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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244311, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285616

RESUMO

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado ​​para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados ​​para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247422, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285631

RESUMO

Abstract Plasmodium falciparum resistance to Chloroquine (CQ) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There is a paucity of documented data on the prevalence of CQ-resistant mutant haplotypes of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes from malaria-endemic war effected Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of P. falciparum CQ-resistance in this area. Clinical isolates were collected between May 2017 and May 2018 from North Waziristan and South Waziristan agencies of Federally Administrated Trial Area. Subsequently, Giemsa-stained blood smears were examined to detect Plasmodium falciparum. Extraction of malarial DNA was done from microscopy positive P. falciparum samples, and P. falciparum infections were confirmed by nested PCR (targeting Plasmodium small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA) genes). All PCR confirmed P. falciparum samples were sequenced by pyrosequencing to find out mutation in Pfcrt gene at codon K76T and in pfmdr1 at codons N86Y, Y184F, N1042D, and D1246Y. Out of 121 microscopies positive P. falciparum cases, 109 samples were positive for P. falciparum by nested PCR. Pfcrt K76T mutation was found in 96% of isolates, Pfmdr1 N86Y mutation was observed in 20%, and 11% harboured Y184F mutation. All samples were wild type for Pfmdr1 codon N1042D and D1246Y. In the FATA, Pakistan, the frequency of resistant allele 76T remained high despite the removal of CQ. However, current findings of the study suggest complete fixation of P. falciparum CQ-resistant genotype in the study area.


Resumo A resistência do Plasmodium falciparum à cloroquina (CQ) é uma causa significativa de mortalidade e morbidade em todo o mundo. Há uma escassez de dados documentados sobre a prevalência de haplótipos mutantes CQ-resistentes dos genes Pfcrt e Pfmdr1 da guerra endêmica da malária em áreas tribais administradas pelo governo federal do Paquistão. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a prevalência de resistência a CQ de P. falciparum nesta área. Isolados clínicos foram coletados entre maio de 2017 e maio de 2018 nas agências do Waziristão do Norte e do Waziristão do Sul da Área de Ensaio Administrada Federalmente. Posteriormente, esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa foram examinados para detectar Plasmodium falciparum. A extração do DNA da malária foi feita a partir de amostras de P. falciparum positivas para microscopia, e as infecções por P. falciparum foram confirmadas por nested PCR (visando genes de ácido ribonucleico ribossômico de subunidade pequena de Plasmodium (ssrRNA)). Todas as amostras de P. falciparum confirmadas por PCR foram sequenciadas por pirosequenciamento para descobrir a mutação no gene Pfcrt no códon K76T e em pfmdr1 nos códons N86Y, Y184F, N1042D e D1246Y. De 121 microscopias de casos positivos de P. falciparum, 109 amostras foram positivas para P. falciparum por nested PCR. A mutação Pfcrt K76T foi encontrada em 96% dos isolados, a mutação Pfmdr1 N86Y foi observada em 20% e 11% abrigou a mutação Y184F. Todas as amostras eram do tipo selvagem para o códon N1042D e D1246Y de Pfmdr1. No FATA, Paquistão, a frequência do alelo resistente 76T permaneceu alta apesar da remoção de CQ. No entanto, as descobertas atuais do estudo sugerem a fixação completa do genótipo resistente a CQ de P. falciparum na área de estudo.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339366

RESUMO

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249159, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339415

RESUMO

Abstract There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Resumo Há uma escassez de pesquisas realizadas sobre a prevalência microbiana em faisões. A microbiota de aves em cativeiro tem significado zoonótico e deve ser caracterizada. O presente estudo está, portanto, planejado para avaliar a microbiota do conteúdo oral, fecal e intestinal de espécies aviárias em cativeiro. Será útil na caracterização de micróbios nocivos. Diferentes amostras retiradas da boca, intestino e fezes de faisões de pescoço redondo (Phasianus colchicus), faisões verdes (Phasianus versicolor), faisões dourados (Chrysolophus pictus) e faisão prateado (Lophura nycthemera). As amostras foram coletadas, diluídas e inoculadas em diferentes placas de ágar (MacConkey, ágar SS, MSA e ágar nutriente) para o cultivo de espécies bacterianas. Colônias de E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Brachyspira spp. e Campylobacter spp foram observados com base na morfologia da colônia. A unidade formadora de colônia mostrou E. coli como bactéria frequentemente encontrada no conteúdo fecal, oral e intestinal de todos os faisões acima. A diferença de significância geral foi encontrada entre as espécies bacterianas de faisões dourados, faisões verdes, faisões de pescoço anelado e faisões prateados. Verificou-se que a E.coli é predominantemente isolada de faisões saudáveis, seguida por Campylobacter, Staphylococcus e Brachyspira.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249911, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669802

RESUMO

Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249159, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586192

