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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246825, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285634

RESUMO

Abstract A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Piper nigrum (black pepper) leaf extract on on the growth performance, proximate composition, hematological parameters, and immune response of Labeo rohita fingerlings with an average weight of 22.14 ± 0.98g. Aftrer acclimation for two weeks, fish (n=25) were randomly selected and placed in four glass aquaria (T0, T1, T2 and T3) at constant water temperature (30.0 ± 1.0 °C), pH (7.50 ± 0.5) and total hardness (200 ± 2.0 mgL,-1) for a period of 12 weeks, with three replicates each. Fish were fed with P. nigrum leaf extract supplemented feed @ 0.0%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% in T0, T1,T2 and T3, respectively. At the end of experiment, five fish were randomly selected from each aquaria for proximate composition, gut and skin microbial load, hematological parameters. Total proteins, albumins, and globulins were also recorded to evaluate immunological memory. The result revealed that fish in T2 showed better growth performance with an average weight gain of 56.11 ± 0.51 g. Thus, it had been concluded that Piper nigrum, a medicinal plant, can also be used to enhance the growth performance and immune response of Labeo rohita as attractive alternatives against antibiotics and vaccines and has shown no negative side effects on fish health as well as on its environment.


Resumo Um estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito do extrato da folha de Piper nigrum (pimenta-do-reino) sobre o desempenho de crescimento, composição centesimal, parâmetros hematológicos e resposta imune de alevinos de Labeo rohita com peso médio de 22,14 ± 0,98g. Após aclimatação por duas semanas, os peixes (n = 25) foram selecionados aleatoriamente e colocados em quatro aquários de vidro (T0, T1, T2 e T3) em temperatura constante da água (30,0 ± 1,0 °C), pH (7,50 ± 0,5) e dureza total (200 ± 2,0 mgL-1) por um período de 12 semanas, com três repetições cada. Os peixes foram alimentados com ração suplementada com extrato de folha de P. nigrum @ 0,0%, 1,0%, 2,0% e 3,0% em T0, T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, cinco peixes foram selecionados aleatoriamente de cada aquário para composição centesimal, carga microbiana intestinal e cutânea e parâmetros hematológicos. Proteínas totais, albuminas e globulinas também foram registradas para avaliar a memória imunológica. O resultado revelou que os peixes em T2 apresentaram melhor desempenho de crescimento com ganho de peso médio de 56,11 ± 0,51 g. Assim, concluiu-se que Piper nigrum, uma planta medicinal, também pode ser usado para melhorar o desempenho de crescimento e resposta imunológica de Labeo rohita como alternativas atraentes contra antibióticos e vacinas e não mostrou efeitos colaterais negativos na saúde dos peixes, bem como sobre seu ambiente.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250402, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339404

RESUMO

Abstract We have evaluated the effects of different fish feeds on the body composition, growth, and enzyme activities of Labeo rohita (Rohu). In total, 240 fishes between the average weights of 24.77±2.15g were studied. The treatments were applied in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments of 60 fishes each. Treatments consisted of four different fish feeds [Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4)]. Body composition, growth performance, and enzyme activities were evaluated. There was a significant variation in performance of fishes fed with different type of feed; as fishes having Oryza feed showed the highest weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and best feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared to other groups that were considered to be significant (P ≤ 0.05). High net weight gain was obtained in T4 when compared with T2 and T3. FCR value of T4 was less than T1 but higher than T2, T3 and T2, which showed the lowest values. The specific growth rate was recorded as average in T4, but T2 led a high SGR than T3. Similarly, crude protein level and digestive enzymes activity was recorded significantly highest in fed with Oryza (T1) as compared to AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4). Water quality parameters were recorded significant in all treatments except pH and DO of treatment (T1), significantly different from other treatments. It was concluded that Rohu (Labeo rohita) could show a promising growth rate and protease enzyme activity when fed with the Oryza feed of 25% protein.


