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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252426, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374656

RESUMO

Fresh dates of seventeen varieties and khalts from Southern Morocco were analysed for their colour, pigments content, and sensory profile. The results showed significant differences between the sensory profiles of the samples due to the variability of the genotype and their different origin. Fresh date varieties and khalts were a good source of ß-carotene (0.49 - 10.86 µg of ß-carotene /100 g FW). The results revealed that the date varieties and khalts were found to have an excellent functional composition and good sensory characteristics. Therefore, these varieties of Moroccan dates could be used for fresh consumption and in the processing industry, which will constitute a significant source of antioxidants.


Tâmaras frescas de 17 variedades e khalts do sul do Marrocos foram analisadas por sua cor, conteúdo de pigmentos e perfil sensorial. Os resultados mostraram diferenças significativas entre os perfis sensoriais das amostras devido à variabilidade do genótipo e suas diferentes origens. Variedades de tâmaras frescas e khalts foram consideradas uma boa fonte de ß-caroteno (0,49-10,86 µg de ß-caroteno / 100 g FW). Na verdade, os resultados revelaram que as variedades de tâmaras e khalts apresentam uma boa composição funcional e boas características sensoriais. Portanto, essas variedades de tâmaras marroquinas podem ser usadas para consumo in natura e na indústria de processamento, que constituirá uma fonte considerável de antioxidantes.


Assuntos
Pigmentação da Pele , Carotenoides , Phoeniceae/genética , Antioxidantes
2.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e252426, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35588514

RESUMO

Fresh dates of seventeen varieties and khalts from Southern Morocco were analysed for their colour, pigments content, and sensory profile. The results showed significant differences between the sensory profiles of the samples due to the variability of the genotype and their different origin. Fresh date varieties and khalts were a good source of ß-carotene (0.49 - 10.86 µg of ß-carotene /100 g FW). The results revealed that the date varieties and khalts were found to have an excellent functional composition and good sensory characteristics. Therefore, these varieties of Moroccan dates could be used for fresh consumption and in the processing industry, which will constitute a significant source of antioxidants.


Assuntos
Phoeniceae , Antioxidantes/análise , Frutas/química , Phoeniceae/genética , Pigmentação da Pele , beta Caroteno
3.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 29(8): 1455-60, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18599578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: At lumbar diskography, intradiskal lidocaine can eliminate or reduce provoked diskogenic pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the postdiskogram CT features of lidocaine-sensitive and lidocaine-insensitive severely painful disks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intradiskal lidocaine was injected at 182 severely painful levels in 111 patients. Clinical records/imaging studies were reviewed for response to intradiskal lidocaine (complete/substantial, partial, and no pain improvement), evidence of diskographic contrast leakage (fluoroscopic/CT images), and the overall postdiskogram CT appearance in these severely painful disks. The assessed traditional Dallas grade (degeneration/radial tear [RT]) was supplemented by identified postdiskogram CT features of annular derangement (annular gap [AG], RT into peripheral annular tear [PAT], isolated PAT, lamellar annular tear, free/attached annular fragments, bucket-handle tear, and peripheral annular pocket). RESULTS: Isolated degenerative changes (40%) and radial defects with or without degeneration (60%) subsets were noted. Dallas grade 3 degeneration was most commonly observed (69%) with increased features of annular derangement in disks with a worsening Dallas grade. Complete/substantial versus no pain improvement was significantly associated with disk state (diskographic leakage, contained), radial defect (none, RT, or AG), and "RT-into-PAT" and were statistically significant in univariate models (P < .001). The associations remained significant in multivariate models. Higher Dallas degenerative grade and presence of free annular fragments were associated with a greater chance of no pain relief. CONCLUSION: Severely painful disks demonstrated complex annular derangement with both radial defects (RTs and AGs) or degenerative changes present, alone or in combination. Complete/substantial pain improvement after lidocaine administration is associated with disk state, radial defect (RT and AG), and RT-into-PAT.


