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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244977, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285621

RESUMO

Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the serious global public health burden of liver disease. Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with (HCV). In Pakistan, where the disease has high occurrence rate. The present study envisages an up-to-date prevalence of HCV and genotypic distribution in the general population of Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The blood samples from 6,538 individuals including 3,263 males and 3,275 females were analyzed for hepatitis C surface antigen by Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was found that 396 (12.13%) out of 3263 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HCV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HCV antibodies were found in the 31-40 age group (11.01%). The ICT positive samples were further screened by nested PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA. It was identified that 7.11% (3263) of the total population (6538) tested was positive, among which the 461 (14.07%) females possessed antibodies in their blood against HCV. Our data showed total HCV infection in the investigated population was 5.78%. Higher percentage of HCV prevalence was detected in males than females in the age group 31-40 and 41-50. To compare the prevalence of HCV genotypes age-wise in male and female genotype 3a was found most prevalent genotype followed by 1a, 2a and 3b, respectively.


Resumo O vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é o grave problema de saúde pública das doenças hepáticas. Aproximadamente 170 milhões de pessoas no mundo estão infectadas com HCV; no Paquistão, a doença tem alto índice de ocorrência. O presente estudo prevê uma prevalência atualizada do HCV e distribuição genotípica na população geral do distrito de Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Paquistão. As amostras de sangue de 6.538 indivíduos, incluindo 3.263 homens e 3.275 mulheres, foram analisadas para o antígeno de superfície da hepatite C por teste imunocromatográfico (ICT), ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) e reação em cadeia da polimerase de transcrição reversa (PCR). Verificou-se que 396 (12,13%) de 3.263 indivíduos continham anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV, enquanto entre as diferentes faixas etárias as maiores incidências de anticorpos anti-HCV foram encontradas na faixa etária de 31 a 40 anos (11,01%). As amostras positivas para ICT foram posteriormente rastreadas por nested PCR para determinar a existência de HCV-RNA ativo. Identificou-se que 7,11% (3.263) do total da população (6.538) testada foram positivos, dentre os quais 461 (14,07%) mulheres possuíam anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV. Nossos dados mostraram que a infecção total pelo HCV na população investigada foi de 5,78%. Maior porcentagem de prevalência de HCV foi detectada em homens do que em mulheres nas faixas etárias de 31-40 e 41-50. Para comparar a prevalência de genótipos de HCV com relação à idade no genótipo masculino e feminino 3a foi encontrado o genótipo mais prevalente seguido por 1a, 2a e 3b, respectivamente.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e245813, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285592

RESUMO

Abstract Hepatitis B virus infection is perilous among the five types of Hepatitis, as it remains clinically asymptomatic. The present study draws up-to-date prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the general population of Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. The blood samples from 4803 individuals including 2399 male and 2404 females were investigated. All the suspected samples were analyzed for hepatitis B surface antigen using Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and followed by Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed that 312 (13.00%) out of 2399 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HBV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HBV antibodies were found in the age of 21-30 groups (10.73%). Furthermore, the ICT positive samples were screened by nested polymerase chain reaction to detect the existence of active HBV-DNA. It was observed that 169 (7.04%) out of (2399) male of the total population (4803) tested was positive. On the other hand, the female 463 (19.25%) possessed antibodies in their blood against HBV. Accumulatively, our results showed a higher percentage of HBV prevalence in males than females in the age group 21-30 years. The total HCV infected in Mardan general population was recorded at 5.7% comprising both male and female.


Resumo A infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B é perigosa entre os cinco tipos de hepatite, pois permanece clinicamente assintomática. O presente estudo traça a prevalência atualizada do vírus da hepatite B (HBV) na população geral de Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Amostras de sangue de 4.803 indivíduos, incluindo 2.399 homens e 2.404 mulheres, foram investigadas. Todas as amostras suspeitas foram analisadas para o antígeno de superfície da hepatite B usando teste imunocromatográfico (ICT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), seguido por transcrição reversa-reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR). Os resultados mostraram que 312 (13,00%) de 2.399 indivíduos continham anticorpos no sangue contra o VHB, enquanto, entre as diferentes faixas etárias, as maiores incidências de anticorpos VHB foram encontradas nos grupos de 21 a 30 anos (10,73%). Além disso, amostras positivas para ICT foram rastreadas por reação em cadeia da polimerase aninhada para detectar a existência de HBV-DNA ativo. Observou-se que 169 (7,04%) de 2.399 homens do total da população (4803) testados foram positivos. Por outro lado, 463 mulheres (19,25%) possuíam anticorpos no sangue contra VHB. Acumulativamente, nossos resultados mostraram uma porcentagem maior de prevalência de HBV em homens do que em mulheres na faixa etária de 21 a 30 anos. O total de HCV infectados na população geral de Mardan foi registrado em 5,7%, incluindo homens e mulheres.