Resumo Avaliamos os efeitos de diferentes alimentos para peixes em relação à composição corporal, crescimento e atividades enzimáticas de Labeo rohita (Rohu). No total, foram estudados 240 peixes com pesos médios de 24,77 ± 2,15 g. Os tratamentos foram aplicados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos de 60 peixes cada. Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro alimentos diferentes para peixes: Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3) e Supreme (T4). Foram avaliados a composição corporal, o desempenho de crescimento e as atividades enzimáticas. Houve uma variação significativa no desempenho dos peixes alimentados com diferentes tipos de ração. Peixes com alimentação Oryza apresentaram maior ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento específico (SGR) e melhor taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR) em comparação com outros grupos que foram considerados significativos (P ≤ 0,05). Elevado ganho de peso líquido foi obtido em T4 quando comparado com T2 e T3. O valor da FCR de T4 foi menor que T1, mas maior que T2 e T3, que apresentaram os menores valores. A taxa de crescimento específico foi registrada como média em T4, mas T2 teve uma SGR alta do que T3. Da mesma forma, o nível de proteína bruta e a atividade das enzimas digestivas foram registrados significativamente mais altos nos peixes alimentados com Oryza (T1) em comparação com AMG (T2), Aqua (T3) e Supreme (T4). Os parâmetros de qualidade da água foram registrados como significativos em todos os tratamentos, exceto pH e OD do tratamento (T1), significativamente diferente dos demais tratamentos. Concluiu-se que Rohu (Labeo rohita) pode apresentar uma taxa de crescimento promissora e atividade da enzima protease quando alimentado com Oryza de 25% de proteína.

3.
Mamm Genome ; 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997844

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome, previously known as Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is associated with altered reproductive endocrinology, predisposing a young woman towards the risk of PCOS. It has a prevalence of 6-20% among the reproductive-age women. Progesterone is a key hormone in the pathophysiology of PCOS and patients show diminished response (progesterone resistance), implicating the role of progesterone receptor (PR) as a factor in the disease etiology and prognosis. In this case-control study, we have used mutation-specific PCR (confirmed by Sanger sequencing) to detect the presence of a pathologically significant PR polymorphic variant called as PROGINS. The variant has an Alu insertion in intron G and has two SNPs in exon 4 and exon 5, with all the three aberrations in complete disequilibrium. Our results demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the frequencies of PROGINS between the PCOS patients and healthy controls (p = 0.047). The frequencies of the genotypes CC (A1/A1), CT (A1/A2), and TT (A2/A2) in patients were 74.50%, 20.58%, and 4.90%, and in healthy controls they were 87.28%, 11%, and 1.69%, respectively. Our results put forward two determining factors with regard to PCOS: (i) the frequency of PROGINS allele was significantly higher among PCOS patients compared to the healthy matched controls (0.15 vs 0.07) in the studied population, (ii) the PROGIN allele was significantly associated with the lower levels of serum progesterone in PCOS patients (p < 0.003). The findings are conspicuous as these relate the PROGINS variant to the increased susceptibility of PCOS and might explain the progesterone resistance in patients.

4.
Technol Soc ; 68: 101830, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898757

RESUMO

In several countries, vaccine passports are being encouraged to hasten the return to some form of normalcy amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Vaccine passport is a digital or paper document that may serve as proof of the COVID-19 vaccine, thereby allowing entry to public venues, sporting events, air travel, and unrestricted access to other facilities. This study explores how the COVID-19 passport is being discussed and perceived on Twitter and the prominent entities involved in the early discourse on the issue. Twitter messages were theoretically analyzed for Health Belief Model (HBM) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) variables, as well as message source, engagement, and attitudes towards vaccination certificates. Using quantitative content analysis, tweets were coded on nine dimensions: account type, tweeter profile, tweet content, tweet modality, attitude, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, benefits, and action cues. Most of the tweets originated from personal accounts, followed by media organizations, media-related personalities, politicians, and the travel industry. A significant number of tweets were from male Twitter users. Our analysis revealed that most tweeters had a favorable attitude towards the COVID-19 passports. Unfavorable attitudes toward the COVID-19 passport were based on reasons such as a lack of common standard or consensus, and personal freedoms & human rights. Tweets highlighting the benefits of COVID-19 passports cited travel as the primary reason. Based on a combination of technical, legal, and ethical practices, our study offers a set of vital recommendations for governments, health organizations, and businesses that may help stimulate the acceptance of vaccine passports.

