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1.
Pediatrics ; 148(5)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, and hospital course among persons <21 years of age with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-associated death. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series of suspected SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths in the United States in persons <21 years of age during February 12 to July 31, 2020. All states and territories were invited to participate. We abstracted demographic and clinical data, including laboratory and treatment details, from medical records. RESULTS: We included 112 SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths from 25 participating jurisdictions. The median age was 17 years (IQR 8.5-19 years). Most decedents were male (71, 63%), 31 (28%) were Black (non-Hispanic) persons, and 52 (46%) were Hispanic persons. Ninety-six decedents (86%) had at least 1 underlying condition; obesity (42%), asthma (29%), and developmental disorders (22%) were most commonly documented. Among 69 hospitalized decedents, common complications included mechanical ventilation (75%) and acute respiratory failure (82%). The sixteen (14%) decedents who met multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) criteria were similar in age, sex, and race and/or ethnicity to decedents without MIS-C; 11 of 16 (69%) had at least 1 underlying condition. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths among persons <21 years of age occurred predominantly among Black (non-Hispanic) and Hispanic persons, male patients, and older adolescents. The most commonly reported underlying conditions were obesity, asthma, and developmental disorders. Decedents with coronavirus disease 2019 were more likely than those with MIS-C to have underlying medical conditions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/mortalidade , Adolescente , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/complicações , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(8): 837-845, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821923

RESUMO

Importance: Multiple inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) occurs in association with the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and geographic and temporal distribution of the largest cohort of patients with MIS-C in the United States to date. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional analysis was conducted on clinical and laboratory data collected from patients with MIS-C. The analysis included patients with illness onset from March 2020 to January 2021 and met MIS-C case definition. Main Outcomes and Measures: Geographic and temporal distribution of MIS-C was compared with that of COVID-19 nationally, by region, and level of urbanicity by county. Clinical and laboratory findings and changes over time were described by age group and by presence or absence of preceding COVID-19. Results: A total of 1733 patients with MIS-C were identified; 994 (57.6%) were male and 1117 (71.3%) were Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black. Gastrointestinal symptoms, rash, and conjunctival hyperemia were reported by 53% (n = 931) to 67% (n = 1153) of patients. A total of 937 patients (54%) had hypotension or shock, and 1009 (58.2%) were admitted for intensive care. Cardiac dysfunction was reported in 484 patients (31.0%), pericardial effusion in 365 (23.4%), myocarditis in 300 (17.3%), and coronary artery dilatation or aneurysms in 258 (16.5%). Patients aged 0 to 4 years had the lowest proportion of severe manifestations, although 171 patients (38.4%) had hypotension or shock and 197 (44.3%) were admitted for intensive care. Patients aged 18 to 20 years had the highest proportions with myocarditis (17 [30.9%]), pneumonia (20 [36.4%]), acute respiratory distress syndrome (10 [18.2%]), and polymerase chain reaction positivity (39 [70.9%]). These older adolescents also had the highest proportion reporting preceding COVID-19-like illness (63%). Nationally, the first 2 MIS-C peaks followed the COVID-19 peaks by 2 to 5 weeks. The cumulative MIS-C incidence per 100 000 persons younger than 21 years was 2.1 and varied from 0.2 to 6.3 by state. Twenty-four patients (1.4%) died. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of a large cohort of patients with MIS-C, 2 peaks that followed COVID-19 peaks by 2 to 5 weeks were identified. The geographic and temporal association of MIS-C with the COVID-19 pandemic suggested that MIS-C resulted from delayed immunologic responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The clinical manifestations varied by age and by presence or absence of preceding COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 101(4): 884-890, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436154

RESUMO

Dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses, primarily transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes, have caused large outbreaks in the Americas, leading to travel-associated cases and local mosquito-borne transmission in the United States. We describe the epidemiology of dengue, chikungunya, and noncongenital Zika virus disease cases reported from U.S. states and territories in 2017, including 971 dengue cases, 195 chikungunya cases, and 1,118 Zika virus disease cases. Cases of all three diseases reported from the territories were reported as resulting from local mosquito-borne transmission. Cases reported from the states were primarily among travelers, with only seven locally acquired mosquito-transmitted Zika virus disease cases reported from Texas (n = 5) and Florida (n = 2). In the territories, most dengue cases (n = 508, 98%) were reported from American Samoa, whereas the majority of chikungunya (n = 39, 100%) and Zika virus disease (n = 620, 93%) cases were reported from Puerto Rico. Temporally, the highest number of Zika virus disease cases occurred at the beginning of the year, followed by a sharp decline, mirroring decreasing case numbers across the Americas following large outbreaks in 2015 and 2016. Dengue and chikungunya cases followed a more seasonal pattern, with higher case numbers from July through September. Travelers to the United States and residents of areas with active virus transmission should be informed of both the ongoing risk from dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus disease and personal protective measures to lower their risk of mosquito bites and to help prevent the spread of these diseases.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Vírus Chikungunya/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Dengue/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Animais , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Dengue/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Viagem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(33): 713-717, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437141