3.
Comput Biol Chem ; 95: 107600, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794076

RESUMO

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily is an excellent example of targets that orchestrates cancer, inflammation, lipid and glucose metabolism. We report a protocol for the development of novel PPARγ antagonists by employing 3D QSAR based virtual screening for the identification of ligands with anticancer properties. The models are generated based on a large and diverse set of PPARγ antagonist ligands by the HYPOGEN algorithm using Discovery Studio 2019 drug design software. Among the 10 hypotheses generated, Hypotheses 2 showed the highest correlation coefficient values of 0.95 with less RMS deviation of 1.193. Validation of the developed pharmacophore model was performed by Fischer's randomization and screening against test and decoy set. The GH score or goodness score was found to be 0.81 indicating moderate to a good model. The selected pharmacophore model Hypo 2 was used as a query model for further screening of 11,145 compounds from the PubChem, sc-PDB structure database, and designed novel ligands. Based on fit values and ADMET filter, the final 10 compounds with the predicated activity of ≤ 3 nM were subjected for docking analysis. Docking analysis revealed the unique binding mode with hydrophobic amino acid that can cause destabilization of the H12 which is an important molecular mechanism to prove its antagonist action. Based on high CDocker scores, Cpd31 was synthesized, purified, analyzed and screened for PPARγ competitive binding by TR-FRET assay. The biochemical protein binding results matched the predicted results. Further, Cpd31 was screened against cancer cells and validated the results.

4.
J Fish Biol ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751434

RESUMO

This study is based on integrative taxonomy and reports a new fish species Dussumieria modakandai sp. nov. from India. The new species differs from three valid species within the genus by combination of characters such as longer maxilla (9.1-9.9% SL vs. 8.7% in D. elopsoides, 6.3-8.5% in D. acuta) and 1 or 2 rows of small conical teeth on palatine (vs. several rows in D. elopsoides and D. albulina). It also differs by absence of longitudinal striae on posterior side of body scales (vs. present in D. acuta and D. albulina) and absence of parasphenoid teeth (vs. presence in D. acuta). The maxilla length of D. modakandai sp. nov., is greater than snout length, which distinguish it from other congeners. The multivariate analysis of morphometric characters using principal component analysis, differentiated the new species from D. elopsoides and D. acuta samples collected in this study. The molecular analysis, based on cytochrome c oxidase I, resolved the new species from D. acuta, D. albulina and D. elopsoides with a high genetic distance of 13.73%, 12.22% and 12.74% respectively. The maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree and automatic barcode gap discovery analysis showed the existence of six putative species in Dussumieria. Even, the exhaustive sub-clade formation within species and high intra-species genetic distance in D. acuta (1.59) and D. modakandai (1.95), indicate the possibility of a few more cryptic species. This warrants comprehensive sample collection across the distribution range and integrative taxonomic study of the genus Dussumieria. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
J Clin Med ; 10(21)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768538

RESUMO

Syncope is a medical condition resulting in the spontaneous transient loss of consciousness and postural tone with spontaneous recovery. The diagnosis of syncope is a challenging task, as similar types of symptoms are observed in seizures, vertigo, stroke, coma, etc. The advent of Healthcare 4.0, which facilitates the usage of artificial intelligence and big data, has been widely used for diagnosing various diseases based on past historical data. In this paper, classification-based machine learning is used to diagnose syncope based on data collected through a head-up tilt test carried out in a purely clinical setting. This work is concerned with the use of classification techniques for diagnosing neurally mediated syncope triggered by a number of neurocardiogenic or cardiac-related factors. Experimental results show the effectiveness of using classification-based machine learning techniques for an early diagnosis and proactive treatment of neurally mediated syncope.