Assuntos
Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Lombar/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/complicações , Dor Lombar/etiologia , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
N Engl J Med ; 344(16): 1179-87, 2001 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11309632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A main indication for the insertion of tympanostomy tubes in infants and young children is persistent otitis media with effusion, reflecting concern that this condition may cause lasting impairments of speech, language, cognitive, and psychosocial development. However, evidence of such relations is inconclusive, and evidence is lacking that the insertion of tympanostomy tubes prevents developmental impairment. METHODS: We enrolled 6350 healthy infants from 2 to 61 days of age and evaluated them regularly for middle-ear effusion. Before the age of three years 429 children with persistent effusion were randomly assigned to have tympanostomy tubes inserted either as soon as possible or up to nine months later if effusion persisted. In 402 of these children we assessed speech, language, cognition, and psychosocial development at the age of three years. RESULTS: By the age of three years, 169 children in the early-treatment group (82 percent) and 66 children in the late-treatment group (34 percent) had received tympanostomy tubes. There were no significant differences between the early-treatment group and the late-treatment group at the age of three years in the mean (+/-SD) scores on the Number of Different Words test, a measure of word diversity (124+/-32 and 126+/-30, respectively); the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised test, a measure of speech-sound production (85+/-7 vs. 86+/-7); the General Cognitive Index of McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (99+/-14 vs. 101+/-13); or on measures of receptive language, sentence length, grammatical complexity, parent-child stress, and behavior. CONCLUSIONS: In children younger than three years of age who have persistent otitis media, prompt insertion of tympanostomy tubes does not measurably improve developmental outcomes at the age of three years.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Ventilação da Orelha Média , Otite Média com Derrame/cirurgia , Audiometria , Comportamento Infantil , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fala , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Child Dev ; 71(2): 310-22, 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10834466

RESUMO

In a prospective study of child development in relation to early-life otitis media, we administered the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) to a large (N = 2,156), sociodemographically diverse sample of 1- and 2-year-old children. As a prerequisite for interpreting the CDI scores, we studied selected measurement properties of the inventories. Scores on the CDI/Words and Gestures (CDI-WG), designed for children 8 to 16 months old, and on the CDI/Words and Sentences (CDI-WS), designed for children 16 to 30 months old, increased significantly with months of age. On several scales of both CDI-WG and CDI-WS, standard deviations approximated or exceeded mean values, reflecting wide variability in results. Statistically significant differences in mean scores were found according to race, maternal education, and health insurance status as an indirect measure of income, but the directionality of differences was not consistent across inventories or across scales of the CDI-WS. Correlations between CDI-WG and CDI-WS ranged from .18 to .39. Our findings suggest that the CDI reflects the progress of language development within the age range 10 to 27 months. However, researchers and clinicians should exercise caution in using results of the CDI to identify individual children at risk for language deficits, to compare groups of children with different sociodemographic profiles, or to evaluate the effects of interventions.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Linguagem Infantil , Testes de Linguagem , Pré-Escolar , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Gestos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
6.
Pediatrics ; 105(5): 1119-30, 2000 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10790473

