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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(5): ofac131, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35450083

RESUMO

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is common among older adults hospitalized with influenza, yet data are limited on the impact of DM on risk of severe influenza-associated outcomes. Methods: We included adults aged ≥65 years hospitalized with influenza during 2012-2013 through 2016-2017 from the Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET), a population-based surveillance system for laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations conducted in defined counties within 13 states. We calculated population denominators using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services county-specific DM prevalence estimates and National Center for Health Statistics population data. We present pooled rates and rate ratios (RRs) of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, pneumonia diagnosis, mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital death for persons with and without DM. We estimated RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using meta-analysis with site as a random effect in order to control for site differences in the estimates. Results: Of 31 934 hospitalized adults included in the analysis, 34% had DM. Compared to those without DM, adults with DM had higher rates of influenza-associated hospitalization (RR, 1.57 [95% CI, 1.43-1.72]), ICU admission (RR, 1.84 [95% CI, 1.67-2.04]), pneumonia (RR, 1.57 [95% CI, 1.42-1.73]), mechanical ventilation (RR, 1.95 [95% CI, 1.74-2.20]), and in-hospital death (RR, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.23-1.80]). Conclusions: Older adults with DM have higher rates of severe influenza-associated outcomes compared to those without DM. These findings reinforce the importance of preventing influenza virus infections through annual vaccination, and early treatment of influenza illness with antivirals in older adults with DM.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent population-based data are limited regarding influenza-associated hospitalizations in U.S. children. METHODS: We identified children <18 years hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza during 2010-2019 seasons through CDC's Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network. Adjusted hospitalization and in-hospital mortality rates were calculated, and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to evaluate risk factors for pneumonia, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, and death. RESULTS: Over 9 seasons, adjusted influenza-associated hospitalization incidence rates ranged from 10-375 per 100,000 persons each season and were highest among infants <6 months. Rates decreased with increasing age. The highest in-hospital mortality rates were observed in children <6 months (0.73 per 100,000 persons). Over time, antiviral treatment significantly increased from 56% to 85% (P < .001) and influenza vaccination rates increased from 33% to 44% (P = .003). Among the 13,235 hospitalized children, 2,676 (20%) of hospitalized children were admitted to the ICU, 2,262 (17%) had pneumonia, 690 (5%) required mechanical ventilation, and 72 (0.5%) died during hospitalization. As compared with those <6 months of age, hospitalized children ≥13 years had higher odds of pneumonia (adjusted odds ratios [aOR], 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-3.4), ICU admission (aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-1.9), mechanical ventilation (aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.2), and death (aOR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.2-9.3). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalization and death rates were greatest in younger children at the population level. Among hospitalized children, however, older children had a higher risk of severe outcomes. Continued efforts to prevent and attenuate influenza in children are needed.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35481950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-nonsusceptible invasive pneumococcal disease (NS-IPD) incidence declined dramatically in the United States following introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) into the infant immunization schedule (7-valent PCV7 in 2000, replaced by the 13-valent PCV13 in 2010). We evaluated the long-term impact of PCVs on NS-IPD. METHODS: We identified IPD cases through the Centers for Disease Control Active Bacterial Core surveillance during 1998-2018. Isolates intermediate or resistant to ≥1 antibiotic class were classified as nonsusceptible. We calculated annual rates of IPD (cases per 100,000 persons). RESULTS: From 1998 through 2018, NS-IPD incidence decreased from 43.9 to 3.2 among children <5 years and from 19.8 to 9.4 among adults ≥65 years. Incidence of vaccine-type NS-IPD decreased in all age groups, while incidence of NVT NS-IPD increased in all age groups; the greatest absolute increase in NVT NS-IPD occurred among adults ≥65 years (2.3 to 7.2). During 2014-18, NVTs 35B, 33F, 22F, and 15A were the most common NS-IPD serotypes. CONCLUSIONS: NS-IPD incidence decreased following PCV7 and PCV13 introduction in the United States. However, recent increases in NVT NS-IPD, most pronounced among older adults, have been observed. New higher valency PCVs containing the most common nonsusceptible serotypes, including 22F and 33F, could help further reduce NS-IPD.