6.
Mycologia ; : 1-18, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797203

RESUMO

Stem rot by Ganoderma is a disease of major concern for coconut farmers. Many species (G. applanatum, G. boninense, G. lucidum, G. zonatum) have been implicated as the causal agents of the disease. Despite its importance, systematics of the rot-associated Ganoderma remains uncertain and unresolved. Morphologically heterogeneous basidiomata of the putative pathogen(s) from infected palms in multiple disease sites were collected during an outbreak in the coastal state of India, Kerala. Morphological and molecular investigations revealed that these specimens were distinct from all the Ganoderma species so far identified and reported from coconut. Although with a close morphological resemblance to many Ganoderma species collected from palms, they exhibited unique genetics and geographic distribution patterns. We present a taxonomic reassessment of the species collected from infected coconut palms in India and also propose two new species, Ganoderma keralense and G. pseudoapplanatum. A taxonomic key to Ganoderma species on palms is given.

7.
Zootaxa ; 5026(1): 127-135, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810938

RESUMO

A new species of the genus Alpheus Fabricius, 1798, A. mannarensis sp. nov. is described and represented based on the materials collected from the shallow and rocky reefs, Gulf of Mannar (Thoothukudi waters), Southern India. This is the first report of Alpheus species from the Gulf of Mannar region. The new species is assigned to the Alpheus brevirostris group, and is distinguished from other species of this group by the combination of the following features: rostral ridge lower than orbital hood in lateral view and postrostral carina not extended to the middle of the carapace, palm of major chela with a transverse groove near the base of dactylus, the ultimate segment of the third maxilliped slender, fingers of minor chela of male slightly longer than palm, the first carpal segment of second pereiopods shorter than second segment, merus of third pereiopods slender and unarmed, dactylus of third pereiopods slender and subspatulate, and unique colour patterns of longitudinal light lines on the reddish body.

8.
Environ Res ; : 112112, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600880

RESUMO

Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is an emerging metal-free photocatalyst, however, engineering the photocatalytic efficiency for the effective degradation of hazardous molecules is still challenging. An unstable and low bandgap CuWO4 was composited with g-C3N4 to achieve synergistic benefits of tuning the visible light responsiveness and stability of CuWO4. CuWO4/g-C3N4 nanocomposite exhibited a relatively high visible light absorption region and the bandgap was modified from 2.77 to 2.53 eV evidenced via UV-DRS. Moreover, the fast electron transfer rate was observed with CuWO4/g-C3N4 nanocomposite as confirmed using PL and photocurrent studies. XRD, FT-IR, and HR-TEM analyses signified the formation of CuWO4/g-C3N4 nanocomposite. CuWO4/g-C3N4 nanocomposite showed enhanced photocatalytic degradation of Tetracycline (TC) about ∼7.4 fold greater than pristine g-C3N4 in 120 min. Notably, the OH• and •O2- radicals played a most significant role in photocatalytic TC degradation. Furthermore, the energy band structure, density of state, and Bader charge analyses of these molecules were performed.

9.
Futur J Pharm Sci ; 7(1): 210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692854

RESUMO

Background: Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC. (Fabaceae) (DG) is a perennial non-climbing herb or shrub and folklore medicine, widely shows a large number of medicinal properties, as well as contains divergent bioactive compounds. Many of the herbal formulations contain this medicinal plant, which is considered as master of medicinal plant in Ayurveda. This study is an attempt to establish this plant material based on its pharmaco-chemical profiles with special reference to soil chemistry. The pharmaco-chemical features such as organoleptic, DNA sequence, physicochemical, proximate, phytochemical, UV, and FTIR profiling were carried out using standard techniques. Moreover, the ADME-PK properties of the selected molecules were established. Results: The pharmaco-chemical features like organoleptic, DNA sequence, physicochemical, proximate, phytochemical, UV, and FTIR profiling, ADME-PK properties, and soil chemistry of D. gangeticum revealed its unique and diagnostic peculiarities. DNA barcoding showed that the sequence was 99.77% similar to D. gangeticum (KP094638) having 100% query coverage. The soil analysis revealed the presence of moderately high content of NPK and sufficient amount of all essential macro- and micronutrients (S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B). The phytochemical profiling showed that the ethanolic extract of the aerial part contained glycoside, amino acid, phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, and coumarins, while the ethanolic root extract of the plant revealed the presence of glycoside, amino acid, phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, and triterpenoids. FTIR results indicated that the plant extracts are mainly rich in phenolic derivatives. ADME-PK properties of pterocarpan such as gangetin (1a), gangetinin (1b), desmocarpin (1c), and desmodin (1d) were found to pass the Lipinski, Ghose, Veber, and Egan rules, supporting the drug-likeliness. Conclusion: This is the first record of pharmaco-chemical profiling of D. gangeticum along with soil chemistry, and this information helps in the proper identification and future studies on this species.