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As part of a prospective study of possible effects of early-life otitis media on speech, language, cognitive, and psychosocial development, we tested relationships between children's cumulative duration of middle ear effusion (MEE) in their first 3 years of life and their scores on measures of language, speech sound production, and cognition at 3 years of age. METHODS: We enrolled 6350 healthy infants by 2 months of age who presented for primary care at 1 of 2 urban hospitals or 1 of 2 small town/rural and 4 suburban private pediatric practices. We intensively monitored the children's middle ear status by pneumatic otoscopy, supplemented by tympanometry, throughout their first 3 years of life; we monitored the validity of the otoscopic observations on an ongoing basis; and we treated children for otitis media according to specified guidelines. Children who met specified minimum criteria regarding the persistence of MEE became eligible for a clinical trial in which they were assigned randomly to undergo tympanostomy tube placement either promptly or after a defined extended period if MEE remained present. From among those remaining, we selected randomly, within sociodemographic strata, a sample of 241 children who represented a spectrum of MEE experience from having no MEE to having MEE whose cumulative duration fell just short of meeting randomization criteria. In subjects so selected, the estimated duration of MEE ranged from none to 65.6% of the first year of life and 44.8% of the first 3 years of life. In these 241 children we assessed language development, speech sound production, and cognition at 3 years of age, using both formal tests and conversational samples. RESULTS: We found weak to moderate, statistically significant negative correlations between children's cumulative durations of MEE in their first year of life or in age periods that included their first year of life, and their scores on formal tests of receptive vocabulary and verbal aspects of cognition at 3 years of age. However, the percent of variance in these scores explained by time with MEE in the first year of life beyond that explained by sociodemographic variables ranged only from 1.2% to 2.9%, and the negative correlations were concentrated in the subgroup of children whose families had private health insurance (rather than Medicaid). We found no significant correlations in the study population as a whole or in any subgroup between time with MEE during antecedent periods and children's scores on measures of spontaneous expressive language, speech sound production, or other measured aspects of cognition. In contrast, by wide margins, scores on all measures were consistently highest among the most socioeconomically advantaged children and lowest among the most socioeconomically disadvantaged children. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest either that persistent early-life MEE actually causes later small, circumscribed impairments of receptive language and verbal aspects of cognition in certain groups of children or that unidentified, confounding factors predispose children both to early-life otitis media and to certain types of developmental impairment. Findings in the randomized clinical trial component of the larger study should help distinguish between causality and confounding as explanations for our findings.language, speech, cognition, development, otitis media, middle ear effusion.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Otite Média com Derrame/fisiopatologia , Fala , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Laryngoscope ; 110(5 Pt 1): 773-8, 2000 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10807356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To obtain normative data for a population of children 4 years of age with respect to standard vestibular and balance test protocols and to determine, in the absence of concurrent middle ear effusion (MEE), the possible changes caused by a history of recurrent or persistent MEE. STUDY DESIGN: Comparative studies of the results of vestibular and balance tests in a cohort of young children with and without a history of MEE. METHODS: Seventy-one children, 4 years of age, with a well-documented history since early infancy regarding the presence or absence of MEE were evaluated using pneumatic otoscopy, tympanometry, audiometry, and vestibular and balance (rotational and moving platform posturography) tests. For the results of the vestibular and balance tests, comparisons were made between the group of 31 children (43.7%) without and the group of 40 children (56.3%) with a history of recurrent or persistent MEE, when a positive disease history was defined as at least a 10% cumulative percentage of time with MEE between early infancy and time of testing. RESULTS: When compared with children with a negative history of significant MEE, children with a positive history had a lower average gain to a rotational stimulus of 0.1 Hz, 150 degrees/s (0.57 vs. 0.44; P = .007). There were no significant differences between groups with respect to other measures. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a history of recurrent or persistent MEE affects the vestibular and/or balance function of 4-year-old children when tested in the absence of a concurrent episode of MEE. The possible sequelae of the disease should be weighed in future considerations of early intervention for MEE.


Assuntos
Otite Média com Derrame/diagnóstico , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Otite Média com Derrame/fisiopatologia , Recidiva , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Testes de Função Vestibular/instrumentação
8.
Pediatrics ; 104(6): 1264-73, 1999 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10585976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As part of a long-term study of possible effects of early-life otitis media on speech, language, cognitive, and psychosocial development, we tested relationships between parents' ratings of parent-child stress at ages 1, 2, and 3 years, and of their children's behavior problems at ages 2 and 3 years, and the children's cumulative duration of middle-ear effusion (MEE) in their first 3 years of life. METHODS: We enrolled healthy infants by age 2 months who presented for primary care at 1 of 2 urban hospitals or 1 of 2 small-town/rural and 4 suburban private pediatric practices. We obtained standardized baseline measures of parental stress; we intensively monitored the children's middle-ear status by pneumatic otoscopy, supplemented by tympanometry, throughout their first 3 years of life; we monitored the validity of the otoscopic observations on an ongoing basis; and we treated children for otitis media according to specified guidelines. We obtained parent ratings of parental stress using the Parenting Stress Index/Short Form when the children reached ages 1, 2, and 3 years, and parent ratings of children's behavior using the Child Behavior Checklist when the children reached ages 2 and 3 years. RESULTS: In 2278 children we found no substantial relationships between parents' ratings of parent-child stress when the children reached ages 1, 2, and 3 years, or of their children's behavior problems at ages 2 and 3 years, and the cumulative duration of the children's MEE during antecedent periods. On the other hand, ratings both of parent-child stress and of behavior problems were consistently highest among the most socioeconomically disadvantaged children and lowest among the most socioeconomically advantaged children. Ratings also tended to be highest among children whose parents' baseline stress scores were highest. CONCLUSIONS: Parent-child stress and children's behavior problems in the first 3 years of life, as rated by parents, bear little or no relationship to the children's previous cumulative duration of MEE.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Otite Média/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Ventilação da Orelha Média , Otite Média/terapia , Pennsylvania , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
9.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 42(6): 1432-43, 1999 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10599625