5.
J Math Biol ; 83(6-7): 71, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34870766

RESUMO

Cells and tissues exhibit sustained oscillatory deformations during remodelling, migration or embryogenesis. Although it has been shown that these oscillations correlate with intracellular biochemical signalling, the role of these oscillations is as yet unclear, and whether they may trigger drastic cell reorganisation events or instabilities remains unknown. Here, we present a rheological model that incorporates elastic, viscous and frictional components, and that is able to generate oscillatory response through a delay adaptive process of the rest-length. We analyse its stability as a function of the model parameters and deduce analytical bounds of the stable domain. While increasing values of the delay and remodelling rate render the model unstable, we also show that increasing friction with the substrate destabilises the oscillatory response. This fact was unexpected and still needs to be verified experimentally. Furthermore, we numerically verify that the extension of the model with non-linear deformation measures is able to generate sustained oscillations converging towards a limit cycle. We interpret this sustained regime in terms of non-linear time varying stiffness parameters that alternate between stable and unstable regions of the linear model. We also note that this limit cycle is not present in the linear model. We study the phase diagram and the bifurcations of the non-linear model, based on our conclusions on the linear one. Such dynamic analysis of the delay visco-elastic model in the presence of friction is absent in the literature for both linear and non-linear rheologies. Our work also shows how increasing values of some parameters such as delay and friction decrease its stability, while other parameters such as stiffness stabilise the oscillatory response.

6.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(4)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34938799

RESUMO

Background: Acute exacerbations (AEs) and disease progression in interstitial lung disease (ILD) pose important challenges to clinicians and patients. AEs of ILD are variable in presentation but may result in rapid progression of ILD, respiratory failure and death. However, in many cases AEs of ILD may go unrecognised so that their true impact and response to therapy is unknown. The potential for home monitoring to facilitate early, and accurate, identification of AE and/or ILD progression has gained interest. With increasing evidence available, there is a need for a systematic review on home monitoring of patients with ILD to summarise the existing data. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the evidence for use of home monitoring for early detection of exacerbations and/or progression of ILD. Method: We searched Ovid-EMBASE, MEDLINE and CINAHL using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO registration number CRD42020215166). Results: 13 studies involving 968 patients have demonstrated that home monitoring is feasible and of potential benefit in patients with ILD. Nine studies reported that mean adherence to home monitoring was >75%, and where spirometry was performed there was a significant correlation (r=0.72-0.98, p<0.001) between home and hospital-based readings. Two studies suggested that home monitoring of forced vital capacity might facilitate detection of progression in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Conclusion: Despite the fact that individual studies in this systematic review provide supportive evidence suggesting the feasibility and utility of home monitoring in ILD, further studies are necessary to quantify the potential of home monitoring to detect disease progression and/or AEs.

