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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 732266, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737700

RESUMO

Background: With prostate cancer being the fifth-greatest cause of cancer mortality in 2020, there is a dire need to expand the available treatment options. Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progresses despite androgen depletion therapy. The mechanisms of resistance are yet to be fully discovered. However, it is hypothesized that androgens depletion enables androgen-independent cells to proliferate and recolonize the tumor. Objectives: Natural bioactive compounds from edible plants and herbal remedies might potentially address this need. This review compiles the available cheminformatics-based studies and the translational studies regarding the use of natural products to manage CRPC. Methods: PubMed and Google Scholar searches for preclinical studies were performed, while ClinicalTrials.gov and PubMed were searched for clinical updates. Studies that were not in English and not available as full text were excluded. The period of literature covered was from 1985 to the present. Results and Conclusion: Our analysis suggested that natural compounds exert beneficial effects due to their broad-spectrum molecular disease-associated targets. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed several bioactive compounds, including rutaecarpine, berberine, curcumin, other flavonoids, pentacyclic triterpenoids, and steroid-based phytochemicals. Molecular modeling tools, including machine and deep learning, have made the analysis more comprehensive. Preclinical and clinical studies on resveratrol, soy isoflavone, lycopene, quercetin, and gossypol have further validated the translational potential of the natural products in the management of prostate cancer.

2.
Urol Ann ; 13(4): 405-411, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759654

RESUMO

Introduction: The objective of the study is to evaluate the outcome of robot-assisted laparoscopic repair of injuries to urinary tract following gynecological surgery and obstetric injury. Methods: This retrospective analysis from prospectively collected data of repair of injuries to bladder and ureter using da Vinci Si robotic platform was carried out. Between April 2014 and May 2019, 27 patients were operated on in a single surgical unit; 25 had hysterectomy and 2 were obstetric cases. Fifteen patients underwent vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) repair, ten underwent ureteral reimplant, with concomitant psoas hitch, and two underwent Boari flap repair following gynecological surgery and obstetric injury. Results: Among 15 patients of VVF repair, 3 cases were previously attempted failed repair, 2 underwent concomitant ureteral reimplant, and 1 underwent concomitant ovarian cystectomy. The mean total operative time was 126 (75-206) min, and the mean hospital stay was 4.4 (3-6) days. Among 12 cases of ureteral injury, 5 were on the right side and 7 were on the left side; the mean total operative time was 150.16 (110-215) min, and the mean hospital stay was 4 (3-7) days. No case required conversion to open in this cohort. All cases were successfully cured without any recurrence of fistula or stricture during their mean follow-up period of 35.3 (9-66) months. Conclusions: Robot-assisted laparoscopic repair for injuries to bladder and ureter is effective and highly successful even in previously failed cases.

4.
Toxicology ; : 153053, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838596

RESUMO

Toxicity testing relies heavily on animals, especially rodents as part of the non-clinical laboratory testing of substances. However, the use of mammalians and the number of animals employed in research has become a concern for institutional ethics committees. Toxicity testing involving rodents and other mammals is laborious and costly. Alternatively, non-rodent models are used as replacement, as they have less ethical considerations and are cost-effective. Of the many alternative models that can be used as replacement models, which ones can be used in predictive toxicology? What is the correlation between these models and rodents? Are there standardized protocols governing the toxicity testing of these commonly used predictive models? This review outlines the common alternative animal models for predictive toxicology to address the importance of these models, the challenges, and their standard testing protocols.

5.
Comput Biol Med ; : 105049, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823857

RESUMO

The ongoing pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a serious threat to global public health. Drug repurposing is a time-efficient approach to finding effective drugs against SARS-CoV-2 in this emergency. Here, we present a robust experimental design combining deep learning with molecular docking experiments to identify the most promising candidates from the list of FDA-approved drugs that can be repurposed to treat COVID-19. We have employed a deep learning-based Drug Target Interaction (DTI) model, called DeepDTA, with few improvements to predict drug-protein binding affinities, represented as KIBA scores, for 2440 FDA-approved and 8168 investigational drugs against 24 SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. FDA-approved drugs with the highest KIBA scores were selected for molecular docking simulations. We ran around 50,000 docking simulations for 168 selected drugs against 285 total predicted and/or experimentally proven active sites of all 24 SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. A list of 49 most promising FDA-approved drugs with the best consensus KIBA scores and binding affinity values against selected SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins was generated. Most importantly, 16 drugs including anidulafungin, velpatasvir, glecaprevir, rifapentine, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), terlipressin, and selinexor demonstrated the highest predicted inhibitory potential against key SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. We further measured the inhibitory activity of 5 compounds (rifapentine, velpatasvir, glecaprevir, anidulafungin, and FAD disodium) on SARS-CoV-2 PLpro using Ubiquitin-Rhodamine 110 Gly fluorescent intensity assay. The highest inhibition of PLpro activity was seen with rifapentine (IC50: 15.18 µM) and FAD disodium (IC50: 12.39 µM), the drugs with high predicted KIBA scores and binding affinities.