RESUMO

The present study was designed to determine whether 4 measures of children's spontaneous speech and language differed according to the educational level of the children's mothers. Spontaneous language samples from 240 three-year-old children were analyzed to determine mean length of utterance in morphemes (MLUm), number of different words (NDW), total number of words (TNW), and percentage of consonants correct (PCC). A norm-referenced, knowledge-dependent measure of language comprehension, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R), was also included for purposes of comparison with the spontaneous measures. Three levels of maternal education were compared: less than high school graduate, high school graduate, and college graduate. Trend analyses showed statistically significant linear trends across educational levels for MLUm, NDW, TNW, and PPVT-R; the trend for PCC was not significant. The relationship of maternal education and other sociodemographic variables to measures of children's language should be examined before using such measures to identify children with language disorders.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Mães/psicologia , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , População Rural , População Urbana
10.
JAMA ; 282(22): 2125-30, 1999 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10591333

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Anatomical, physiological, and epidemiological data indicate that there may be a significant genetic component to prolonged time with and recurrent episodes of otitis media in children. OBJECTIVE: To determine the genetic component of time with and episodes of middle ear effusion and acute otitis media (AOM) during the first 2 years of life. DESIGN: Prospective twin and triplet cohort study with enrollment from 1982 through 1995. SETTING: Otitis Media Research Center in the ear, nose, and throat clinic of Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. PATIENTS: A total of 168 healthy same-sex twin and 7 triplet sets were recruited within the first 2 months of life; zygosity results were available for 140 sets; 138 (99%) of these were followed up for 1 year and 126 (90%) for 2 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of time with middle ear effusion, episodes of middle ear effusion, and episodes of AOM by zygosity status. RESULTS: At the 2-year end point, the estimate of heritability of time with middle ear effusion was 0.73 (P<.001). The estimates of discordance for 3 or more episodes of middle ear effusion were 0.04 for monozygotic twins and 0.37 for dizygotic twins (P = .01). The estimate of discordance of an episode of AOM in monozygotic twins was 0.04 compared with 0.49 in dizygotic twins (P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests there is a strong genetic component to the amount of time with middle ear effusion and episodes of middle ear effusion and AOM in children.


Assuntos
Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Otite Média/genética , Doença Aguda , Doenças em Gêmeos/diagnóstico , Doenças em Gêmeos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Otite Média/diagnóstico , Otite Média/tratamento farmacológico , Otite Média/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Análise de Regressão , Trigêmeos , Gêmeos
11.
Pediatrics ; 104(4): e52, 1999 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10506277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As part of a study of possible effects of early life otitis media on children's development, we attempted to determine whether levels of language and communication skills at 1 and 2 years of age are associated with the cumulative duration of middle ear effusion (MEE) in the first 2 years of life. METHODS: Subjects (N = 2156) were followed at one of eight study sites in the Pittsburgh area. Middle ear status was monitored closely throughout the first 2 years of life. For each child, the cumulative percentage of days with MEE was estimated based on diagnoses at visits and interpolations for intervals between visits. For each child also, 1 or both parents completed the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory-Words and Gestures (CDI-WG) when the child was 1 year of age and the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory-Words and Sentences (CDI-WS) when the child was 2 years of age. RESULTS: Unadjusted correlations between scores on the CDI-WG and percentage of days with MEE in the first year of life were close to zero, and there were no statistically significant negative correlations. Unadjusted correlations between scores on the CDI-WS and the cumulative percentage of days with MEE in year 2 and in years 1 and 2 combined were generally negative and statistically significant, but the magnitudes of those correlations were no higher than 0.09. After adjustment for sociodemographic variables, only the Vocabulary Production Scale of the CDI-WS remained correlated significantly with the percentage of days with MEE, and the percentage of days with MEE accounted for only a negligible percentage of the variance in scores on this scale. CONCLUSIONS: In this diverse sample of children, parent-reported levels of language skills at 1 and 2 years of age were correlated negligibly with the cumulative percentage of days with MEE in the children's first and second years of life. otitis media, otitis media with effusion, language, communication.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Otite Média com Derrame/complicações , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
JAMA ; 282(10): 945-53, 1999 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10485679

