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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 369-376, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989521

RESUMO

Due to increasing active nitrogen pollution loads, river systems have become an important source of nitrous oxide (N2O) in many areas. Due to the lack of monitoring data in many studies as well as the difficulty in estimating intermediate parameters and expressing temporal-spatial variability in current methods, a high level of uncertainty remains in the estimates of riverine N2O emission quantity. Based on the monthly monitoring efforts conducted for 10 sampling sites across the Yonganxi River system in Zhejiang Province from June 2016 to July 2019, the temporal and spatial dynamics of riverine N2O dissolved concentrations ρ(N2O), N2O fluxes, and their influencing factors were addressed. A multiple regression model was then developed for predicating riverine N2O emission flux to estimate annual N2O emission quantity for the entire river system. The results indicated that observed riverine ρ(N2O) (0.03-2.14 µg·L-1) and the N2O fluxes[1.32-82.79 µg·(m2·h)-1] varied by 1-2 orders of magnitude of temporal-spatial variability. The temporal and spatial variability of ρ(N2O) were mainly influenced by the concentrations of nitrate, ammonia, and dissolved organic carbon, whereas the N2O emission fluxes were mainly affected by river water discharges and ρ(N2O). A multiple regression model that incorporates variables of river water discharge and ρ(N2O) could explain 90% of the variability in riverine N2O emission fluxes and has high accuracy. The model estimated N2O emission quantity from the entire Yonganxi River system of 3.67 t·a-1, with 29% from the main stream and 71% from the tributaries. The IPCC default emission factor method might greatly overestimate and underestimate N2O emission quantities for rivers impacted by low and high pressures of human activities, respectively. This study advances our quantitative understanding of N2O emission for the entire river system and provides a reference method for estimating riverine N2O emission with more accuracy.


Assuntos
Óxido Nitroso , Rios , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Água
2.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the most malignant type of lung cancer. We previously reported that arsenic trioxide (As2O3) inhibited tumor initiating cells (TICs) of SCLC in vitro. In the present study, we aimed to identify the above effect in vivo and shed light on its underlying mechanism. METHODS AND RESULTS: TICs were enriched by culturing human SCLC cell line as sphere cells in specified serum-free medium. The expression of stem cell markers, CD133 and CD44, and the in vivo tumorigenicity of both TICs and their parental cells were examined. To demonstrate the inhibitory effect of As2O3 on TICs, cell proliferation, clone formation and sphere formation assays were performed. CD133 and Notch pathway-related factors were also measured after As2O3 treatment. Xenograft models were established by injecting TICs into nude mice. Mice were treated with As2O3 for 14 days. Afterwards, the tumor volume and the expression of CD133 and Notch1 were evaluated. TICs obtained by the above-mentioned method showed elevated levels of stem cell markers and increased tumorigenicity compared with their parental cells. As2O3 treatment largely inhibited TICs proliferation, sphere formation and clonogenic capacity. As2O3 also reduced the expression of CD133 and down-regulated Notch pathway in TICs. Furthermore, As2O3 potently inhibited tumor growth, decreased the expression of CD133 and down-regulated Notch1 in tumors originating from TICs. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that As2O3 has a remarkable inhibitory effect on TICs of SCLC both in vitro and in vivo, and the mechanism might involve the down-regulation of Notch pathway.

4.
Lab Invest ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022505

RESUMO

Ubiquitin-specific protease 35 (USP35) is a member of the ubiquitin-specific protease family (USP), which influences the progression of multiple cancers by deubiquitinating a variety of substrates. In recent years, the specific role of USP35 was begun to be understood. In this study, we investigated the role and underlying molecular mechanisms of USP35 in chemoresistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to cisplatin. Depletion of USP35 increased the sensitivity of NSCLC to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. We screened and identified a potential substrate of USP35, baculoviral IAP repeat containing 3 (BIRC3). Overexpression of USP35 in H460 cells increased the abundance of BIRC3, while USP35 knockdown in Anip973 cells decreased BIRC3 abundance. Notably, USP35 directly interacted with and stabilized BIRC3 through lys48-mediated polyubiquitination via its deubiquitinating enzyme activity. USP35 alleviated cisplatin-induced cell apoptosis by regulating BIRC3 levels in NSCLC cells. Moreover, a significant positive correlation between USP35 and BIRC3 protein expression levels was observed in human NSCLC tissues. Taken together, USP35 plays a vital role in resistance to cisplatin-induced cell death through the overexpression of BIRC3. USP35 might be a potentially novel therapeutic target in human NSCLC.