6.
Cell ; 184(24): 5950-5969.e22, 2021 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741801

RESUMO

The biogenesis of mammalian autophagosomes remains to be fully defined. Here, we used cellular and in vitro membrane fusion analyses to show that autophagosomes are formed from a hitherto unappreciated hybrid membrane compartment. The autophagic precursors emerge through fusion of FIP200 vesicles, derived from the cis-Golgi, with endosomally derived ATG16L1 membranes to generate a hybrid pre-autophagosomal structure, HyPAS. A previously unrecognized apparatus defined here controls HyPAS biogenesis and mammalian autophagosomal precursor membranes. HyPAS can be modulated by pharmacological agents whereas its formation is inhibited upon severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or by expression of SARS-CoV-2 nsp6. These findings reveal the origin of mammalian autophagosomal membranes, which emerge via convergence of secretory and endosomal pathways, and show that this process is targeted by microbial factors such as coronaviral membrane-modulating proteins.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601675

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are terrifically precise and adapted towards specialized respiratory epithelial cells, observed in organ culture and human volunteers both. This virus is found to possess an unpredictable anti-viral T-cell response which in turn results in T-cell activation and finally apoptosis, leading to cytokine storm and collapse of the whole immune system. The present review provides comprehensive information regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection, mutant strains, and the impact of SARS-COV-2 on vital organs, the pathophysiology of the disease, diagnostic tests available, and possible treatments. It also includes all the vaccines developed so far throughout the world to control this pandemic. Until now, 18 vaccines have been approved by the WHO and further 22 vaccines are in the third trial. This study also provides up-to-date information regarding the drugs repurposed in clinical trials and the recent status of allopathic drugs along with its result. Although vaccines are available, specific treatment is not available for the disease. Furthermore, the effect of vaccines on new variants is a new area of research at this time. Therefore, a preventive attitude is the best approach to fight against this virus.

8.
Virusdisease ; 32(3): 480-491, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631975

RESUMO

Failure of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-1 infection is a critical issue for the physicians treating HIV patients. The major cause of drug failure is the development of resistance mutations in reverse transcriptase (RT) and/or protease (PR) genes. Mutations associated with drug resistance decrease drug effectiveness. This study was conducted to assess drug resistance profile of the entire PR gene in 90 HIV-1 patients consisting of 23 ART non-responsive, 32 ART responsive and 35 drug naive patients. It was observed that the majority of the sequences (94.4%) belonged to subtype C and (5.5%) to subtype A1. The ART non-responsive and responsive patients were treated with either first line of ART regimen (two NRTI and one NNRTI) or second line of ART regimen that included additional one protease inhibitor (PI). All the patients in each group except one responsive patient had various minor resistance mutations. Thus, drug failures in ART non-responsive patients may not always be due to drug resistance mutations instead other factors may also be responsible for drug failures such as non-compliance, suboptimal dose or drug interaction. The presence of minor drug resistance mutations in drug naive patients is suggestive of transmitted resistance mutations.

9.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647155

RESUMO

The current study examined the association between hours spent online (HOS), positive parenting, negative parenting, autism parental stress and Internet addiction among Singapore based boys and girls (aged 6 to 14 years old) with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The research participants included 59 parents (41 females and 18 males) aged between 28 and 74 years old (mean age 37.95). Results indicated HOS, negative parenting and autism parenting stress predicted 54.8% of the total variance in Child Internet Addiction scores of children with ASD. Autism parental stress was the most significant predictor explaining 25.3% of the total variance with time spent online explaining another 23.5% and negative parenting predicted 6%. Positive parenting was not found to be significant. The findings reinforce the importance of according greater consideration for the role of parents when working with such children.

10.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641118

RESUMO

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are storage granules found in bacteria that are essentially hydroxy fatty acid polyesters. PHA molecules appear in variety of structures, and amongst all types of PHAs, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is used in versatile fields as it is a biodegradable, biocompatible, and ecologically safe thermoplastic. The unique physicochemical characteristics of these PHAs have made them applicable in nanotechnology, tissue engineering, and other biomedical applications. In this review, the optimization, extraction, and characterization of PHAs are described. Their production and application in nanotechnology are also portrayed in this review, and the precise and various production methods of PHA-based nanoparticles, such as emulsion solvent diffusion, nanoprecipitation, and dialysis are discussed. The characterization techniques such as UV-Vis, FTIR, SEM, Zeta Potential, and XRD are also elaborated.