4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(16): 574-581, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446827

RESUMO

On October 29, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration expanded the Emergency Use Authorization for Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine to children aged 5-11 years; CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices' recommendation followed on November 2, 2021.* In late December 2021, the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) became the predominant strain in the United States,† coinciding with a rapid increase in COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among all age groups, including children aged 5-11 years (1). COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET)§ data were analyzed to describe characteristics of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among 1,475 U.S. children aged 5-11 years throughout the pandemic, focusing on the period of early Omicron predominance (December 19, 2021-February 28, 2022). Among 397 children hospitalized during the Omicron-predominant period, 87% were unvaccinated, 30% had no underlying medical conditions, and 19% were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). The cumulative hospitalization rate during the Omicron-predominant period was 2.1 times as high among unvaccinated children (19.1 per 100,000 population) as among vaccinated¶ children (9.2).** Non-Hispanic Black (Black) children accounted for the largest proportion of unvaccinated children (34%) and represented approximately one third of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations in this age group. Children with diabetes and obesity were more likely to experience severe COVID-19. The potential for serious illness among children aged 5-11 years, including those with no underlying health conditions, highlights the importance of vaccination among this age group. Increasing vaccination coverage among children, particularly among racial and ethnic minority groups disproportionately affected by COVID-19, is critical to preventing COVID-19-associated hospitalization and severe outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Hospitalização , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(11): 429-436, 2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298458

RESUMO

The B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, has been the predominant circulating variant in the United States since late December 2021.* Coinciding with increased Omicron circulation, COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates increased rapidly among infants and children aged 0-4 years, a group not yet eligible for vaccination (1). Coronavirus Disease 19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET)† data were analyzed to describe COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among U.S. infants and children aged 0-4 years since March 2020. During the period of Omicron predominance (December 19, 2021-February 19, 2022), weekly COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates per 100,000 infants and children aged 0-4 years peaked at 14.5 (week ending January 8, 2022); this Omicron-predominant period peak was approximately five times that during the period of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) predominance (June 27-December 18, 2021, which peaked the week ending September 11, 2021).§ During Omicron predominance, 63% of hospitalized infants and children had no underlying medical conditions; infants aged <6 months accounted for 44% of hospitalizations, although no differences were observed in indicators of severity by age. Strategies to prevent COVID-19 among infants and young children are important and include vaccination among currently eligible populations (2) such as pregnant women (3), family members, and caregivers of infants and young children (4).


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/tendências , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Vigilância da População/métodos , Estados Unidos
6.
N Engl J Med ; 386(9): 861-868, 2022 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35235727

RESUMO

Melioidosis, caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an uncommon infection that is typically associated with exposure to soil and water in tropical and subtropical environments. It is rarely diagnosed in the continental United States. Patients with melioidosis in the United States commonly report travel to regions where melioidosis is endemic. We report a cluster of four non-travel-associated cases of melioidosis in Georgia, Kansas, Minnesota, and Texas. These cases were caused by the same strain of B. pseudomallei that was linked to an aromatherapy spray product imported from a melioidosis-endemic area.


Assuntos
Aromaterapia/efeitos adversos , Burkholderia pseudomallei/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças , Melioidose/epidemiologia , Aerossóis , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Burkholderia pseudomallei/genética , COVID-19/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Melioidose/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Choque Séptico/microbiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(7): 271-278, 2022 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35176003

RESUMO

The first U.S. case of COVID-19 attributed to the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) was reported on December 1, 2021 (1), and by the week ending December 25, 2021, Omicron was the predominant circulating variant in the United States.* Although COVID-19-associated hospitalizations are more frequent among adults,† COVID-19 can lead to severe outcomes in children and adolescents (2). This report analyzes data from the Coronavirus Disease 19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET)§ to describe COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among U.S. children (aged 0-11 years) and adolescents (aged 12-17 years) during periods of Delta (July 1-December 18, 2021) and Omicron (December 19, 2021-January 22, 2022) predominance. During the Delta- and Omicron-predominant periods, rates of weekly COVID-19-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 children and adolescents peaked during the weeks ending September 11, 2021, and January 8, 2022, respectively. The Omicron variant peak (7.1 per 100,000) was four times that of the Delta variant peak (1.8), with the largest increase observed among children aged 0-4 years.¶ During December 2021, the monthly hospitalization rate among unvaccinated adolescents aged 12-17 years (23.5) was six times that among fully vaccinated adolescents (3.8). Strategies to prevent COVID-19 among children and adolescents, including vaccination of eligible persons, are critical.*.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/tendências , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Vigilância da População , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e220536, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35212747

