplemented with inorganic selenium (Sodium selenite 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase), group D3 basal diet was supplemented with commercially available organic selenium (Seleno-methionine 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase) and group D4 basal diet was supplemented with self-developed organic selenium (Se-enriched yeast 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase). The performance parameters i.e. feed intake (FI), live body weight (BW) and FCR were not significantly (p>0.05) effected by selenium supplementation in the starter phase but were significantly (p<0.05) effected in the finisher phase. Selenium supplementation significantly (p<0.05) effected serum Se level in different supplemented groups. Higher serum Se value (58.20±0.06) was recorded in D4 group. Similarly significantly lower selenium value was recorded for D4 and higher was recorded for D1 (11.36±0.08). However lower serum Paraoxonase (PON) value was recorded for D4 (13.24±0.01) and higher for D1 (13.33±0.03). Comparatively self-developed Se enriched yeast increased the Se accumulation and improved antioxidant system. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was found higher in D4 (12.333±0.03) followed by D3, D2 and D1 respectively. Whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower (p<0.05) in D4 (0.1437±0.003) followed by D3 (0.1457±0.002). Selenium supplementation increased the bird's survival rate. Birds fed on Se enriched yeast showed higher Se deposition and better antioxidant capacity as compared to other sources of selenium. Se-enriched yeast displayed an improved result on Se deposition in tissues, and oxidative capacity, meat tenderness and immune response level as compared to other sources of selenium.


Assuntos
Selênio , Animais , Antioxidantes , Galinhas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e053791, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We designed a population-based survey in Kashmir to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies in the general population aged 18 years and above. SETTING: The survey was conducted among 110 villages and urban wards across 10 districts in Kashmir from 17 October 2020 to 4 November 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 18 years and above were eligible to be included in the survey. Serum samples were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We labelled assay results equal to or above the cut-off index value of 1.4 as positive for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies. Seroprevalence estimates were adjusted for the sampling design and assay characteristics. RESULTS: Out of 6397 eligible individuals enumerated, 6315 (98.7%) agreed to participate. The final analysis was done on 6230 participants. Seroprevalence adjusted for the sampling design and assay characteristics was 36.7% (95% CI 34.3% to 39.2%). Seroprevalence was higher among the older population. Among seropositive individuals, 10.2% (247/2415) reported a history of COVID-19-like symptoms. Out of 474 symptomatic individuals, 233 (49.2%) reported having been tested. We estimated an infection fatality rate of 0.034%. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 7 months of the COVID-19 epidemic in Kashmir Valley, approximately 37% of individuals were infected. The reported number of COVID-19 cases was only a small fraction of the estimated number of infections. A more efficient surveillance system with strengthened reporting of COVID-19 cases and deaths is warranted.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
16.
Immunohematology ; 37(3): 113-117, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591376

RESUMO

Genotyping can be used to identify rare blood group antigens and to solve suspected blood group discrepancies, particularly when serologic methods are limited. Unfortunately, only a few such studies have been performed in Pakistan. The present study was conducted to determine the frequency of Dombrock blood group alleles by genotyping samples from blood donors from the north of Pakistan. Blood samples were taken with consent from 300 blood donors; DNA was extracted and tested for DO*01 and DO*02 alleles by sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR-SSP), followed by gel electrophoresis. Allele frequencies were calculated. The observed and expected genotype frequencies were compared using the χ2 test. The allele frequencies for DO*01 and DO*02 were 0.40 and 0.60, respectively. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This study in Pakistani blood donors provides Dombrock blood group allele frequencies by PCR-SSP. This approach is efficient and economical and can be applied in developing countries. The findings can contribute to the development of in-house red blood cell panels, identification of rare blood types, and establishment of a national rare blood donor program.Genotyping can be used to identify rare blood group antigens and to solve suspected blood group discrepancies, particularly when serologic methods are limited. Unfortunately, only a few such studies have been performed in Pakistan. The present study was conducted to determine the frequency of Dombrock blood group alleles by genotyping samples from blood donors from the north of Pakistan. Blood samples were taken with consent from 300 blood donors; DNA was extracted and tested for DO*01 and DO*02 alleles by sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR-SSP), followed by gel electrophoresis. Allele frequencies were calculated. The observed and expected genotype frequencies were compared using the χ2 test. The allele frequencies for DO*01 and DO*02 were 0.40 and 0.60, respectively. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This study in Pakistani blood donors provides Dombrock blood group allele frequencies by PCR-SSP. This approach is efficient and economical and can be applied in developing countries. The findings can contribute to the development of in-house red blood cell panels, identification of rare blood types, and establishment of a national rare blood donor program.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos , Alelos , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Paquistão
17.
Anaesthesia ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545943