11.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649489

RESUMO

Bergenin, 4-O-methyl gallic acid glucoside, is a bioactive compound present in various plants belonging to different families. The present work compiles scattered information on pharmacology, structure activity relationship and nanotechnological aspects of bergenin, collected from various electronic databases such as Sci Finder, PubMed, Google scholar, etc. Bergenin has been reported to exhibit hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotective, antiviral and antimicrobial activities. Molecular docking studies have shown that isocoumarin pharmacophore of bergenin is essential for its bioactivities. Bergenin holds a great potential to be used as lead molecule and also as a therapeutic agent for development of more efficacious and safer semisynthetic derivatives. Nanotechnological concepts can be employed to overcome poor bioavailability of bergenin. Finally, it is concluded that bergenin can be emerged as clinically potential medicine in modern therapeutics.

12.
Indian Heart J ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 pandemic has led to unprecedented increase in rates of stress and burn out among healthcare workers (HCWs). Heart rate variability (HRV) has been shown to be reflective of stress and burnout. The present study evaluated the prevalence of burnout and attempted to develop a HRV based predictive machine learning (ML) model to detect burnout among HCWs during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Mini-Z 1.0 survey was collected from 1615 HCWs, of whom 664, 512 and 439 were frontline, second-line and non-COVID HCWs respectively. Burnout was defined as score ≥3 on Mini-Z-burnout-item. A 12-lead digitized ECG recording was performed and ECG features of HRV were obtained using feature extraction. A ML model comprising demographic and HRV features was developed to detect burnout. RESULTS: Burnout rates were higher among second-line workers 20.5% than frontline 14.9% and non-COVID 13.2% workers. In multivariable analyses, features associated with higher likelihood of burnout were feeling stressed (OR = 6.02), feeling dissatisfied with current job (OR = 5.15), working in a chaotic, hectic environment (OR = 2.09) and feeling that COVID has significantly impacted the mental wellbeing (OR = 6.02). HCWs with burnout had a significantly lower HRV parameters like root mean square of successive RR intervals differences (RMSSD) [p < 0.0001] and standard deviation of the time interval between successive RR intervals (SDNN) [p < 0.001]) as compared to normal subjects. Extra tree classifier was the best performing ML model (sensitivity: 84%) CONCLUSION: In this study of HCWs from India, burnout prevalence was lower than reports from developed nations, and was higher among second-line versus frontline workers. Incorporation of HRV based ML model predicted burnout among HCWs with a good accuracy.

13.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685734

RESUMO

Autophagy and the lysosomal system, together referred to as the autophagolysosomal system, is a cellular quality control network which maintains cellular health and homeostasis by removing cellular waste including protein aggregates, damaged organelles, and invading pathogens. As such, the autophagolysosomal system has roles in a variety of pathophysiological disorders, including cancer, neurological disorders, immune- and inflammation-related diseases, and metabolic alterations, among others. The autophagolysosomal system is controlled by TFEB, a master transcriptional regulator driving the expression of multiple genes, including autophagoly sosomal components. Importantly, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production and control are key aspects of the physiopathological roles of the autophagolysosomal system, and may hold a key for synergistic therapeutic interventions. In this study, we reviewed our current knowledge on the biology and physiopathology of the autophagolysosomal system, and its potential for therapeutic intervention in cancer.

14.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 27(2): 269-274, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511795

RESUMO

Objectives: The department of community medicine (DCM) has been training medical interns for palliative care in the hospital and community setting. There was no specific curriculum or course material available for training them. This study aims to develop, implement and evaluate the palliative care curriculum for training medical interns. Materials and Methods: The present program development and evaluation of palliative care curriculum was done in the DCM, Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital, Puducherry, India. We followed the Kern's six steps for curriculum development. It was done during July 2016 and May 2017. We framed expected outcomes from literature review and interviews with experts. The curriculum was delivered through small group sessions followed by hands-on exposure to hospital- and community-based palliative care programs guided by a workbook. Medical interns were given feedback on their field assignments on history taking, followed by reflection using structured template incorporated in the workbook. The reaction to the curriculum was collected from various stakeholders. Results: Medical interns found the curriculum useful for them to acquire basic skills of pain management, communication skills and teamwork. Patients and family felt satisfied with the quality of care provided. Conclusion: The new palliative care curriculum was well received by all the stakeholders involved. This can be adopted in similar context for training medical interns in palliative care.