7.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(10)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated acute kidney injury (ICPi-AKI) has emerged as an important toxicity among patients with cancer. METHODS: We collected data on 429 patients with ICPi-AKI and 429 control patients who received ICPis contemporaneously but who did not develop ICPi-AKI from 30 sites in 10 countries. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of ICPi-AKI and its recovery. A multivariable Cox model was used to estimate the effect of ICPi rechallenge versus no rechallenge on survival following ICPi-AKI. RESULTS: ICPi-AKI occurred at a median of 16 weeks (IQR 8-32) following ICPi initiation. Lower baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use, and extrarenal immune-related adverse events (irAEs) were each associated with a higher risk of ICPi-AKI. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis was the most common lesion on kidney biopsy (125/151 biopsied patients [82.7%]). Renal recovery occurred in 276 patients (64.3%) at a median of 7 weeks (IQR 3-10) following ICPi-AKI. Treatment with corticosteroids within 14 days following ICPi-AKI diagnosis was associated with higher odds of renal recovery (adjusted OR 2.64; 95% CI 1.58 to 4.41). Among patients treated with corticosteroids, early initiation of corticosteroids (within 3 days of ICPi-AKI) was associated with a higher odds of renal recovery compared with later initiation (more than 3 days following ICPi-AKI) (adjusted OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.16 to 3.79). Of 121 patients rechallenged, 20 (16.5%) developed recurrent ICPi-AKI. There was no difference in survival among patients rechallenged versus those not rechallenged following ICPi-AKI. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who developed ICPi-AKI were more likely to have impaired renal function at baseline, use a PPI, and have extrarenal irAEs. Two-thirds of patients had renal recovery following ICPi-AKI. Treatment with corticosteroids was associated with improved renal recovery.

8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250402, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614125

RESUMO

We have evaluated the effects of different fish feeds on the body composition, growth, and enzyme activities of Labeo rohita (Rohu). In total, 240 fishes between the average weights of 24.77±2.15g were studied. The treatments were applied in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments of 60 fishes each. Treatments consisted of four different fish feeds [Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4)]. Body composition, growth performance, and enzyme activities were evaluated. There was a significant variation in performance of fishes fed with different type of feed; as fishes having Oryza feed showed the highest weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and best feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared to other groups that were considered to be significant (P ≤ 0.05). High net weight gain was obtained in T4 when compared with T2 and T3. FCR value of T4 was less than T1 but higher than T2, T3 and T2, which showed the lowest values. The specific growth rate was recorded as average in T4, but T2 led a high SGR than T3. Similarly, crude protein level and digestive enzymes activity was recorded significantly highest in fed with Oryza (T1) as compared to AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4). Water quality parameters were recorded significant in all treatments except pH and DO of treatment (T1), significantly different from other treatments. It was concluded that Rohu (Labeo rohita) could show a promising growth rate and protease enzyme activity when fed with the Oryza feed of 25% protein.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Peixes , Animais
9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244593, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468512

RESUMO

': Kinnow' mandarin (Citrus nobilis L.× Citrus deliciosa T.) is an important marketable fruit of the world. It is mainstay of citrus industry in Pakistan, having great export potential. But out of total production of the country only 10% of the produce meets the international quality standard for export. Pre-harvest fruit drop and poor fruit quality could be associated with various issues including the plant nutrition. Most of the farmers do not pay attention to the supply of micro nutrients which are already deficient in the soil. Furthermore, their mobility within plants is also a question. Zinc (Zn) is amongst those micronutrients which affect the quality and postharvest life of the fruit and its deficiency in Pakistani soils is already reported by many researchers. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the influence of pre-harvest applications of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4; 0, 0.4%, 0.6% or 0.8%) on pre-harvest fruit drop, yield and fruit quality of 'Kinnow' mandarin at harvest. The treatments were applied during the month of October i.e. 4 months prior to harvest. The applied Zn sprays had significant effect on yield and quality of the "Kinnow" fruit. Amongst different foliar applications of ZnSO4applied four months before harvest, 0.6% ZnSO4 significantly reduced pre-harvest fruit drop (10.08%) as compared to untreated control trees (46.45%). Similarly, the maximum number of fruits harvested per tree (627), fruit weight (192.9 g), juice percentage (42.2%), total soluble solids (9.5 °Brix), ascorbic acid content (35.5 mg 100 g-1) and sugar contents (17.4) were also found significantly higher with 0.6% ZnSO4 treatment as compared to rest of treatments and control. Foliar application of 0.6% ZnSO4 also significantly improved total antioxidants (TAO) and total phenolic contents (TPC) in fruit. In conclusion, foliar spray of ZnSO4 (0.6%) four months prior to harvest reduced pre-harvest fruit drop, increase yield with improved quality of 'Kinnow' mandarin fruit.