RESUMO

There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Assuntos
Galliformes , Animais , Escherichia coli , Fezes
7.
Curr Probl Cancer ; : 100793, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565601

RESUMO

For patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treatment with Trifluridine/Tipiracil, also known as TAS-102, improves overall survival. This study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of TAS-102 in a real-world population from Victoria, Australia. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from the Treatment of Recurrent and Advanced Colorectal Cancer (TRACC) registry was undertaken. The characteristics and outcomes of patients receiving TAS-102 were assessed and compared to those enrolled in the registration study (RECOURSE). Across 13 sites, 107 patients were treated with TAS-102. The median age was 60 years (range: 31-83), compared to 63 for RECOURSE. Comparing registry TAS-102-treated and RECOURSE patients, 75% vs 100% were ECOG performance status 0-1, 74% vs 79% had initiated treatment more than 18 months from diagnosis of metastatic disease and 36% vs 49% were RAS wild-type. Median time on treatment was 10.4 weeks (range: 1.7-32). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.3 months compared to 2 months in RECOURSE, while median overall survival was the same at 7.1 months. Two patients (2.3%) had febrile neutropenia and there were no treatment-related deaths, where TAS-102 dose at treatment initiation was at clinician discretion.TRACC registry patients treated with TAS-102 were younger than those from the RECOURSE trial, with similar overall survival observed. Less strict application of RECIST criteria and less frequent imaging may have contributed to an apparently longer PFS.

8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468526

RESUMO

Military conflicts have been significant obstacles in detecting and treating infectious disease diseases due to the diminished public health infrastructure, resulting in malaria endemicity. A variety of violent and destructive incidents were experienced by FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas). It was a struggle to pursue an epidemiological analysis due to continuing conflict and Talibanization. Clinical isolates were collected from Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Orakzai agencies from May 2017 to May 2018. For Giemsa staining, full blood EDTA blood samples have been collected from symptomatic participants. Malaria-positive microscopy isolates were spotted on filter papers for future Plasmodial molecular detection by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) of small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA) genes specific primers. Since reconfirming the nPCR, a malariometric study of 762 patients found 679 positive malaria cases. Plasmodium vivax was 523 (77%), Plasmodium falciparum 121 (18%), 35 (5%) were with mixed-species infection (P. vivax plus P. falciparum), and 83 were declared negative by PCR. Among the five agencies of FATA, Khyber agency has the highest malaria incidence (19%) with followed by P. vivax (19%) and P. falciparum (4.1%). In contrast, Kurram has about (14%), including (10.8%) P. vivax and (2.7%) P. falciparum cases, the lowest malaria epidemiology. Surprisingly, no significant differences in the distribution of mixed-species infection among all five agencies. P. falciparum and P. vivax were two prevalent FATA malaria species in Pakistan's war-torn area. To overcome this rising incidence of malaria, this study recommends that initiating malaria awareness campaigns in school should be supported by public health agencies and malaria-related education locally, targeting children and parents alike.


Assuntos
Plasmodium , Criança , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium vivax/genética
9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248022, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468531

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that arsenic crosses the placenta and affects the fetus development. The study under consideration aims to show comparative ameliorative effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and flower extracts against sodium arsenate induced fetus toxicity of mice. Pregnant mice (N=44) were kept in lab and divided into eleven group from (A to K) and were orally administered the doses 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg for sodium arsenate, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera leaf extracts (MOLE) and 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera flower extracts (MOFE) comparing with control. The investigation revealed evident reduction in the fetuses weight, hind limb, fore limb, tail and snout length, crown rump and head circumferences well as malformations in tail, feet, arms, legs, skin and eyes in the negative control group (only administered with sodium arsenate). Co-administration of sodium arsenate with MOLE and MOFE ameliorate the reversed effect of sodium arsenate on the shape, length, body weight and DNA damage of fetus significantly at 95% confidence interval. However, Moringa oleifera leaf extract showed more significant results in comparison to Moringa oleifera flower extract. Hence concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorated the embryo toxic effects of sodium arsenate and can be used against environmental teratogens.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Animais , Arseniatos , Dano ao DNA , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
10.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431905

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico
11.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247422, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431917