15.
Immunobiology ; 226(5): 152134, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474252

RESUMO

COVID-19 (CoronaVirus disease 2019) is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus (severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2). SARS-CoV-2 virus is highly contagious and affects the human respiratory tract resulting in symptoms such as high fever, body ache, cough, dysfunctions of tastebuds and smelling sense of body. The objective of the present study involves immunoinformatic analysis to predict COVID-19 protein for vaccine construct based on the genomic information SARS-CoV-2 virus. At present, as per WHO estimates, around 133 COVID-19 novel vaccines under development. Three amino acid sequences of SARS-CoV-2 were retrieved from the NCBI database for the analysis of vaccine construct. This study involves computational and immunoinformatic methods. The Immunoinformatic tools used in the present study are NetCTL server, IFN epitope server, Toxin PRED, BCPred, CTL + HTL + ADJUVANTS + LINKERS, AlgPredserver, VaxiJenserver, ProtParam to predict vaccine construct. The secondary and tertiary structure prediction is done by PSIPRED, I-TASSER, Galaxy refine, prosA + Ramachandran. Finally, docking of the vaccine constructs and ligand was done with the help of Cluspro 2.0. C-ImmSimm webserver to simulate the potential vaccine construct. The present study demonstrated three potential Vaccine constructs for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which were docked with TLR8 (Toll-likereceptor8). Interestingly from these, all constructs one having a high potential for the inhibition effect of the SARS-CoV-2virus. Immunological simulation data shows significant elevated amount of memory B cell; also, the high response was seen in TH(Helper) and TC(cytotoxic) cell population from the vaccine construct proposed in the current study. Hence, these constructs are suitable vaccine candidates that might be useful in developing a novel vaccine.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Epitopos/imunologia , Genoma Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Receptor 8 Toll-Like/imunologia
16.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a rapidly progressive inflammatory infection of the soft tissue (also known as the fascia) with a secondary necrosis of the subcutaneous tissues, leading to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), shock and eventually death despite the availability of current medical interventions. The clinical management of this condition is associated with a significant amount of morbidity with a high rate of mortality. The prognosis of the disease is affected by multiple factors, which include the virulence of the causative pathogen, local host immunity, local wound factors and empirical antibiotics used. The local trends in the prescription of empirical antibiotics are often based on clinical practice guidelines (CPG), the distribution of the causative microorganism and the cost-effectiveness of the drug. However, there appears to be a paucity of literature on the empirical antibiotic of choice when dealing with necrotizing fasciitis in the clinical setting. This paper will outline common causative microorganisms and current trends of prescription in two tertiary centres in Central Malaysia. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using retrospective data of patients treated for NF collected from two tertiary care hospitals (Hospital Seremban and Hospital Ampang) in Central Malaysia. A total of 420 NF patients were identified from the five years of retrospective data obtained from the two hospitals. RESULTS: The top three empirical antibiotics prescribed are ampicillin + sulbactam (n = 258; 61.4%), clindamycin (n = 55; 13.1%) and ceftazidime (n = 41; 9.8%). The selection of the antibiotic significantly impacts the outcome of NF. The top three causative pathogens for NF are Streptococcus spp. (n = 79; 18.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 61; 14.5%) and Staphylococcus spp. (n = 49; 11.7%). The patients who received antibiotics had 0.779 times lower chances of being amputated. Patients with a lower laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (LRINEC) score had 0.934 times lower chances of being amputated. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the most common empirical antibiotic prescribed was ampicillin + sulbactam followed by clindamycin and ceftazidime. The antibiotics prescribed lower the risk of having an amputation and, hence, a better prognosis of the disease. Broad-spectrum empirical antibiotics following surgical debridement reduce the mortality rate of NF.

17.
Cell Stress ; 5(9): 128-142, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527862

RESUMO

The yeast Atg8 protein and its paralogs in mammals, mammalian Atg8s (mAtg8s), have been primarily appreciated for their participation in autophagy. However, lipidated mAtg8s, including the most frequently used autophagosomal membrane marker LC3B, are found on cellular membranes other than autophagosomes. Here we put forward a hypothesis that the lipidation of mAtg8s, termed 'Atg8ylation', is a general membrane stress and remodeling response analogous to the role that ubiquitylation plays in tagging proteins. Ubiquitin and mAtg8s are related in sequence and structure, and the lipidation of mAtg8s occurs on its C-terminal glycine, akin to the C-terminal glycine of ubiquitin. Conceptually, we propose that mAtg8s and Atg8ylation are to membranes what ubiquitin and ubiquitylation are to proteins, and that, like ubiquitylation, Atg8ylation has a multitude of downstream effector outputs, one of which is autophagy.