Assuntos
Citrus , Frutas , Antioxidantes , Ácido Ascórbico , Sulfato de Zinco/farmacologia
10.
Cureus ; 13(7): e16242, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373805

RESUMO

Introduction Opacification of the posterior capsule is labeled as a secondary cataract. The objective of the current study was to assess central macular thickness (CMT) changes following neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (ND-YAG) posterior capsulotomy and to find out the correlation between CMT with the age, energy, and total shots utilized during the procedure. Methodology In this single-centered prospective observational study, 137 patients with a mean age of 57 ± 12.61 years, who had cataract surgery previously and were candidates for ND-YAG posterior capsulotomy were recruited through consecutive sampling. The study was conducted at Layton Rahmatulla Benevolent Trust (LRBT) Free Eye Hospital, Township, Lahore, Pakistan, between April 2020 to April 2021. The CMT, total energy, and sum total of shots used were recorded. The thickness of the central macula was measured preoperatively and postoperatively after two weeks. The paired sample t-test was used to find out any significant changes in CMT pre and two weeks postoperatively. The comparison of changes in CMT to age, energy, and the total number of shots was made through Pearson correlation. Means of CMT were compared using an independent sample t-test, at two weeks postoperatively among two energy groups. Results No statistically significant differences were found between preoperative and two weeks postoperative values of the CMT (P-value= 0.209). No significant difference was found in CMT statistically among the two energy groups (p=0.11). The patient's age, sum total of laser shots, and aggregate of laser energy did not have any significant correlation with CMT changes. The time period between cataract surgery and ND-YAG surgery showed a moderately positive correlation with a p-value of 0.01. Conclusion The current study revealed that ND-YAG capsulotomy does not affect the CMT significantly postoperatively. The patient's age, total energy applied, and the total number of laser shots used do not influence the macular thickness. However, the length of duration from the last cataract surgery to the current surgery was significantly associated with a change in the CMT.

11.
Cureus ; 13(7): e16498, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34430113

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is commonly associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute cardiac and renal injuries. However, thromboembolic events are also prevalent in COVID-19. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 hypercoagulability is not well known but may be linked to the cytokine storm induced by a viral infection or endothelial damage that triggers a cascade leading to hypercoagulability. Because vascular endothelium has angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-like lung tissue, COVID-19 targets lung tissue and vascular endothelium, leading to thrombosis. We present a rare case of a young patient with COVID-19 who presented with thrombosis of the cerebral venous system managed with anticoagulation. This case highlights the need for heightened awareness of this atypical but potentially treatable complication of the COVID-19 disease spectrum.

12.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246825, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431909

RESUMO

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Piper nigrum (black pepper) leaf extract on on the growth performance, proximate composition, hematological parameters, and immune response of Labeo rohita fingerlings with an average weight of 22.14 ± 0.98g. Aftrer acclimation for two weeks, fish (n=25) were randomly selected and placed in four glass aquaria (T0, T1, T2 and T3) at constant water temperature (30.0 ± 1.0 °C), pH (7.50 ± 0.5) and total hardness (200 ± 2.0 mgL,-1) for a period of 12 weeks, with three replicates each. Fish were fed with P. nigrum leaf extract supplemented feed @ 0.0%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% in T0, T1,T2 and T3, respectively. At the end of experiment, five fish were randomly selected from each aquaria for proximate composition, gut and skin microbial load, hematological parameters. Total proteins, albumins, and globulins were also recorded to evaluate immunological memory. The result revealed that fish in T2 showed better growth performance with an average weight gain of 56.11 ± 0.51 g. Thus, it had been concluded that Piper nigrum, a medicinal plant, can also be used to enhance the growth performance and immune response of Labeo rohita as attractive alternatives against antibiotics and vaccines and has shown no negative side effects on fish health as well as on its environment.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Piper nigrum , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 2100-2108, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102235