RESUMO

Importance: Characterizing rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection among vaccinated and unvaccinated persons with the same exposure is critical to understanding the association of vaccination with the risk of infection with the Delta variant. Additionally, evidence of Delta variant transmission by children to vaccinated adults has important public health implications. Objective: To characterize transmission and infection of SARS-CoV-2 among vaccinated and unvaccinated attendees of an indoor wedding reception. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included attendees at an indoor wedding reception in Minnesota in July 2021. Data were collected from REDCap surveys and routine surveillance interviews. The full list of attendees and a partial list of emails were obtained. Fifty-seven attendees completed the emailed survey. Eighteen additional attendees were identified from the state health department COVID-19 surveillance database. Exposures: Attendance at an indoor event. Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among vaccinated and unvaccinated attendees, identification of an index case, whole genome sequencing (WGS) to identify the COVID-19 variant, understanding of transmission patterns, and assessment of secondary transmission. The primary case definition was an individual with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test who attended the wedding in the 14 days prior to their illness. Results: Data were gathered for 75 attendees (mean [SE] age, 37.5 [13.7] years; 57 [76%] female individuals), of whom 56 (75%) were fully vaccinated, 4 (5%) were partially vaccinated, and 15 (20%) were unvaccinated. Of 62 attendees who were tested, 29 (47%) tested positive, including 16 of 46 fully vaccinated attendees (35%), 2 of 4 partially vaccinated attendees (50%), and 11 of 12 unvaccinated attendees (92%). Being unvaccinated was associated with a higher risk of infection compared with being vaccinated (risk ratio, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.71-4.06; P = .001). One unvaccinated adult required hospitalization. An unvaccinated child who was symptomatic on the event date was identified as the index case. Eleven specimens were available for WGS. All sequenced specimens were closely related and were identified as the Delta variant. WGS supported secondary transmission from a vaccinated individual with SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study identified a COVID-19 Delta variant outbreak at an indoor event despite a high proportion of vaccinated attendees. It found that vaccination was associated with a reduced risk of infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Microb Drug Resist ; 28(4): 389-397, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35172110

RESUMO

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) are a growing public health concern due to resistance to multiple antibiotics and potential to cause health care-associated infections with high mortality. Carbapenemase-producing CRE are of particular concern given that carbapenemase-encoding genes often are located on mobile genetic elements that may spread between different organisms and species. In this study, we performed phenotypic and genotypic characterization of CRE collected at eight U.S. sites participating in active population- and laboratory-based surveillance of carbapenem-resistant organisms. Among 421 CRE tested, the majority were isolated from urine (n = 349, 83%). Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common organism (n = 265, 63%), followed by Enterobacter cloacae complex (n = 77, 18%) and Escherichia coli (n = 50, 12%). Of 419 isolates analyzed by whole genome sequencing, 307 (73%) harbored a carbapenemase gene; variants of blaKPC predominated (n = 299, 97%). The occurrence of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae complex, and E. coli varied by region; the predominant sequence type within each genus was ST258, ST171, and ST131, respectively. None of the carbapenemase-producing CRE isolates displayed resistance to all antimicrobials tested; susceptibility to amikacin and tigecycline was generally retained.