RESUMO

Haematoma after thyroid surgery can lead to airway obstruction and death. We therefore developed guidelines to improve the safety of peri-operative care of patients undergoing thyroid surgery. We conducted a systematic review to inform recommendations, with expert consensus used in the absence of high-quality evidence, and a Delphi study was used to ratify recommendations. We highlight the importance of multidisciplinary team management and make recommendations in key areas including: monitoring; recognition; post-thyroid surgery emergency box; management of suspected haematoma following thyroid surgery; cognitive aids; post-haematoma evacuation care; day-case thyroid surgery; training; consent and pre-operative communication; postoperative communication; and institutional policies. The guidelines support a multidisciplinary approach to the management of suspected haematoma following thyroid surgery through oxygenation and evaluation; haematoma evacuation; and tracheal intubation. They have been produced with materials to support implementation. While these guidelines are specific to thyroid surgery, the principles may apply to other forms of neck surgery. These guidelines and recommendations provided are the first in this area and it is hoped they will support multidisciplinary team working, improving care and outcomes for patients having thyroid surgery.

18.
J Reprod Immunol ; 148: 103369, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492567

RESUMO

This study investigated if immunomodulatory treatment improves the in-vitro fertilization (IVF) success rates of women with two or more recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL) and repeated implantation failures (RIF) with cellular immune abnormalities and thrombophilia. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 197 RPL patients who received immunomodulatory and anticoagulation treatment undergoing IVF cycles (fresh or frozen embryo transfer). Patients were divided into four groups; Group 1: women with RPL but without RIF, Group 2: women with RPL and RIF (≥3), Group 3: women with RPL after IVF cycles (>2) and without RIF, and Group 4: women with RPL after IVF cycles and RIF. Patients received immunomodulatory treatment with prednisone-only or prednisone and intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) and anticoagulation treatment with low molecular weight heparin and low dose aspirin. IVF success rates of study groups were compared to those of the historical controls. The pregnancy rate of IVF cycles with immunomodulatory treatment was significantly increased in all patients (48.2 % vs. 33.0 %, P < 0.001), Group 1 (54.2 % vs. 30.5 %, P < 0.005) and Group 2 (33.3 % vs. 11.0 %, P < 0.005) as compared to historical controls. The live birth rates per ET cycle were significantly improved for all patients (1.8 % vs. 39.6 %, P < 0.001), and study groups compared to their historical controls (Group 1, 43.1 % vs. 0 %; Group 2, 33.3 % vs. 2.5 %; Group 3, 45.5 % vs. 2.3 %; and Group 4, 16.7 % vs. 1.2 %, P < 0.001, respectively). Immunomodulatory and anticoagulation treatment significantly improved the reproductive outcomes of IVF cycles in women with a history of RPL and/or RIF of immune etiologies.

19.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 353-359, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508343

RESUMO

Curcumin is a potent antimicrobial herb used traditionally as a spice in culinary. This study was designed to evaluate the antiviral effects of curcuma longa extract against H9 influenza virus. A total of 60 embryonated eggs were equally divided into 5 groups with 12 eggs in each group. Group 1 (G1) served as uninfected negative control. Whereas Group 2 (G2) was kept as positive control infected with known virus @ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Group 3 (G3) was offered Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml and H9N2 virus (@ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Similarly, Group 4 (G4) was inoculated with extract of Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml per egg, whereas Group 5 (G5) was given Ribazole @ 0.2 ml/ egg. The crude extract and virus were administered on the 15th day of incubation and were checked after every 24 hours up to 96th hour post inoculation by random selection of 3 eggs. Death and survival rate were noted in all groups. Gross and histopathological lesions were also observed. Results revealed that Curcuma longa extract had significantly (p<0.05) reduced the mortality rate of embryos infected with H9N2 virus. In G3, increased lymphocytes and mild fatty changes were seen in liver. Whereas, mature RBCs, plasma cells and some lymphoblast's were observed in Spleen. Similarly, the bursa follicles were with lymphocytic aggregation. The G4 (Curcuma longa) and G5 (Ribazole) were with maximum embryo survival after 48 and 72 h post inoculation. This study revealed potential antiviral activity of Curcuma longa against H9N2 influenza viruses and can be opted as alternative to antibiotics and antiviral drugs to minimize the antimicrobial resistance in human and animal population.

20.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246436, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495159

RESUMO

Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.


Assuntos
Proteínas Hemolisinas , Mariposas , Animais , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Fertilizantes , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
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