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Adenoidectomy and adenotonsillectomy are commonly performed in US children to reduce the occurrence of persistent or recurrent otitis media, but evidence supporting the efficacy of the operations is limited. OBJECTIVES: To test the efficacy of adenoidectomy and adenotonsillectomy in children with persistent or recurrent otitis media who had not previously undergone tube placement and to compare the relative efficacy of adenoidectomy alone vs adenotonsillectomy in such children. DESIGN: Two parallel randomized clinical trials. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 461 children aged 3 to 15 years were enrolled at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pa, between April 1980 and April 1994. Four hundred ten children were observed for up to 3 years. INTERVENTIONS: Children without recurrent throat infection or tonsillar hypertrophy (304 enrolled; 266 followed up) were randomized to either an adenoidectomy, adenotonsillectomy, or control group; children who had such conditions (157 enrolled; 144 followed up) were randomized to an adenotonsillectomy or control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Occurrence rate of episodes of acute otitis media by treatment group and estimated proportion of time with otitis media. RESULTS: In both trials, most subjects were eligible because of recurrent acute otitis media, with or without persistent otitis media with effusion. A total of 47 children assigned to surgical treatment groups had no surgery. The efficacy of surgery in both trials was modest and limited mainly to the first follow-up year. The largest differences in that year were found in the 3-way trial between the adenotonsillectomy group and the control group: mean annual rate of episodes of acute otitis media, 1.4 vs 2.1 (P<.001); and mean estimated percentage of time with otitis media, 18.6% vs 29.9% (difference, 11.3%; 95% confidence interval, 4.4%-18.2%; P=.002). Perioperative and postoperative complications or other adverse events occurred not infrequently, especially among subjects undergoing adenotonsillectomy (14.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed limited and short-term efficacy of both adenoidectomy and adenotonsillectomy; given the risks, morbidity, and costs of these procedures, these data suggest that neither operation should ordinarily be considered as a first surgical intervention in children whose only indication is recurrent acute otitis media.


Assuntos
Adenoidectomia , Otite Média/cirurgia , Tonsilectomia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição de Poisson , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Análise de Regressão , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
An. méd. Asoc. Méd. Hosp. ABC ; 44(3): 113-6, jul.-sept. 1999. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-266878

RESUMO

Se presenta un nuevo método de aplicación y entrenamiento para la realización de microcirugía endoscópica, desarrollado en el Departamento de Cirugía Experimental Karl Storz Brimex II del Centro Médico ABC por medio del cual es posible abordar en forma microendoscópica los diferentes planos del cuello de la rata, logrando con ello la realización de diversos procedimiento quirúrgico. El modelo experimental utilizando a la rata es ideal por su bajo costo, fácil manejo y tolerancia al trauma quirúrgico. Nuestra propuesta original de utilizar a la rata como modelo ideal para la enseñanza de la microcirugía laparoscópica se complementa con el presente trabajo, al demostrar la factibilidad de abordar otras zonas anatómicas (por ejemplo, el cuello), transformando un espacio virtual en espacio real y haciendo posible la realización de distintos ejercicios quirúrgicos. La práctica de microcirugía endoscópica en sus diferentes formas en un modelo con rata otorga, al que la practica, refinamiento en la técnica quirúrgica


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Ratos , Microcirurgia , Modelos Anatômicos , Pescoço/cirurgia , Pentobarbital , Ratos Wistar/cirurgia
14.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol ; 20(5): 432-41, 1999 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10225224