Assuntos
Carbapenêmicos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Enterobacter , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estados Unidos , beta-Lactamases/genética
10.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 70(2): 363-369, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads rapidly amongst residents of skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). The rapid transmission dynamics and high morbidity and mortality that occur in SNFs emphasize the need for early detection of cases. We hypothesized that residents of SNFs infected with SARS-CoV-2 would demonstrate an acute change in either temperature or oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) prior to symptom onset. The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) conducted a retrospective analysis of both temperature and SpO2 at two separate SNFs to assess the utility of these quantitative markers to identify SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to the development of symptoms. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 165 individuals positive for SARS-CoV-2 who were residents of SNFs that experienced coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks during April-June 2020 in a metropolitan area of Minnesota. Age, sex, symptomology, temperature and SpO2 values, date of symptom onset, and date of positive SARS-CoV-2 test were analyzed. Temperature and SpO2 values for the period 14 days before and after the date of initial positive test were included. Descriptive analyses evaluated changes in temperature and SpO2 , defined as either exceeding a set threshold or demonstrating an acute change between consecutive measurements. RESULTS: Two (1%) residents had a temperature value ≥100°F, and 30 (18%) had at least one value ≥99°F within 14 days before symptom development. One hundred and sixteen residents (70%) had at least one SpO2 value ≤94%, while 131 (80%) had an acute decrease in SpO2 of ≥3% between consecutive values in the 14 days prior to symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that acute change in SpO2 might be useful in the identification of SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to the development of symptoms among residents living in SNFs. Facilities may consider adding SpO2 to daily temperature and symptom screening checklists to improve early detection of residents of SNFs infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Temperatura , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teste para COVID-19 , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 95-103, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856114

RESUMO

To determine risk factors for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) among US healthcare personnel (HCP), we conducted a case-control analysis. We collected data about activities outside the workplace and COVID-19 patient care activities from HCP with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test results (cases) and from HCP with negative test results (controls) in healthcare facilities in 5 US states. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate adjusted matched odds ratios and 95% CIs for exposures. Among 345 cases and 622 controls, factors associated with risk were having close contact with persons with COVID-19 outside the workplace, having close contact with COVID-19 patients in the workplace, and assisting COVID-19 patients with activities of daily living. Protecting HCP from COVID-19 may require interventions that reduce their exposures outside the workplace and improve their ability to more safely assist COVID-19 patients with activities of daily living.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Exposição Ocupacional , Atividades Cotidianas , Atenção à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(2): 149-158, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women may be at increased risk for severe influenza-associated outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized pregnant women with influenza. DESIGN: Repeated cross-sectional study. SETTING: The population-based U.S. Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network during the 2010-2011 through 2018-2019 influenza seasons. PATIENTS: Pregnant women (aged 15 to 44 years) hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza identified through provider-initiated or facility-based testing practices. MEASUREMENTS: Clinical characteristics, interventions, and in-hospital maternal and fetal outcomes were obtained through medical chart abstraction. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between influenza A subtype and severe maternal influenza-associated outcomes, including intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or in-hospital death. RESULTS: Of 9652 women aged 15 to 44 years and hospitalized with influenza, 2690 (27.9%) were pregnant. Among the 2690 pregnant women, the median age was 28 years, 62% were in their third trimester, and 42% had at least 1 underlying condition. Overall, 32% were vaccinated against influenza and 88% received antiviral treatment. Five percent required ICU admission, 2% required mechanical ventilation, and 0.3% (n = 8) died. Pregnant women with influenza A H1N1 were more likely to have severe outcomes than those with influenza A H3N2 (adjusted risk ratio, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.3 to 2.8]). Most women (71%) were still pregnant at hospital discharge. Among 754 women who were no longer pregnant at discharge, 96% had a pregnancy resulting in live birth, and 3% experienced fetal loss. LIMITATION: Maternal and fetal outcomes that occurred after hospital discharge were not captured. CONCLUSION: Over 9 influenza seasons, one third of reproductive-aged women hospitalized with influenza were pregnant. Influenza A H1N1 was associated with more severe maternal outcomes. Pregnant women remain a high-priority target group for vaccination. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(48): 1680-1685, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855723