RESUMO

Effect of edible coatings of gum Arabic, carrageenan and xanthan gum containing lemon grass essential oil 1% w/v on postharvest quality of strawberry was studied under refrigeration for a period of 12 days. Results showed all the three coatings maintained fruit quality parameters during storage compared to control. Among all the coatings, carrageenan coated fruits showed delayed weight loss (10.1 to 8%), decay percentage (78.42 to 14.29%), retained ascorbic acid (0.15 to 0.27 g kg-1), antioxidant activity (18.17 to 25.85%), firmness (9.07 to 12.43 N), L* (32.38 to 40.42), a* (16.08 to 17.22) and b* (27.36 to 33.54). Carrageenan gum also showed lowest cellulase activity (0.03 units h-1 mg protein-1), pectin methylesterase activity (1.13 A620 min-1 mg protein-1) and ß-galactosidase activity (0.51 µmol min-1 mg protein-1), while showed maximum reduction in polygalacturonase activity (0.07 units h-1 mg protein-1) at the end of storage. Carrageenan gum was found effective in retention of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds during storage. Coatings loaded with antimicrobial agent inhibited psychrophilic bacteria, yeast and mold growth. It is concluded that carrageenan gum could better retain strawberry quality up to 12 days under refrigeration.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Carragenina/química , Filmes Comestíveis , Embalagem de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Fragaria/enzimologia , Frutas/enzimologia , Goma Arábica/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Celulase/metabolismo , Cymbopogon , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Fragaria/microbiologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Fenóis/química , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo , Refrigeração , Fatores de Tempo , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo
15.
Cryo Letters ; 42(2): 73-80, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The replacement of egg yolk with alternative plant-derived soybean lecithin is gaining interest in both animal and human sperm cryopreservation owing to biosecurity issues with egg yolk based extenders. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the comparative effect of egg yolk and soyabean lecithin based extenders on the quality of cryopreserved crossbred ram semen. METHODS: Pooled ejaculates (total ejaculates = 36) were divided into two aliquots and extended with Tris egg yolk extender (Tris extender) and soybean lecithin based commercial extender (Ovixcell) RESULTS: Among the two extenders, Ovixcell showed better sperm quality both at the pre-freeze (Sperm motility) and post-thaw stages. Lower malondialdehyde (MDA) level (nmol/mL) was observed in Ovixcell as compared to Tris extender. Both sperm quality and MDA level decreased significantly (P < 0.05) from pre-freeze to post-thaw in both the extenders. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study indicate that Ovixcell is a comparable alternative to Tris extender for the cryopreservation of crossbred ram semen.