18.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592059

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, the dynamic progress in the synthesis and screening of heterocyclic compounds against various targets has made a significant contribution in the field of medicinal chemistry. Among the wide array of heterocyclic compounds, triazole moiety has attracted the attention of researchers owing to its vast therapeutic potential and easy preparation via copper and ruthenium-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions. Triazole skeletons are found as major structural components in a different class of drugs possessing diverse pharmacological profiles including anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-tubercular, and anti-depressant among various others. Furthermore, in the past few years, a significantly large number of triazole hybrids were synthesized with various heterocyclic moieties in order to gain the added advantage of the improved pharmacological profile, overcoming the multiple drug resistance and reduced toxicity from molecular hybridization. Among these synthesized triazole hybrids, many compounds are available commercially and used for treating different infections/disorders like tazobactam and cefatrizine as potent anti-bacterial agents while isavuconazole and ravuconazole as anti-fungal activities to name a few. In this review, we will summarize the biological activities of various 1,2,3-triazole hybrids with copious oxygen-containing heterocycles as lead compounds in medicinal chemistry. This review will be very helpful for researchers working in the field of molecular modeling, drug design and development, and medicinal chemistry.

19.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103220, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is an incontrovertible fact that the Rhino Orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM) upsurge is being seen in the context of COVID-19 in India. Briefly presented is evidence that in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 and injudicious use of corticosteroids may be largely responsible for this malady. OBJECTIVE: To find the possible impact of COVID 19 infection and various co-morbidities on occurrence of ROCM and demonstrate the outcome based on medical and surgical interventions. METHODOLOGY: Prospective longitudinal study included patients diagnosed with acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis after a recent COVID-19 infection. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy (DNE) was performed on each patient and swabs were taken and sent for fungal KOH staining and microscopy. Medical management included Injection Liposomal Amphotericin B, Posaconazole and Voriconazole. Surgical treatment was restricted to patients with RT PCR negative results for COVID-19. Endoscopic, open, and combined approaches were utilized to eradicate infection. Follow-up for survived patients was maintained regularly for the first postoperative month. RESULTS: Out of total 131 patients, 111 patients had prior history of SARS COVID 19 infection, confirmed with a positive RT-PCR report and the rest 20 patients had no such history. Steroids were received as a part of treatment in 67 patients infected with COVID 19. Among 131 patients, 124 recovered, 1 worsened and 6 died. Out of 101 known diabetics, 98 recovered and 3 had fatal outcomes. 7 patients with previous history of COVID infection did not have any evidence of Diabetes mellitus, steroid intake or any other comorbidity. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that ROCM upsurge seen in the context of COVID-19 in India was mainly seen in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 infection and injudicious use of corticosteroids.

20.
Echocardiography ; 38(10): 1722-1730, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Myocardial injury during active coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection is well described; however, its persistence during recovery is unclear. We assessed left ventricle (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in COVID-19 recovered patients and its correlation with various parameters. METHODS: A total of 134 subjects within 30-45 days post recovery from COVID-19 infection and normal LV ejection fraction were enrolled. Routine blood investigations, inflammatory markers (on admission) and comprehensive echocardiography including STE were done for all. RESULTS: Of the 134 subjects, 121 (90.3%) were symptomatic during COVID-19 illness and were categorized as mild: 61 (45.5%), moderate: 50 (37.3%) and severe: 10 (7.5%) COVID-19 illness. Asymptomatic COVID-19 infection was reported in 13 (9.7%) patients. Subclinical LV and right ventricle (RV) dysfunction were seen in 40 (29.9%) and 14 (10.5%) patients, respectively. Impaired LVGLS was reported in 1 (7.7%), 8 (13.1%), 22 (44%) and 9 (90%) subjects with asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe disease, respectively. LVGLS was significantly lower in patients recovered from severe illness(mild: -21 ± 3.4%; moderate: -18.1 ± 6.9%; severe: -15.5 ± 3.1%; p < 0.0001). Subjects with reduced LVGLS had significantly higher interleukin-6 (p < 0.0001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.009), serum ferritin (p = 0.03), and troponin (p = 0.01) levels during index admission. CONCLUSIONS: Subclinical LV dysfunction was seen in nearly a third of recovered COVID-19 patients while 10.5% had RV dysfunction. Our study suggests a need for closer follow-up among COVID-19 recovered subjects to elucidate long-term cardiovascular outcomes.

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