5.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2022 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early brain injury (EBI) has been considered as the major contributor to the neurological dysfunction and poor clinical outcomes of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Studies showed that apelin-13 exhibits a neuroprotective effect in brain damage induced by cerebral ischemia. However, it remains unclear whether apelin-13 could exhibit the protective functions following SAH. The present study aimed to validate the neuroprotective role of apelin-13 in SAH, and further investigated the underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: We constructed SAH rat model and we found that apelin-13 significantly alleviated neurological disorder and brain edema, improved memory deficits in SAH rats. Apelin-13 treatment decreased contents of TNF-α and IL-1ß in cerebral spinal fluid of SAH rat by using ELISA. Apelin-13 treatment promoted the expression of APJ and Bcl-2, and decreased the level of active caspase-3 and Bax in the temporal cortex after SAH by using western blot. Also, apelin-13 attenuated the cortical cell death and neuronal degeneration as shown by TUNEL, FJB and Nissl staining. However, ML221, an inhibitor of APJ, significantly reversed all the above neuroprotective effects of apelin-13. Moreover, a neuron-microglia co-culture system, which mimic SAH in vitro, confirmed the protective effect of apelin-13 on neurons and the inhibitory effect on inflammation through apoptosis-related proteins. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated that apelin-13 exhibit a neuroprotective role after SAH through inhibition of apoptosis in an APJ dependent manner.

6.
Bioresour Technol ; : 126703, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031437

RESUMO

Chemical modification on hydrochars can significantly improve their ability of removing heavy metal ions from wastewater, but so far no research has focused on the chemical modification through free radical reaction. In this work, a cation functionalized hydrochar (CFHC) bearing -N+H2R was synthesized by grafting-polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto bamboo hydrochar under initiation by benzoyl peroxide, followed by the amination with the introduced epoxy group and diethylenetriamine and a subsequent hydrochloric acid treatment. The resulted CFHC exhibited a superior removal capacity of 424.09 mg·g-1 for Cr(VI), and the highest sorption occurred at pH of 2. Combining a series of characterizations and tests, it was concluded that the sorption conformed to the pseudo-second-order and Freundlich equations, indicating a multilayer chemisorption process that mainly driven by electrostatic reaction, reduction, and surface complexation. This research proved that a free radical polymerization treatment could effectively transform hydrochars into super adsorbents for wastewater treatment.

7.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; : 107410, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031459

RESUMO

As one of the earliest land plant lineages, Selaginella is important for studying land plant evolution. It is the largest genus of lycophytes containing 700-800 species. Some unique characters of Selaginella plastomes have been reported, but based only on 20 species. There have been no plastome phylogenies of Selaginella based on a relatively large sampling, and no efforts have been made to resolve the phylogeny of the enigmatic Sinensis group whose relationships have been unclear based on small datasets. Here we investigated the structures of 59 plastomes representing 51 species covering all six subgenera and 18 sections of Selaginella except two sections and including the intriguing Sinensis group for the first time. Our major results include: (1) the plastome size of Selaginella ranges tremendously from 78,492 bp to 187,632 bp; (2) there are numerous gene losses in Selaginella comparing with other lycophytes, Isoëtaceae and Lycopodiaceae; (3) the gene contents and plastome structures in Selaginella vary lineage-specifically and all infrageneric taxa are well supported in the plastome phylogeny; (4) the ndh gene family tends to lose or pseudogenize in those species with DR structure and without other short or medium repeats; (5) the short and medium repeat regions in SC mediate many conformations causing diverse and complex plastome structures, and six new conformations are discovered; (6) forty-eight species sampled have high GC content (>50%) but three species in the Sinensis group have ∼30% GC content in plastomes, similar to most vascular plants; (7) the Sinensis group is monophyletic, includes at least two subgroups, and has the smallest plastomes in land plants except some parasitic plants, and their plastomes do not contain any tRNAs; (8) the younger lineages in Selaginella tend to have higher GC content, whereas the older lineages tend to have lower GC content; and (9) because of incomplete genomic data and abnormal structures or some unknown reasons, even the concatenated plastomes could not well resolve the phylogenetic relationships in Selaginella with confidence, highlighting the difficulty in resolving the phylogeny and evolution of this particularly important land plant lineage.