10.
11.
Spec Care Dentist ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614254

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the parental perception of oral health related quality of life and barriers to access dental care among children with intellectual needs. METHOD: This cross sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 300 parents of children aged 4-12 years with intellectual needs (mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, autism). Data on oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) were collected with parental-caregivers perceptions questionnaire (P-CPQ). DMFT/dmft index was used to express caries prevalence as per World Health Organisation. Chi-squared test, analysis of variance, t-test and correlation were performed. RESULTS: Parents of children who fell in the high severity DMFT category reported higher score in all four domains of OHRQoL when compared to low severity and moderate severity. Parents of children suffering from autism had higher score in all four domain of OHRQoL (p = .000).Majority of the parents rated their children's oral health as either fair (47%) or poor (42%). Predominant barriers for access dental care were financial difficulties (35.3%), lack of knowledge about dental care (24%), transportation difficulties (15%). CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that higher caries prevalence has negative impact on OHRQoL of children with intellectual needs and their parents faced certain barriers for accessing dental care.

12.
J Orthop Case Rep ; 11(5): 61-67, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557442

RESUMO

Introduction: Adamantinoma is a rare low-grade malignant tumor in young adults. Recent advances in molecular techniques have shown different variants with discordance between genotype and phenotype. This poses a challenge in diagnosis and management. Ewing's-like adamantinoma is one such variant. The appropriate treatment protocol for this dedifferentiated tumor remains to be established. Here, we present a rare case of Ewing's-like Adamantinoma treated with limb salvage surgery using three step Ilizarov technique with good results. Case Report: A 38-year-old lady presented at our OPD complaining of recent onset pain and gradual increase in size over a long standing swelling in the right lower tibia. Radiologically was diagnosed as Ewing's but was not responsive to chemotherapy. A Tru-Cut biopsy showed histological picture of dedifferentiated adamantinoma. Immunohistochemistry showed CD99 positivity. FISH revealed (11;22) translocation confirming Ewing's-like adamantinoma. She was managed with wide excision followed by staged Ilizarov distraction-osteogenesis and bone transport to correct the 13 cm discrepancy in bone length. There have been no signs of recurrence on post-resection follow-up of 2 years. Patient attained full range of knee and ankle movements. Conclusion: The controversy as to what constitutes the difference between adamantinoma-like Ewing's and Ewing's-like adamantinoma persists despite technological advances. The appropriate treatment protocol remains to be established. Ilizarov three step techniques provide a feasible alternative to amputation while circumventing the difficulties of large bone reconstruction in the distal tibia.