RESUMO

HIV-1 V3 serotyping is a classification of immunodeficiency viruses based on antibody binding to V3 peptides that allows obtaining information on circulating subtypes that could be important for population-based epidemiologic studies. Recently, several laboratories have developed V3 enzyme-immunoassays (EIAs) using V3 peptides of subtypes A to E. In the present study, the utility of including additional peptides of subtypes F to H to the EIA was evaluated on a panel of 203 well-characterized serum samples from patients with diverse geographic origins (22 countries) and known HIV-1 genotype (79 A, 61 B, 21 C, 7 D, 7 E, 21 F, 6 G, 1 H). The results indicate a high predictive value (ppv) for serotypes B (> or =0.86), D (1) and E (0.88), and confirm the difficulty of predicting genotype A or C based on serotype A or C. Results also indicate that inclusion of the F peptide in the V3 EIAs may be useful (ppv = 0.61), but introduction of peptides G and H failed to demonstrate significant sensitivity or specificity for these subtypes. Correlation between serotyping and amino-acid sequences of the V3 region from 103 samples allowed the identification of key amino-acids that appear essential for subtype-specific seroreactivity.


Assuntos
Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/classificação , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/classificação , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas/métodos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/classificação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Feminino , Genótipo , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Sorotipagem
15.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol ; 20(2): 115-21, 1999 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10048897

RESUMO

Non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) variants seem to be more readily transmitted than syncytium-inducing (SI) variants, and the switch from NSI to SI during HIV-1 infection seems to be a key determinant to the evolution of AIDS. We investigated eventual differences in the SI capacity on MT-2 cells according to genetic subtypes of HIV-1 and correlated this observations with CD4 counts and duration of HIV infection. In total, 86 patients, most with known date of HIV contamination and infected with different genetic subtypes, have been studied: 11 subtype A, 46 subtype B, 22 subtype C, and 7 subtype E. Multivariate analysis used a Cox's proportional hazards regression. The number and percentage of patients infected with an SI strain were as follows: 3 of 11 (27%) for subtype A, 15 of 46 (33%) for subtype B, 0 of 22 (0%) for subtype C, and 5 of 7 (71%) for subtype E. After adjustment for time after seroconversion and CD4 counts, significantly fewer SI variants were observed in patients infected with subtype C (p < .002) and it was found that subjects infected with subtype E had a higher risk of being infected with an SI strain (rate ratio [RR] = 12.39%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.55-98.67; p < .001). Most of the subtype E-infected patients from our study switched from an NSI to SI phenotype early after seroconversion (<4 years). To predict the in vitro presence of SI variants, we scanned V3-loop sequences for mutations at positions 11 and/or 25. Overall, 54 of 55 (98.2%) NSI strains in vitro were predicted NSI, and only 4 of 12 (33.3%) of SI viruses were predicted SI. For patients in whom a switch from an NSI to an SI virus was observed, the SI phenotype could be detected earlier in vitro than by the corresponding V3-loop sequence. No SI strains were observed among patients infected with subtype C; however, longer follow-up is needed to see whether the appearance of SI variants in subtype E or the absence of SI variants in subtype C-infected patients is also associated respectively with a faster or slower progression to AIDS as described for subtype B.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Linhagem Celular , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral/genética , Células Gigantes/virologia , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/classificação , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , Fenótipo
16.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 119(5): 444-54, 1998 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9807067

RESUMO

We reviewed our experience with 100 children admitted to Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh between 1980 and 1995 with an intratemporal complication of acute otitis media. Seventy-two patients were treated for acute mastoiditis. Of these 72 children, 54 (75.0%) were treated conservatively with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics and myringotomy. Eighteen (25.0%) required mastoidectomy for treatment of a subperiosteal or Bezold's abscess or cholesteatoma, or because of poor response to conservative therapy. Twenty-two children presented with facial paralysis, complete in 5 (22.7%) and incomplete in 17 (77.3%). Eighteen (81.8%) were treated conservatively, but four required mastoid surgery. Nineteen patients had adequate follow-up; of these, 15 recovered normal facial function but 4 were left with partial paralysis. Three patients presented with serous labyrinthitis and recovered completely with conservative therapy. Of the two patients who presented with suppurative labyrinthitis, one was treated conservatively, but the other required tympanomastoidectomy with cochleotomy; both patients had permanent, profound sensorineural hearing loss in the affected ear. Four patients presented with acute petrositis, and in all four it resolved with mastoidectomy. In the antibiotic era, intratemporal complications of acute otitis media still occur in otherwise healthy children, often after inadequate treatment of acute otitis media.