8.
J Hazard Mater ; 425: 128008, 2022 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986570

RESUMO

Although Cd concentration of grains is generally lower in japonica than in indica subspecies, the effects of root endodermal barriers on the subspecific differences in Cd accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) are poorly understood. Here, we characterized the differences in endodermal differentiation between japonica and indica subspecies and their effects on Cd radial transport. Casparian strips (CSs) and suberin lamellae (SL) in japonica subspecies were initiated at the 6%- 7% and 21%- 27% position from the root tip, respectively, which were 65% and 26% earlier than in indica subspecies, respectively. The lignin/suberin content in japonica subspecies was 47%/42% greater than that in indica subspecies because of the higher expression of lignin/suberin biosynthesis-related genes (OsCASP1, OsPAL, OsCYP86A1 and OsKCS20). Cd exposure induced endodermal plasticity in both subspecies, but the changes in japonica were greater than in indica subspecies. The earlier formation of CSs/SL in japonica subspecies significantly restricted the flow of radial transport tracer to reach the xylem and decreased Cd influx into roots, that is, endodermal barriers inhibited Cd radial transport via both apoplastic and cell-to-cell pathways, thus decreasing the root-to-shoot transport of Cd in japonica subspecies. Our findings are beneficial for the genetic modification of rice with low-Cd-accumulating ability.

9.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978664

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the viscoelastic properties of the fresh porcine ureter. Prove the QLV theory can sufficiently model the stress relaxation function of porcine ureters, and determine the QLV model constants which may provide insight into the synthesis of ureteral scaffolds with biomimetic viscoelastic properties in tissue engineering. METHODS: Hysteresis tests were applied to study the differences in dissipated energy ratio for each different strain group. In stress relaxation tests, samples were sub-grouped and quickly ramping up to 5%, 20%, and 30% strain in each group and gradually relaxed to a corresponding level. Bringing together the quasi-linear viscoelasticity (QLV) theory and stress relaxation function to determine the eight constants of the ureteral tissue, and fitting the raw data with the model via MATLAB. RESULTS: The hysteresis response measurement results revealed that the porcine ureter was a highly dissipative material and there were differences between toe and linear region in stress-stain curve. The stress relaxation results revealed ureters responded with time-dependent decay of stress. The eight constants of the ureteral QLV model were determined for three different strain groups, and we proved that the QLV model can sufficiently adapt the experimental data of the ureter stress relaxation. CONCLUSION: This study investigated the time-dependent properties of the porcine ureter, and demonstrated the QLV theory could be used to evaluate the viscoelastic properties of the porcine ureteral tissue.