14.
Osteoporos Int ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432115

RESUMO

The study was conducted to illustrate the effect of Romosozumab in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients. Romosozumab decreased the incidence of vertebral, nonvertebral, and clinical fractures significantly. In addition, decreased incidence of falls and increased bone mineral density at lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck was observed. Romosozumab is a monoclonal antibody that acts against the sclerostin pathway leading to enhanced bone formation and reduced bone resorption in patients with osteoporosis. Electronic search was performed on Medline (via PubMed), The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and clinicaltrials.gov, till May 2020, for RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of Romosozumab in postmenopausal osteoporosis. RCTs evaluating the effect of Romosozumab on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients. Meta-analysis was performed by Cochrane review manager 5 (RevMan) version 5.3. Cochrane risk of bias 2.0 tool and GRADE pro-GDT were applied for methodological quality and overall evidence quality, respectively. One hundred seventy-nine studies were screened, and 10 eligible studies were included in the analysis, with a total of 6137 patients in romosozumab group and 5732 patients in control group. Romosozumab significantly reduced the incidence of vertebral fractures [OR = 0.43 (95%CI = 0.35-0.52), High-quality evidence], nonvertebral fractures [OR = 0.78 (95%CI = 0.66-0.92), High quality], and clinical fractures [OR = 0.70 (95%CI = 0.60-0.82), High quality] at 24 months. Significant reduction in incidence risk of falls [OR = 0.87 (95%CI = 0.78-0.96), High quality] was observed with romosozumab. Bone mineral density was significantly increased in the romosozumab treated groups at lumbar spine [MD = 12.66 (95%CI = 12.66-12.67), High quality], total hip [MD = 5.69 (95%CI = 5.68 - 5.69), Moderate quality], and femoral neck [MD = 5.18 (95%CI = 5.18-5.19), Moderate quality] at 12 months. The total adverse events [RR = 0.98(95%CI = 0.96-1.01), Moderate quality] and serious adverse events [RR = 0.98(95%CI = 0.88-1.08), Moderate quality] with romosozumab were comparable to the control group. The current analysis with evidence on efficacy and safety of Romosozumab, authors opine to recommend the use of Romosozumab treatment for post-menopausal osteoporosis.Systematic review registration: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42019112196.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333729

RESUMO

A complete peptide-based drug delivery unit has been designed with a tumor homing domain chemically linked to a syndiotactic cell-penetrating domain. The designed peptides were synthesized, characterized, and tested in vitro for cellular uptake and cytotoxicity evaluation. The differential uptake, cellular internalization, negligible hemotoxicity, selective toxicity to MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, and the superior penetration in three-dimensional MDA-MB-231 tumorospheres confirm their utility as a promising delivery vector.

16.
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat ; 156: 106581, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273492

RESUMO

Leucas vestita Wall. ex. Benth., is an endemic species restricted to Western Ghats, India. In this study, the carrageenan-induced anti-inflammatory model was used to evaluate the influence of L. vestita ethanol extract on inflammation. The Ethanol extract was tested for its anti-inflammatory property at a dose of 200mg/kg po. and 400mg/kg po. The paw volume was reduced gradually, three hours after administration of the extract. The extract showed a dosage dependant activity. The compounds present in the ethanol extract were identified by using HPLC and the binding affinity of these compounds against Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2, the enzyme involved in the perception of pain) was analyzed by using FlexX molecular docking suite.

17.
Indian J Orthop ; 55(4): 953-960, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194653

RESUMO

Aim: The objective of the study is to compare the accuracy of implant positioning and limb alignment achieved in robotic-arm assisted total knee arthroplasty(RATKA) and manual total knee arthroplasty(MTKA) to their respective preoperative plan. Patients and methods: This was a prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary care centre between August 2018 and January 2020. 143 consecutive RATKA(105 patients) and 151 consecutive MTKA(111 patients) performed by two experienced arthroplasty surgeons were included. Two independent observers evaluated the accuracy of implant positioning by measuring the radiological parameters according to the Knee-Society-Roentgenographic-Evaluation-System and limb alignment from postoperative weight-bearing scanogram. Outcomes were defined, based on the degree of deviation of measurements from the planned position and alignment, as excellent(0-1.99°), acceptable(2.00-2.99°) and outlier(≥ 3.00°). Results: There were no systematic differences in the demographic and baseline characteristics between RATKA and MTKA. Statistically significant outcomes were observed favouring robotic group for postoperative mechanical axis (p < .001), coronal inclination of the femoral component (p < 0.001), coronal inclination of tibial component (p < 0.001), and sagittal inclination of tibial component (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the sagittal inclination of the femoral component (p = 0.566). The percentage of knees in the 'excellent' group were higher in RATKA compared to MTKA. There was absolutely no outlier in terms of limb alignment in the RATKA group versus 23.8% (p < 0.001) in the MTKA group. All the measurements showed high interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Conclusion: Robotic-arm assisted TKA executed the preoperative plan more accurately with respect to limb alignment and implant positioning compared to manual TKA, even when the surgeons were more experienced in the latter. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s43465-020-00324-y.