Assuntos
Paralisia Facial/etiologia , Labirintite/etiologia , Mastoidite/etiologia , Otite Média/complicações , Doença Aguda , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Paralisia Facial/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Inflamação , Labirintite/terapia , Masculino , Mastoidite/terapia , Otite Média/terapia , Osso Petroso/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 118(5): 584-8, 1998 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9591854

RESUMO

Little is known about cisplatin ototoxicity in pediatric patients. Measurement of otoacoustic emissions is a rapid, reproducible, objective method of evaluating hearing. We examined whether transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions in pediatric patients exposed to cisplatin in the past correlated with audiographic findings. Twelve patients were entered into the study (mean age at treatment 7.8 years, mean cumulative dose 442.5 mg/mm2, mean 7.1 doses). Hearing at 3000 Hz was preserved in 82.6% of patients. In the higher frequencies significant sensorineural hearing loss was noted: 43.5% at 4 kHz; 81.0% at 6 kHz; and 90.5% at 8 kHz. Transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions were measurable in 11 of 12 patients. Middle ear disease accounted for abnormal otoacoustic emission seen in three patients (1 with effusion, 2 with significant negative middle ear pressure). When the middle ear was normal, a statistically significant correlation was seen between the transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions reproducibility and pure-tone threshold (correlation coefficient = -0.69, p = 0.008). Increased hearing loss was also associated with young age at first dose of cisplatin (p = 0.044), high number of chemotherapy cycles (p = 0.042), and high cumulative dose (p = 0.042).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Cóclea/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Audiometria da Fala , Limiar Auditivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Limiar Auditivo/fisiologia , Condução Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Condução Óssea/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cóclea/fisiologia , Otopatias/fisiopatologia , Orelha Média/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Feminino , Audição/efeitos dos fármacos , Audição/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva de Alta Frequência/induzido quimicamente , Perda Auditiva de Alta Frequência/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/induzido quimicamente , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Otite Média com Derrame/fisiopatologia , Projetos Piloto , Pressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
J Trauma ; 44(3): 527-33, 1998 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9529184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the incidence of clinically significant bleeding, side effects, and cost of therapy in mechanically ventilated trauma patients at high risk for stress ulcers who received simplified omeprazole suspension (SOS). METHODS: Prospective, evaluative study in a Level I trauma center. Mechanically ventilated trauma patients admitted with at least one additional risk factor for stress ulcer development received SOS for stress ulcer prophylaxis. RESULTS: Sixty trauma patients were enrolled. The mean Injury Severity Score was 27.3. After starting SOS, there were no cases of clinically significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding related to stress ulceration. Baseline pH was 3.3, and mean gastric pH after SOS was increased to 6.7 (p < 0.005). There were no adverse effects thought to be related to omeprazole suspension. Incidence of nosocomial pneumonia after beginning SOS was 28.3%. The cost of acquisition plus administration of SOS was $13.13 per day, whereas the cost of drug acquisition alone was $3.83 per day. CONCLUSION: In a prospective, evaluative study of 60 trauma patients who required mechanical ventilation and had at least one additional risk factor for stress ulcer development, omeprazole suspension prevented clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding, maintained excellent control of gastric pH, produced no toxicity, and was the least costly medication alternative.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Traumatismo Múltiplo/complicações , Omeprazol/uso terapêutico , Úlcera Péptica Hemorrágica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Péptica Hemorrágica/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Antiulcerosos/economia , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Intubação Gastrointestinal , Omeprazol/economia , Úlcera Péptica Hemorrágica/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Suspensões
19.
Pediatrics ; 99(3): 318-33, 1997 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9041282