10.
JAMA Neurol ; 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982098

RESUMO

Importance: In-stent restenosis (ISR) is the primary reason for stroke recurrence after intracranial stenting in patients who were treated with a standard bare-metal stent (BMS). Whether a drug-eluting stent (DES) could reduce the risk of ISR in intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) remains unclear. Objective: To investigate whether a DES can reduce the risk of ISR and stroke recurrence in patients with symptomatic high-grade ICAS. Design, Settings, and Participants: A prospective, multicenter, open-label randomized clinical trial with blinded outcome assessment was conducted from April 27, 2015, to November 16, 2018, at 16 medical centers in China with a high volume of intracranial stenting. Patients with symptomatic high-grade ICAS were enrolled, randomized, and followed up for 1 year. Intention-to-treat data analysis was performed from April 1 to May 22, 2021. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to receive DES (NOVA intracranial sirolimus-eluting stent system) or BMS (Apollo intracranial stent system) treatment in a 1:1 ratio. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary efficacy end point was ISR within 1 year after the procedure, which was defined as stenosis that was greater than 50% of the luminal diameter within or immediately adjacent to (within 5 mm) the implanted stent. The primary safety end point was any stroke or death within 30 days after the procedure. Results: A total of 263 participants (194 men [73.8%]; median [IQR] age, 58 [52-65] years) were included in the analysis, with 132 participants randomly assigned to the DES group and 131 to the BMS group. The 1-year ISR rate was lower in the DES group than in the BMS group (10 [9.5%] vs 32 [30.2%]; odds ratio, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.11-0.52; P < .001). The DES group also had a significantly lower ischemic stroke recurrence rate from day 31 to 1 year (1 [0.8%] vs 9 [6.9%]; hazard ratio, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.01-0.80; P = .03). No significant difference in the rate of any stroke or death within 30 days was observed between the DES and BMS groups (10 [7.6%] vs 7 [5.3%]; odds ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.54-3.94; P = .46). Conclusions and Relevance: This trial found that, compared with BMSs, DESs reduced the risks of ISR and ischemic stroke recurrence in patients with symptomatic high-grade ICAS. Further investigation into the safety and efficacy of DESs is warranted. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02578069.

11.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994052

RESUMO

The role of alveolar macrophages (AMs) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is unclear. We characterized the function of AMs in rats chronically exposed to biomass fuel smoke (BMF) and studied the signal pathways that regulate AMs polarization. One hundred and eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into BMF group and clean air control (CON) group. After BMF smoke exposure for 4 days, 1 month and 6 months, the cytokine secretion and function of AMs were determined by flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Bone marrow-derived macrophages were cultured and exposed to particulate matter (PM) from the smoke. Exposure initially promoted pro-inflammatory factors, but pro-inflammatory macrophages shared features of anti-inflammatory macrophages. Consistent with IL-4 upregulated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, p-Stat6 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in AMs elevated at 4 days of exposure. After 6 months of exposure, CD206, TGF-ß1 and p-Smad3 were significantly higher than the control groups. PPARγ reversed the M1 phenotype induced by PM in vitro and drove the macrophages into the M2 phenotype. Altogether, the study demonstrates the dynamic phenotype and functional changes in AMs during exposure to BMF smoke.

12.
Sci. agric. ; 79(1)2022.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-760486

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Cereal cyst nematode is a major pest of small grain cereals, which causes huge yield losses to crops in China and other parts of the world. In this study, the effects of five inorganic ion concentrations on egg hatching of Heterodera avenae were studied. Results revealed that ZnCl2 and FeCl3 promoted hatching of induced and natural diapausing eggs. The cumulative hatching rates of eggs were 49 % and 13 % at 30 mM ZnCl2 and 10 mM FeCl3, respectively, which were higher than those of other treatments. The hatching ability promoted by ZnCl2 is greater than by FeCl3. Diapause induced eggs in ZnCl2 continued to hatch after 10 days; however, those in FeCl3 mainly hatched in the first two weeks. ZnCl2 had obvious stimulating effects on the hatching of natural diapause and nondiapause free eggs at 15 and 30 mM concentrations. FeCl3 promoted the hatching of natural diapause eggs; howevr, it inhibited hatching of nondiapause free eggs. Conversely, different concentrations of inorganic ions did not have any stimulatory effect on white female eggs. In the nematode life cycle, hatching is the critical stage because juveniles may be infected. The results of this study provide useful information the use of new fertilizers (including promoted hatching inorganic ions) applied before planting for controlling nematode diseases caused by H. avenae.