18.
medRxiv ; 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268519

RESUMO

Objectives: Ground-glass opacity (GGO) - a hazy, gray appearing density on computed tomography (CT) of lungs - is one of the hallmark features of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients. This AI-driven study is focused on segmentation, morphology, and distribution patterns of GGOs. Method: We use an AI-driven unsupervised machine learning approach called PointNet++ to detect and quantify GGOs in CT scans of COVID-19 patients and to assess the severity of the disease. We have conducted our study on the "MosMedData", which contains CT lung scans of 1110 patients with or without COVID-19 infections. We quantify the morphologies of GGOs using Minkowski tensors and compute the abnormality score of individual regions of segmented lung and GGOs. Results: PointNet++ detects GGOs with the highest evaluation accuracy (98%), average class accuracy (95%), and intersection over union (92%) using only a fraction of 3D data. On average, the shapes of GGOs in the COVID-19 datasets deviate from sphericity by 15% and anisotropies in GGOs are dominated by dipole and hexapole components. These anisotropies may help to quantitatively delineate GGOs of COVID-19 from other lung diseases. Conclusion: The PointNet++ and the Minkowski tensor based morphological approach together with abnormality analysis will provide radiologists and clinicians with a valuable set of tools when interpreting CT lung scans of COVID-19 patients. Implementation would be particularly useful in countries severely devastated by COVID-19 such as India, where the number of cases has outstripped available resources creating delays or even breakdowns in patient care. This AI-driven approach synthesizes both the unique GGO distribution pattern and severity of the disease to allow for more efficient diagnosis, triaging and conservation of limited resources. Key Points: Our approach to GGO analysis has four distinguishing features:We combine an unsupervised computer vision approach with convex hull and convex points algorithms to segment and preserve the actual structure of the lung.To the best of our knowledge, we are the first group to use PointNet++ architecture for 3D visualization, segmentation, classification, and pattern analysis of GGOs.We make abnormality predictions using a deep network and Cox proportional hazards model using lung CT images of COVID-19 patients.We quantify the shapes and sizes of GGOs using Minkowski tensors to understand the morphological variations of GGOs within the COVID-19 cohort.

19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 491, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259956

RESUMO

Coral reefs are fragile and endangered ecosystems in the tropical marine and coastal environment. Thermal stress due to marine heat waves (MHW) could cause significantly negative impacts on the health conditions, i.e., bleaching of the coral ecosystem. The current study is an attempt to quantify the intensity of coral bleaching in the Andaman region in recent decades using the intensity of marine heat wave (IMHW) estimated from satellite measured sea surface temperature (SST). A linear regression model was developed between IMHW and in situ observations of percent coral bleaching (PCB) which has the slope 7.767 (of IMHW unit) and intercept (- 141.7). Further, an attempt was also made to establish the relationship between PCB and the ratio between the remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) at 443 and 531 nm to upscale the percentage of coral bleaching at synoptic scales. A significant positive correlation between the PCB and band ratio index was found (R2 = 0.72). This approach can be used for the operational monitoring of coral reef beaching in this region.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Temperatura Alta
20.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244977, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287506

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the serious global public health burden of liver disease. Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with (HCV). In Pakistan, where the disease has high occurrence rate. The present study envisages an up-to-date prevalence of HCV and genotypic distribution in the general population of Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The blood samples from 6,538 individuals including 3,263 males and 3,275 females were analyzed for hepatitis C surface antigen by Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was found that 396 (12.13%) out of 3263 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HCV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HCV antibodies were found in the 31-40 age group (11.01%). The ICT positive samples were further screened by nested PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA. It was identified that 7.11% (3263) of the total population (6538) tested was positive, among which the 461 (14.07%) females possessed antibodies in their blood against HCV. Our data showed total HCV infection in the investigated population was 5.78%. Higher percentage of HCV prevalence was detected in males than females in the age group 31-40 and 41-50. To compare the prevalence of HCV genotypes age-wise in male and female genotype 3a was found most prevalent genotype followed by 1a, 2a and 3b, respectively.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
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