RESUMO

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to Chloroquine (CQ) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There is a paucity of documented data on the prevalence of CQ-resistant mutant haplotypes of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes from malaria-endemic war effected Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of P. falciparum CQ-resistance in this area. Clinical isolates were collected between May 2017 and May 2018 from North Waziristan and South Waziristan agencies of Federally Administrated Trial Area. Subsequently, Giemsa-stained blood smears were examined to detect Plasmodium falciparum. Extraction of malarial DNA was done from microscopy positive P. falciparum samples, and P. falciparum infections were confirmed by nested PCR (targeting Plasmodium small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA) genes). All PCR confirmed P. falciparum samples were sequenced by pyrosequencing to find out mutation in Pfcrt gene at codon K76T and in pfmdr1 at codons N86Y, Y184F, N1042D, and D1246Y. Out of 121 microscopies positive P. falciparum cases, 109 samples were positive for P. falciparum by nested PCR. Pfcrt K76T mutation was found in 96% of isolates, Pfmdr1 N86Y mutation was observed in 20%, and 11% harboured Y184F mutation. All samples were wild type for Pfmdr1 codon N1042D and D1246Y. In the FATA, Pakistan, the frequency of resistant allele 76T remained high despite the removal of CQ. However, current findings of the study suggest complete fixation of P. falciparum CQ-resistant genotype in the study area.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Plasmodium falciparum , Alelos , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Paquistão , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
12.
Ann Oncol ; 32(7): 917-925, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) typically occur within 4 months of starting anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)-based therapy [anti-PD-1 ± anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4)], but delayed irAEs (onset >12 months after commencement) can also occur. This study describes the incidence, nature and management of delayed irAEs in patients receiving anti-PD-1-based immunotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with delayed irAEs from 20 centres were studied. The incidence of delayed irAEs was estimated as a proportion of melanoma patients treated with anti-PD-1-based therapy and surviving >1 year. Onset, clinical features, management and outcomes of irAEs were examined. RESULTS: One hundred and eighteen patients developed a total of 140 delayed irAEs (20 after initial combination with anti-CTLA4), with an estimated incidence of 5.3% (95% confidence interval 4.0-6.9, 53/999 patients at sites with available data). The median onset of delayed irAE was 16 months (range 12-53 months). Eighty-seven patients (74%) were on anti-PD-1 at irAE onset, 15 patients (12%) were <3 months from the last dose and 16 patients (14%) were >3 months from the last dose of anti-PD-1. The most common delayed irAEs were colitis, rash and pneumonitis; 55 of all irAEs (39%) were ≥grade 3. Steroids were required in 80 patients (68%), as well as an additional immunosuppressive agent in 27 patients (23%). There were two irAE-related deaths: encephalitis with onset during anti-PD-1 and a multiple-organ irAE with onset 11 months after ceasing anti-PD-1. Early irAEs (<12 months) had also occurred in 69 patients (58%), affecting a different organ from the delayed irAE in 59 patients (86%). CONCLUSIONS: Delayed irAEs occur in a small but relevant subset of patients. Delayed irAEs are often different from previous irAEs, may be high grade and can lead to death. They mostly occur in patients still receiving anti-PD-1. The risk of delayed irAE should be considered when deciding the duration of treatment in responding patients. However, patients who stop treatment may also rarely develop delayed irAE.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Pneumonia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
QJM ; 114(1): 17-24, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated+ with adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with women with normal glucose tolerance in pregnancy. The WHO recommends screening at 24-28 weeks gestation for GDM. Women who are diagnosed before 24-28 weeks gestation have a longer intervention period which may impact positively on pregnancy outcomes. AIM: This study aimed to examine pregnancy outcomes of women with GDM diagnosed <24 weeks gestation compared with those diagnosed at 24-28 weeks in a large Irish cohort. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 1471 pregnancies in women with GDM diagnosed using IADPSG criteria between September 2012 and April 2016 was conducted. At GDM diagnosis, women were classified as early GDM <24 weeks or standard GDM 24-28 weeks gestation. RESULTS: Women with early GDM had a significantly greater risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension (12.4% vs. 5.3%; P < 0.05), post-partum haemorrhage (8.7% vs. 2.4%; P < 0.05) and post-partum glucose abnormalities (32% vs. 15.6%; P < 0.05). Their offspring had a greater risk of pre-maturity (10.9% vs. 6.6%; P < 0.05), stillbirth (1.4% vs. 0.5%; P < 0.05), large for gestational age (19.1% vs. 13.4% P < 0.05) and need neonatal intensive care (30.7% vs. 22.1%; P < 0.05) compared with offspring of women with standard GDM. Rates of C-section and pre-maturity were still higher in the early GDM group when the two groups where compared based on their post-natal OGTT. CONCLUSION: Early GDM women and their offspring are at greater risk of an adverse pregnancy outcome compared with those diagnosed at 24-28 weeks. In view of the abnormal post-natal glucose findings, early GDM may reflect a more advanced state in diabetes pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Endocr Pathol ; 29(3): 231-235, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978374