RESUMO

In September 2018, CDC identified Salmonella enterica serotype Newport (Newport) infections that were multidrug resistant (MDR), with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin, a recommended oral treatment agent. Until 2017, decreased susceptibility to azithromycin had occurred in fewer than 0.5% of Salmonella isolates from U.S. residents. This report summarizes the investigation of a multistate MDR Salmonella outbreak conducted by CDC, state and local health departments, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service. During June 2018-March 2019, 255 cases of infection with the outbreak strain were identified in 32 states; 43% of patients (89 of 206 with information on travel) reported recent travel to Mexico. Infections were linked to consumption of soft cheese obtained in Mexico and beef obtained in the United States. Consumers should avoid eating soft cheese that could be made from unpasteurized milk, regardless of the source of the cheese. When preparing beef, a food thermometer should be used to ensure that appropriate cooking temperatures are reached. When antibiotic treatment is needed for a patient, clinicians should choose antibiotics based on susceptibility testing wherever possible.


Assuntos
Azitromicina/farmacologia , Surtos de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Queijo/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Salmonella/genética , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(41): 1137-1142, 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335737

RESUMO

Arthropodborne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1). Other arboviruses, including Jamestown Canyon, La Crosse, Powassan, St. Louis encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses, cause sporadic cases of disease and occasional outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC from U.S. states in 2017 for nationally notifiable arboviruses. It excludes dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses because, in the continental United States, these viruses are acquired primarily through travel. In 2017, 48 states and the District of Columbia (DC) reported 2,291 cases of domestic arboviral disease, including 2,097 (92%) WNV disease cases. Among the WNV disease cases, 1,425 (68%) were classified as neuroinvasive disease (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis), for a national rate of 0.44 cases per 100,000 population. More Jamestown Canyon and Powassan virus disease cases were reported in 2017 than in any previous year. Because arboviral diseases continue to cause serious illness, maintaining surveillance is important to direct and promote prevention activities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Vigilância da População , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Notificação de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 7(3): e86-e91, 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29788403

RESUMO

Background: Epidemiologic studies that evaluate the relationship between previous antibiotic use and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in the pediatric population are currently lacking. Methods: We analyzed inpatient and outpatient children with AGE and healthy controls from Vanderbilt University Medical Center between December 1, 2014, and November 30, 2015. The following 4 outcome groups were defined: overall AGE, norovirus-associated AGE, rotavirus-associated AGE, and nonnorovirus/nonrotavirus AGE. Multiple logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between previous antibiotic use and the 4 AGE outcomes and with AGE severity. Results: Reported antibiotic use rates in the 3 months before illness onset were similar across the 4 AGE outcomes (overall AGE, 21%; norovirus-associated AGE, 23%; rotavirus-associated AGE, 28%; and nonnorovirus/nonrotavirus AGE, 22%) but were higher than that reported for healthy controls (9%). Compared with healthy controls, patients with AGE overall were 4.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-11.4) times more likely to have reported antibiotic use in the 3 weeks before illness onset and 2.6 (95% CI, 1.7-4.1) times more likely to have reported antibiotic use within 3 months before illness onset. Similar results were found for the other specific AGE outcomes. For the overall AGE group, the odds of antibiotic use in the 3 months before illness onset was 3.5 (95% CI, 1.8-7.1) times higher for inpatients than for outpatients. Conclusions: Previous antibiotic use among children was associated with increased odds of AGE, irrespective of etiology, and this association was stronger with more recent antibiotic use. Previous antibiotic use was associated also with more severe AGE.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tennessee/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(9): 265-269, 2018 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518067

RESUMO

Zika virus is a flavivirus primarily transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1). Zika virus infections also have been documented through intrauterine transmission resulting in congenital infection; intrapartum transmission from a viremic mother to her newborn; sexual transmission; blood transfusion; and laboratory exposure (1-3). Most Zika virus infections are asymptomatic or result in mild clinical illness, characterized by acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or nonpurulent conjunctivitis; Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis, and severe thrombocytopenia rarely have been associated with Zika virus infection (1). However, congenital Zika virus infection can result in fetal loss, microcephaly, and other birth defects (1,2). In 2016, a total of 5,168 noncongenital Zika virus disease cases were reported from U.S. states and the District of Columbia. Most cases (4,897, 95%) were in travelers returning from Zika virus-affected areas. A total of 224 (4%) cases were acquired through presumed local mosquitoborne transmission, and 47 (1%) were acquired by other routes. It is important that providers in the United States continue to test symptomatic patients who live in or recently traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission or had unprotected sex with someone who lives in or traveled to those areas. All pregnant women and their partners should take measures to prevent Zika virus infection during pregnancy. A list of affected areas and specific recommendations on how to prevent Zika virus infection during pregnancy are available at https://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/zika/protect-yourself.html.


Assuntos
Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , District of Columbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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