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Crioprotetores , Gema de Ovo/química , Lecitinas , Preservação do Sêmen , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Criopreservação/veterinária , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Lecitinas/farmacologia , Masculino , Sêmen , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Soja/química , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 952, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving maternal health has been a primary goal of international health agencies for many years, with the aim of reducing maternal and child deaths and improving access to antenatal care (ANC) services, particularly in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs). Health interventions with these aims have received more attention from a clinical effectiveness perspective than for cost impact and economic efficiency. METHODS: We collected data on resource use and costs as part of a large, multi-country study assessing the use of routine antenatal screening ultrasound (US) with the aim of considering the implications for economic efficiency. We assessed typical antenatal outpatient and hospital-based (facility) care for pregnant women, in general, with selective complication-related data collection in women participating in a large maternal health registry and clinical trial in five LMICs. We estimated average costs from a facility/health system perspective for outpatient and inpatient services. We converted all country-level currency cost estimates to 2015 United States dollars (USD). We compared average costs across countries for ANC visits, deliveries, higher-risk pregnancies, and complications, and conducted sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Our study included sites in five countries representing different regions. Overall, the relative cost of individual ANC and delivery-related healthcare use was consistent among countries, generally corresponding to country-specific income levels. ANC outpatient visit cost estimates per patient among countries ranged from 15 to 30 USD, based on average counts for visits with and without US. Estimates for antenatal screening US visits were more costly than non-US visits. Costs associated with higher-risk pregnancies were influenced by rates of hospital delivery by cesarean section (mean per person delivery cost estimate range: 25-65 USD). CONCLUSIONS: Despite substantial differences among countries in infrastructures and health system capacity, there were similarities in resource allocation, delivery location, and country-level challenges. Overall, there was no clear suggestion that adding antenatal screening US would result in either major cost savings or major cost increases. However, antenatal screening US would have higher training and maintenance costs. Given the lack of clinical effectiveness evidence and greater resource constraints of LMICs, it is unlikely that introducing antenatal screening US would be economically efficient in these settings--on the demand side (i.e., patients) or supply side (i.e., healthcare providers). TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial number: NCT01990625 (First posted: November 21, 2013 on https://clinicaltrials.gov ).


Assuntos
Cesárea , Países em Desenvolvimento , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pobreza , Gravidez , Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal
18.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 113(4): 414-427, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related mortality among children, 0-14 years, and lymphoma, a malignant neoplasm of the lymphoid cells, mostly lymphatic B and T cells is common among children. The current study aimed to assess the cumulative incidence (CmI), mortality, and survival in pediatric lymphoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort was utilized to examine children, 0-19 years with lymphoma for CmI, mortality and survival from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data. The variables assessed included social determinants of health, namely urbanity, median household income, and race. While chi square was used to characterize study variables by race, binomial regression was employed for mortality risk. The Cox proportional hazard model was used for survival modeling. RESULTS: The CmI was higher among white children (76.67%) relative to Black/African American (AA, 13.44%), American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN, 0.67%), as well as Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI, 7.53%). With respect to mortality, there was excess mortality among Black/AA children compared to white children, Risk Ratio (RR) = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.33-1.79. Relative to whites, Blacks were 52% more likely to die, Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.52, 95% CI, 1.30-1.78. Survival disadvantage persisted among Blacks/AA after controlling for the other confoundings, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.54, 99% CI, 1.24-1.91. CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of children with lymphoma, Black/AA children relative to whites presented with survival disadvantage, which was explained by urbanity and median household income, suggestive of transforming the physical and social environments in narrowing the racial differences in pediatric lymphoma survival in the US.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Linfoma , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Programa de SEER , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Photochem Photobiol ; 97(4): 785-794, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345344

RESUMO

Cutaneous photodamage is incited via exposure of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation to skin, characterized by the manifestation of oxidative stress, inflammation, collagen degradation and apoptosis which translates to external aging signs such as wrinkle formation and leathery skin appearance. Meanwhile, it increases cellular susceptibility to photocarcinogenesis. Several studies have accumulated evidence regarding the usage of natural agents in reversing the clinical signs of photoaging as well as preventing photo-toxicity at molecular level. In this study, we have explored the therapeutic potential of natural agent Trigonelline (TG) against UV-B radiation mediated skin photodamage. Various parameters modulated by the exposure of UV-B radiation were investigated in human skin cells and chronic photodamage mice model (Balb/c). We found that TG alleviates UV-B radiation induced photodamage in human skin cells and Balb/c skin mice. TG treatment in UV-B irradiated skin cells abates UV-B radiation mediated phototoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. At molecular level, we observed TG treatment significantly prevents the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation, restores collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) levels. The in vitro findings were replicated in the in vivo model. We found that the TG acts potentially via modulation of ROS-MAPKs-NF-κB axis. Collectively, we propose that TG acts antagonistically against UV-B mediated skin damage and has strong potential to be developed as a therapeutic and cosmetical agent against photodamage disorders.

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