13.
Nat Chem Biol ; 18(1): 70-80, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916619

RESUMO

An RNA-involved phase-separation model has been proposed for transcription control. However, the molecular links that connect RNA to the transcription machinery remain missing. Here we find that RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) constitute half of the chromatin proteome in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), some being colocalized with RNA polymerase (Pol) II at promoters and enhancers. Biochemical analyses of representative RBPs show that the paraspeckle protein PSPC1 inhibits the RNA-induced premature release of Pol II, and makes use of RNA as multivalent molecules to enhance the formation of transcription condensates and subsequent phosphorylation and release of Pol II. This synergistic interplay enhances polymerase engagement and activity via the RNA-binding and phase-separation activities of PSPC1. In ESCs, auxin-induced acute degradation of PSPC1 leads to genome-wide defects in Pol II binding and nascent transcription. We propose that promoter-associated RNAs and their binding proteins synergize the phase separation of polymerase condensates to promote active transcription.

15.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 166: 107340, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737000

RESUMO

The Old World fern genera Hypodematium and Leucostegia had long been placed in the families Dryopteridaceae and Davalliaceae, respectively, before the advent of molecular phylogenetics. Recent molecular studies confirmed the recognition of the family Hypodematiaceae composed of these two genera, but the relationships within each of these two genera have been unclear. In the present study we performed phylogenetic analyses (MP, ML, BI) based on DNA data from six plastid markers (atpB, atpB-rbcL, matK, rbcL, rps4 & rps4-trnS, and trnL & trnL-F) of 165 accessions representing 31 species in two genera of Hypodematiaceae as the ingroup and 26 accessions representing Cystopteridaceae, Didymochlaenaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Davalliaceae, Oleandraceae, and Woodsiaceae as the outgroups. Our analyses supported the monophyly of the currently defined Hypodematiaceae only including Hypodematium and Leucostegia and found that the family to be sister to the remaining eupolypods I. Our data resolved three taxa of Leucostegia into two clades. In Hypodematium, 28 taxa are resolved into seven strongly supported clades or single-accession clades. The evolution of important morphological characters are inferred in the phylogenetic context. Our dated phylogeny suggested a latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous origin of the family and Upper Cretaceous origin of two genera, with Hypodematiaceae originated from East Asia; extant lineages of Hypodematium originated from East Asia and subsequently into Africa, the Indian region, the Madagascar region, and Southeast Asia; and Leucostegia originated from East Asia and/or Southeast Asia.

16.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118464, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763019

RESUMO

The use of biomass for cooking and heating is considered an important factor associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but few studies have previously addressed its underlying mechanisms. Therefore, this research aimed to evaluate the effects of biomass-related PM2.5 (BRPM2.5) exposure on 16HBE human airway epithelial cells and in mice with regard to mitochondrial dysfunction. Our study indicated that BRPM2.5 exposure of 16HBE cells resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, including decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased expression of fission proteins-phospho-DRP1, increased mitochondrial ROS (mtROS), and decreased levels of ATP. BRPM2.5 altered the mitochondrial metabolism of 16HBE cells by decreasing mitochondrial oxygen consumption and glycolysis. However, Mitochondria targeted peptide SS-31 eliminated mitochondrial ROS and alleviated the ATP deficiency and proinflammatory cytokines release. BRPM2.5 exposure resulted in abnormal mitochondrial morphological alterations both in 16HBE and in lung tissue. Taken together, these results suggest that BRPM2.5 has detrimental effects on human airway epithelial cells, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction, abnormal mitochondrial metabolism and altered mitochondrial dynamics. The present study provides the first evidence that disruption of mitochondrial structure and mitochondrial metabolism may be one of the mechanisms of BRPM2.5-induced respiratory dysfunction.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais , Pulmão , Animais , Biomassa , Humanos , Pulmão/química , Camundongos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
17.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126741, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352526

RESUMO

Hydrochar (AAHC) with rich carboxylate groups was prepared by one-step hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of bamboo and acrylic acid with the presence of ammonium persulphate, and then activated by a sodium hydroxide solution. AAHC was featured by elemental analysis, SEM, XPS, FTIR, Zeta potential analysis and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and applied to test adsorptive ability of methylene blue (MB) by batch sorption experiments. Despite a small Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 5.03 m2·g-1, AAHC has excellent MB adsorbing capacity owing to the richness of carboxylate groups. Compared with hydrochar produced without adding ammonium persulphate, AAHC exhibits larger BET surface, pore volume and carboxylate groups, indicating a small amount of ammonium persulfate plays an important role in HTC in addition to the free radical initiator. This work provides a facile and cheap method combining HTC and polymerization for preparation of carboxylate-rich hydrochar.