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the number of cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) which could be reclassified as non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) in our institute over a 10-year period, document their clinical status and assess the number of slides that had to be reviewed per case to exclude NIFTP. The histopathology reports for thyroid resections for all papillary carcinoma over a 10-year period (2007-2016) were reviewed. Five hundred forty-five histopathology reports were reviewed, and 71 cases were identified as potential cases of NIFTP. Forty-nine (69%) cases had been referred from external departments and the slides were not available for review. Of the remaining 22 (31% of 71) cases, 5 were reclassified as NIFTP. The 17 cases that were not reclassified as NIFTP required review of 114 of 356 slides (median 5.5 slides per case) was required to exclude NIFTP. For the 5 NIFTP cases, 58 slides were reviewed (median 12 slides per case). We found that review of the histology reports alone was adequate for exclusion in most cases, e.g. classic PTC or EVPTC cases with documented lymphovascular invasion or capsular invasion. As a single exclusion criterion is required for exclusion from reclassification as NIFTP, this can be achieved efficiently. Two of the five patients received radioactive iodine [RAI] as per standard treatment at time of diagnosis, on the basis of tumour size. None have recurrent or metastatic disease with mean follow-up of 5.8 years.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Folicular/classificação , Patologia Clínica , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/classificação , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/classificação , Carga de Trabalho , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Acta Virol ; 59(3): 284-94, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26435152

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronically infects almost 2% of world's population. Chronic infection can lead to liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Approximately 10% of the Pakistani population is infected with HCV and type 3 is the most prevalent genotype with 75-90% prevalence. In this study we have developed transiently expressing cell culture based system for the expression of HCV non-structural NS3, NS3-4A and NS4A proteins of genotype 3a. HCV non-structural genes NS3, NS3-4A and NS4A were cloned in to pFLAG-CMV2 and pEGFP-C1vectors. All vectors were transfected separately to Huh-7 cells and their protein expression was analyzed by Western blot and immunofluorescence. All proteins were expressed correctly and in the transfection we have obtained 42-70% efficiency for all clones. This system can be used for the development of novel antiviral strategies to inhibit the viral replication, to study apoptosis pathways induced by HCV, for the evaluation of vaccine candidates and also to study the role of HCV different signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Western Blotting , Fluorescência , Imunofluorescência , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepacivirus/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/análise
18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 99(7): E1327-31, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24735426

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Mortality is 85% higher in severely obese subjects (body mass index [BMI] > 40 kg/m(2)) than in subjects with a healthy BMI; poor physical function may be contributory. Hypovitaminosis D is common in obese subjects and is associated with physical dysfunction in the elderly. OBJECTIVE: We determined the relationship between vitamin D status and physical function in severely obese subjects. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: We conducted a clinic-based, cross-sectional study of severely obese subjects. Participants were stratified into three groups according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) vitamin D status categorization. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We compared levels of self-reported activity and times taken to walk 500 m and to ascend and descend a 17-cm step 50 times. RESULTS: We recruited 252 subjects (age, 43.7 ± 11.2 y; BMI, 50.7 ± 9.7 kg/m(2)); 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations were less than 30 nmol/L in 109 participants. Participants with a 25OHD > 50 nmol/L, compared to those with a 25OHD < 30 nmol/L, had the highest activity levels (3.1 ± 3.4 h/wk versus 1.5 ± 2.5 h/wk; P = .015) and the shortest 500-m walk times (6.2 ± 1.1 min versus 7.4 ± 1.5 min; P = .003). Serum 25OHD concentrations had a weakly positive association with activity level (r = 0.19; P = .008) and a moderately negative association with 500-m walk time (r = -0.343; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D status had a significant relationship with physical activity and physical function in this cohort of severely obese subjects. Low activity levels are likely to perpetuate the problem of hypovitaminosis D due to less time spent outdoors. Studies exploring the effects of vitamin D supplementation in this population are warranted.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Obesidade Mórbida/fisiopatologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 40(4): 388-92, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21168309

RESUMO

This retrospective study assessed the effectiveness and complications of peripheral alcohol injections in the management of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). 100 patients were analyzed who received 250 peripheral alcohol injections from June 2004 to January 2010. The duration of effect of alcohol blocks, the effect of repeated administration, and complications associated with alcohol injections were examined. The distal injection technique was applied. The branch of the nerve was identified and confirmed. After carefully anesthetizing the nerve with local anesthesia, 1-1.5 ml of absolute alcohol was injected depending on the nerve involved. Pain relief lasted for a mean of 14.13 ± 8.66 months. There was a fall in the duration of effect with subsequent injections. No serious complications were reported. Only 3% patients presented with non-neuralgic pain, swelling, burning sensation, trismus, dysesthesia, soreness, infection and the expected loss of sensation along the branch involved in TN. The combination of efficacy and reduced morbidity makes this procedure preferable for the treatment of TN. Alcohol injections are useful in those who are refractory to drug therapy, the elderly, medically compromised patients, unwilling to undergo neurosurgical procedures and in whom surgery is delayed for any reason.


Assuntos
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Etanol/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Nervo Mandibular , Nervo Maxilar , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Órbita/inervação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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