RESUMO

Increases in mental health conditions have been documented among the general population and health care workers since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic (1-3). Public health workers might be at similar risk for negative mental health consequences because of the prolonged demand for responding to the pandemic and for implementing an unprecedented vaccination campaign. The extent of mental health conditions among public health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, however, is uncertain. A 2014 survey estimated that there were nearly 250,000 state and local public health workers in the United States (4). To evaluate mental health conditions among these workers, a nonprobability-based online survey was conducted during March 29-April 16, 2021, to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal ideation among public health workers in state, tribal, local, and territorial public health departments. Among 26,174 respondents, 52.8% reported symptoms of at least one mental health condition in the preceding 2 weeks, including depression (30.8%), anxiety (30.3%), PTSD (36.8%), or suicidal ideation (8.4%). The highest prevalence of symptoms of a mental health condition was among respondents aged ≤29 years (range = 13.6%-47.4%) and transgender or nonbinary persons (i.e., those who identified as neither male nor female) of all ages (range = 30.4%-65.5%). Public health workers who reported being unable to take time off from work were more likely to report adverse mental health symptoms. Severity of symptoms increased with increasing weekly work hours and percentage of work time dedicated to COVID-19 response activities. Implementing prevention and control practices that eliminate, reduce, and manage factors that cause or contribute to public health workers' poor mental health might improve mental health outcomes during emergencies.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Saúde Pública , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Public Health Rep ; 136(1_suppl): 87S-95S, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Increasing knowledge about the toxicology of drug overdose and substance misuse (DOSM) is important in improving our understanding of the epidemic. We describe the Minnesota Drug Overdose and Substance Use Pilot Surveillance Activity, which started collecting data on emergency department (ED) visits attributable to DOSM in 2017, with a focus on the toxicology results of a subset of clinical encounters. METHODS: From November 1, 2017, through January 30, 2020, we collected near-real-time data on DOSM-related ED encounters. The Minnesota Department of Health Public Health Laboratory tested leftover clinical specimens (blood and/or urine) for the presence of various substances for patients who died, were hospitalized, had an atypical clinical presentation, or were part of a local drug overdose cluster. Testing looked for >250 drugs or their metabolites, including those commonly misused (eg, methamphetamine, cocaine), prescription medications, synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones, and opioids. We describe characteristics of the overall group and a subgroup of clinical encounters with toxicology results. RESULTS: Specimens submitted from 6 EDs during the study period represented 239 clinical encounters. Methamphetamine was the most frequently detected substance (67.4%) but was suspected in only 45.6% of encounters. At least 1 opioid was detected in 42.5% of encounters but suspected in only 29.7%. Testing also detected potential adulterants and additives (eg, fentanyl, fentanyl analogues, levamisole) and showed frequent patient exposure to substances not reported by patients or suspected by clinicians. Nearly half (44.4%) of clinical encounters had >1 substance detected. CONCLUSIONS: ED surveillance for DOSM encounters, enhanced by toxicology testing, can provide local situational awareness on overdoses, prevent potential mischaracterization of the true drug overdose epidemic, and inform harm reduction and drug overdose prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Biovigilância/métodos , Overdose de Drogas/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2130479, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673962

RESUMO

Importance: Racial and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by COVID-19. Objectives: To evaluate whether rates of severe COVID-19, defined as hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or in-hospital death, are higher among racial and ethnic minority groups compared with non-Hispanic White persons. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 99 counties within 14 US states participating in the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network. Participants were persons of all ages hospitalized with COVID-19 from March 1, 2020, to February 28, 2021. Exposures: Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalization, defined as a positive SARS-CoV-2 test within 14 days prior to or during hospitalization. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cumulative age-adjusted rates (per 100 000 population) of hospitalization, ICU admission, and death by race and ethnicity. Rate ratios (RR) were calculated for each racial and ethnic group compared with White persons. Results: Among 153 692 patients with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, 143 342 (93.3%) with information on race and ethnicity were included in the analysis. Of these, 105 421 (73.5%) were 50 years or older, 72 159 (50.3%) were male, 28 762 (20.1%) were Hispanic or Latino, 2056 (1.4%) were non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native, 7737 (5.4%) were non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander, 40 806 (28.5%) were non-Hispanic Black, and 63 981 (44.6%) were White. Compared with White persons, American Indian or Alaska Native, Latino, Black, and Asian or Pacific Islander persons were more likely to have higher cumulative age-adjusted rates of hospitalization, ICU admission, and death as follows: American Indian or Alaska Native (hospitalization: RR, 3.70; 95% CI, 3.54-3.87; ICU admission: RR, 6.49; 95% CI, 6.01-7.01; death: RR, 7.19; 95% CI, 6.47-7.99); Latino (hospitalization: RR, 3.06; 95% CI, 3.01-3.10; ICU admission: RR, 4.20; 95% CI, 4.08-4.33; death: RR, 3.85; 95% CI, 3.68-4.01); Black (hospitalization: RR, 2.85; 95% CI, 2.81-2.89; ICU admission: RR, 3.17; 95% CI, 3.09-3.26; death: RR, 2.58; 95% CI, 2.48-2.69); and Asian or Pacific Islander (hospitalization: RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06; ICU admission: RR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.83-1.98; death: RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.55-1.74). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional analysis, American Indian or Alaska Native, Latino, Black, and Asian or Pacific Islander persons were more likely than White persons to have a COVID-19-associated hospitalization, ICU admission, or in-hospital death during the first year of the US COVID-19 pandemic. Equitable access to COVID-19 preventive measures, including vaccination, is needed to minimize the gap in racial and ethnic disparities of severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(43): 1513-1519, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710076