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As part of a long-term study of possible effects of early-life otitis media on speech, language, cognitive, and psychosocial development, we set out to delineate the occurrence and course of otitis media during the first 2 years of life in a sociodemographically diverse population of infants, and to identify related risk factors. METHODS: We enrolled healthy infants by age 2 months who presented for primary care at one of two urban hospitals or one of two small town/rural and four suburban private pediatric practices. We intensively monitored the infants' middle-ear status by pneumatic otoscopy, supplemented by tympanometry, throughout their first 2 years of life; we monitored the validity of the otoscopic observations on an ongoing basis; and we treated infants for otitis media according to specified guidelines. RESULTS: We followed 2253 infants until age 2 years. The proportions developing > or = 1 episode of middle-ear effusion (MEE) between age 61 days (the starting point for data analysis) and ages 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively, were 47.8%, 78.9%, and 91.1%. Overall, the mean cumulative proportion of days with MEE was 20.4% in the first year of life and 16.6% in the second year of life. Tympanostomy-tube placement was performed on 1.8% and 4.2% of the infants during the first and second years of life, respectively. By every measure, the occurrence of MEE was highest among urban infants and lowest among suburban infants; these differences were greatest in the earliest months of life. Overall, unadjusted mean cumulative proportions of days with MEE were higher among boys than girls, higher among black than white infants, and higher among Medicaid than private health insurance enrollees. Cumulative proportions of days with MEE varied directly with the number of smokers in the household and with the number of other children to whom infants were exposed, whether at home or in day care, and varied inversely with birth weight, maternal age, level of maternal education, a socioeconomic index, and duration of breastfeeding. After adjustment, using multivariate analysis, the only variables that each remained independently and significantly related to the cumulative proportion of days with MEE were: during the first year of life, study site grouping, sex, the socioeconomic index, breastfeeding for > or = 4 months, the number of smokers in the household, and an index rating the degree of exposure to other children at home or in day care; and during the second year of life, sex, the socioeconomic index, and the child exposure index. The duration of breastfeeding and the degree of exposure to tobacco smoke contributed little to the explained variance; most was attributable to differences in the socioeconomic index and the child exposure index. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to findings in many previous reports, the prevalence of otitis media during the first 2 years of life among lower-socioeconomic-status black infants appears to be as high as, if not higher than among lower-socioeconomic-status white infants, and certainly higher than among middle-class white infants. Among middle-class white infants the prevalence may also be higher than commonly assumed. The most important sociodemographic risk factors for otitis media appear to be low socioeconomic status and repeated exposure to large numbers of other children, whether at home or in day care.


Assuntos
Otite Média/epidemiologia , Negros , Aleitamento Materno , Creches , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Otite Média/etnologia , Otite Média/etiologia , Pennsylvania , População , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Brancos
20.
AIDS ; 11(1): 43-51, 1997 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9110074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the genetic subtypes and characteristics of HIV-1 strains from individuals infected after overseas deployment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-one HIV-1-positive individuals detected between 1986 and 1995 in the French army were included in the study. For each patient, the year and country of HIV infection are known. Genetic subtypes of HIV-1 were determined using the heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) using ED5/ED12 as outer and ES7/ES8 as inner primers. Strains were further characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the C2-V3 region. The amino-acid sequences corresponding to the V3 region were aligned on the basis of the subtyping results and were then compared to the consensus V3 sequences of the corresponding subtypes. RESULTS: Among the 61 patients studied, nine became infected in France, and 52 were HIV-negative before overseas deployment but HIV-positive at their return. The majority (n = 43) deployed in Africa and a limited number of patients deployed in Asia (Cambodia, n = 5) or South America (guyana, n = 4). The nine individuals who were not deployed overseas were all infected with subtype B strains. The majority of the other patients were infected with non-B strains; eight subtype A, 20 subtype B, 16 subtype C, one subtype D, six subtype E and one subtype F. Five of the six subtype E strains were contracted in Cambodia and one in Djibouti, and all subtype C strains were from Djibouti. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a large diversity among the different strains introduced into France. Analysis of the amino-acid sequences of the V3 loop revealed the introduction of uncommon V3-loop patterns. CONCLUSION: In the group of HIV-1-infected individuals that we studied and who were deployed overseas, 63.4% were infected with non-B strains. In addition, the subtype A, B and C viruses in this population were very heterogeneous. Due to the routine occurrence of international travel and deployment, the predominance of subtype B HIV-1 viruses may change in European countries. However, the possible implications on the dynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic needs further follow-up.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Militares , Adulto , África , DNA Viral/sangue , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , França , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Viagem
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