Assuntos
Azul de Metileno , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Acrilatos , Adsorção , Sulfato de Amônio , Azul de Metileno/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131723, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426131

RESUMO

Screening endophyte is the most important but also difficult to achieve a successful application in endophyte assisted phytoremediation process. Traditional screening procedure faced certain limitations including long time, difficulty in ascertaining the optimum strain and insignificant promotion efficiency of the selected strain in application. In this study, a novel endophyte screening method was established using microfluidic technology, realizing the real time observation of plant root phenotyping and allowing simultaneous incubation of different endophyte-plant systems. Using this method within two weeks, showed that endophyte Bacillus paramycoides (PE1), which possessed the best capability to improve phytoremediation efficiency from hyperaccumulator P. acinosa was successfully screened by evaluating root growth rate and effluent heavy metal (HM) concentration. PE1 increased root growth rate by 54.31 % and reduced the Cd concentration of chip effluent by 46.33 %. The results were verified by pot experiment, which showed that with PE1 inoculation, the biomass of P. acinosa promoted 42.50 % and Cd removal efficiency increased 55.49 %. Besides, significant and positive correlations were observed among the phytoremediation indicators obtained from microfluidic and traditional method, indicating the feasibility of microfluidic method. Our research provided a new and efficient method for endophyte screening, which could give a better understanding of endophyte assisted phytoremediation technology of HM contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Bacillus , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio , Endófitos , Metais Pesados/análise , Microfluídica , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
19.
Food Chem ; 368: 130723, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500352

RESUMO

The effects of the fat crystal structure on lipid droplets digestion behaviors were investigated using an in vitro digestion model. The crystalline oil-in-water emulsions containing the same solid fat content (SFC) with different fat crystal sizes and polymorphic forms were fabricated by different storage protocols: constant-temperature and inconstant-temperature storage. Oral and gastric processing led to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the d4,3 values of the two emulsions, and the two emulsions underwent partial coalescence and flocculation/aggregation. The free fatty acid (FFA) release profiles showed that the lipolysis extent decreased due to a larger crystal size. In addition, the two emulsions showed differences in beta polymorphism. This work further demonstrated that the FFA release could be modulated by the physical properties of the fat.


Assuntos
Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal , Emulsões , Tamanho da Partícula , Água
20.
Front Environ Sci Eng ; 16(3): 35, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249401

RESUMO

The distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) has been intensively studied in large-scale wastewater treatment plants and livestock sources. However, small-scale decentralized sewage treatment facilities must also be explored due to their possible direct exposure to residents. In this study, six wastewater treatment facilities in developed rural areas in eastern China were investigated to understand their risks of spreading ARGs. Using metagenomics and network analysis tools, ARGs and bacterial and viral communities were identified in the influent (INF) and effluent (EFF) samples. The dominant ARGs belonged to the bacitracin class, which are different from most of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The dominant hosts of ARGs are Acidovorax in bacterial communities and Prymnesiovirus in viral communities. Furthermore, a positive relationship was found between ARGs and phages. The ARGs significantly correlated with phages were all hosted by specific genera of bacteria, indicating that phages had contributed to the ARG's proliferation in sewage treatment facilities. Paying significant concern on the possible enhanced risks caused by bacteria, viruses and their related ARGs in decentralized sewage treatment facilities is necessary. Electronic Supplementary Material: Supplementary material is available in the online version of this article at 10.1007/s11783-021-1469-4 and is accessible for authorized users.

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