RESUMO

In mid-June 2021, B.1.671.2 (Delta) became the predominant variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, circulating in the United States. As of July 2021, the Delta variant was responsible for nearly all new SARS-CoV-2 infections in the United States.* The Delta variant is more transmissible than previously circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants (1); however, whether it causes more severe disease in adults has been uncertain. Data from the CDC COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET), a population-based surveillance system for COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, were used to examine trends in severe outcomes in adults aged ≥18 years hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during periods before (January-June 2021) and during (July-August 2021) Delta variant predominance. COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates among all adults declined during January-June 2021 (pre-Delta period), before increasing during July-August 2021 (Delta period). Among sampled nonpregnant hospitalized COVID-19 patients with completed medical record abstraction and a discharge disposition during the pre-Delta period, the proportion of patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), or died while hospitalized did not significantly change from the pre-Delta period to the Delta period. The proportion of hospitalized COVID-19 patients who were aged 18-49 years significantly increased, from 24.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.2%-26.3%) of all hospitalizations in the pre-Delta period, to 35.8% (95% CI = 32.1%-39.5%, p<0.01) during the Delta period. When examined by vaccination status, 71.8% of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations in the Delta period were in unvaccinated adults. Adults aged 18-49 years accounted for 43.6% (95% CI = 39.1%-48.2%) of all hospitalizations among unvaccinated adults during the Delta period. No difference was observed in ICU admission, receipt of IMV, or in-hospital death among nonpregnant hospitalized adults between the pre-Delta and Delta periods. However, the proportion of unvaccinated adults aged 18-49 years hospitalized with COVID-19 has increased as the Delta variant has become more predominant. Lower vaccination coverage in this age group likely contributed to the increase in hospitalized patients during the Delta period. COVID-19 vaccination is critical for all eligible adults, including those aged <50 years who have relatively low vaccination rates compared with older adults.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/virologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Public Health Rep ; : 333549211051394, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) is a novel noncommunicable disease with an unknown cause. The objective of this analysis was to describe the Minnesota Department of Health's (MDH's) outbreak response to EVALI, including challenges, successes, and lessons learned. METHODS: MDH began investigating EVALI cases in August 2019 and quickly coordinated an agencywide response. This response included activating the incident command system; organizing multidisciplinary teams to perform the epidemiologic investigation; laboratory testing of e-cigarette, or vaping, products (EVPs) and clinical specimens; and collaborating with partners to gather information and develop recommendations. RESULTS: MDH faced numerous investigational challenges during the outbreak response of EVALI, including the need to gather information on unregulated and illicit substances and their use and collecting information from minors and critically ill people. MDH laboratorians faced methodologic challenges in characterizing EVPs. Despite these challenges, MDH epidemiologists successfully collaborated with the MDH public health laboratory, law enforcement, partners with clinical and toxicology expertise, and local and national public health partners. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Lessons learned included ensuring the state public health agency has legal authority to conduct noncommunicable disease outbreak investigations and the necessity of cultivating and using internal and external partnerships, specifically with laboratories that can analyze clinical specimens and unknown substances. The lessons learned may be useful to public health agencies responding to similar public health emergencies. To improve preparedness for the next outbreak of EVALI or other noncommunicable diseases, we recommend building and maintaining partnerships with internal and external partners.

18.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257622, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559838

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Some studies suggested more COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among racial and ethnic minorities. To inform public health practice, the COVID-19-associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) quantified associations between race/ethnicity, census tract socioeconomic indicators, and COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates. METHODS: Using data from COVID-NET population-based surveillance reported during March 1-April 30, 2020 along with socioeconomic and denominator data from the US Census Bureau, we calculated COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates by racial/ethnic and census tract-level socioeconomic strata. RESULTS: Among 16,000 COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, 34.8% occurred among non-Hispanic White (White) persons, 36.3% among non-Hispanic Black (Black) persons, and 18.2% among Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) persons. Age-adjusted COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate were 151.6 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 147.1-156.1) in census tracts with >15.2%-83.2% of persons living below the federal poverty level (high-poverty census tracts) and 75.5 (95% CI: 72.9-78.1) in census tracts with 0%-4.9% of persons living below the federal poverty level (low-poverty census tracts). Among White, Black, and Hispanic persons living in high-poverty census tracts, age-adjusted hospitalization rates were 120.3 (95% CI: 112.3-128.2), 252.2 (95% CI: 241.4-263.0), and 341.1 (95% CI: 317.3-365.0), respectively, compared with 58.2 (95% CI: 55.4-61.1), 304.0 (95%: 282.4-325.6), and 540.3 (95% CI: 477.0-603.6), respectively, in low-poverty census tracts. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates were highest in high-poverty census tracts, but rates among Black and Hispanic persons were high regardless of poverty level. Public health practitioners must ensure mitigation measures and vaccination campaigns address needs of racial/ethnic minority groups and people living in high-poverty census tracts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hospitalização , Grupos Minoritários , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(37): 1284-1290, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529637

RESUMO

COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough infection surveillance helps monitor trends in disease incidence and severe outcomes in fully vaccinated persons, including the impact of the highly transmissible B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Reported COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths occurring among persons aged ≥18 years during April 4-July 17, 2021, were analyzed by vaccination status across 13 U.S. jurisdictions that routinely linked case surveillance and immunization registry data. Averaged weekly, age-standardized incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for cases among persons who were not fully vaccinated compared with those among fully vaccinated persons decreased from 11.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.8-15.8) to 4.6 (95% CI = 2.5-8.5) between two periods when prevalence of the Delta variant was lower (<50% of sequenced isolates; April 4-June 19) and higher (≥50%; June 20-July 17), and IRRs for hospitalizations and deaths decreased between the same two periods, from 13.3 (95% CI = 11.3-15.6) to 10.4 (95% CI = 8.1-13.3) and from 16.6 (95% CI = 13.5-20.4) to 11.3 (95% CI = 9.1-13.9). Findings were consistent with a potential decline in vaccine protection against confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and continued strong protection against COVID-19-associated hospitalization and death. Getting vaccinated protects against severe illness from COVID-19, including the Delta variant, and monitoring COVID-19 incidence by vaccination status might provide early signals of changes in vaccine-related protection that can be confirmed through well-controlled vaccine effectiveness (VE) studies.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Pediatrics ; 148(4)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiviral treatment is recommended for hospitalized patients with suspected and confirmed influenza, but evidence is limited among children. We evaluated the effect of antiviral treatment on hospital length of stay (LOS) among children hospitalized with influenza. METHODS: We included children <18 years hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza in the US Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network. We collected data for 2 cohorts: 1 with underlying medical conditions not admitted to the ICU (n = 309, 2012-2013) and an ICU cohort (including children with and without underlying conditions; n = 299, 2010-2011 to 2012-2013). We used a Cox model with antiviral receipt as a time-dependent variable to estimate hazard of discharge and a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to determine LOS. RESULTS: Compared with those not receiving antiviral agents, LOS was shorter for those treated ≤2 days after illness onset in both the medical conditions (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.37, P = .02) and ICU (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.46, P = .007) cohorts, corresponding to 37% and 46% increases in daily discharge probability, respectively. Treatment ≥3 days after illness onset had no significant effect in either cohort. In the medical conditions cohort, median LOS was 3 days for those not treated versus 2 days for those treated ≤2 days after symptom onset (P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: Early antiviral treatment was associated with significantly shorter hospitalizations in children with laboratory-confirmed influenza and high-risk medical conditions or children treated in the ICU. These results support Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for prompt empiric antiviral treatment in hospitalized patients with suspected or confirmed influenza.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Tempo de Internação , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/complicações , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Tempo para o Tratamento
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