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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246389, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285638

RESUMO

Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Resumo A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 00264, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339364

RESUMO

Abstract Allium cepa L. is a commonly consumed vegetable that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and contains nutrients and antioxidants in ample amounts. In spite of the valuable food applications of onion bulb, its peel and outer fleshy layers are generally regarded as waste and exploration of their nutritional and therapeutic potential is still in progress with a very slow progression rate. The present study was designed with the purpose of doing a comparative analysis of the antioxidant potential of two parts of Allium cepa, i.g., bulb (edible part) and outer fleshy layers and dry peels (inedible part). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the onion bulb and peel extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase of porcine was also evaluated. The antioxidant potential of onion peel and bulb extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity. Total flavonoids and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of onion peel were significantly greater as compared to that of onion bulb. Ethanolic extract of onion peel also presented better antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity as compared to the ethanolic extract of bulb, while the aqueous extract of bulb presented weakest antioxidative potential. Onion peel extract's α-glucosidase inhibition potential was also correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The current findings presented onion peel as a possible source of antioxidative agents and phenolic compounds that might be beneficial against development of various common chronic diseases that might have an association with oxidative stress. Besides, outer dry layers and fleshy peels of onion exhibited higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities, compared to the inner bulb. The information obtained by the present study can be useful in promoting the use of vegetable parts other than the edible mesocarp for several future food applications, rather than these being wasted.


Resumo Allium cepa pertence à família Liliaceae e é rica em nutrientes e antioxidantes. Apesar das expressivas aplicações alimentares do bulbo da cebola, sua casca e outras camadas externas são geralmente consideradas resíduos, e seu potencial nutricional e terapêutico ainda é pouco explorado. O presente estudo foi delineado com o objetivo de investigar comparativamente o potencial antioxidante de duas partes de Allium cepa, por exemplo o bulbo (parte comestível) e camadas externas e cascas secas (parte não comestível). Além disso, o efeito inibitório dos extratos do bulbo de cebola e casca sobre a α-glucosidase intestinal de ratos e α-amilase pancreática suína também foi avaliado. O potencial antioxidante dos extratos da casca de cebola e bulbo foi avaliado utilizando-se 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), método de poder antioxidante de redução do ferro (FRAP), método 2,2'-azino-bis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS) de eliminação de radicais, atividade de eliminação de radicais H2O2 e atividade quelante do Fe2+. Os flavonoides totais e os teores fenólicos do extrato de etanol da casca de cebola foram significativamente maiores quando comparados ao do bulbo. O extrato de etanol da casca de cebola também apresentou melhor atividade antioxidante e eliminação de radicais livres quando comparado ao extrato de etanol do bulbo, enquanto o extrato aquoso de bulbo apresentou menor potencial antioxidante. O potencial de inibição da α-glicosidase dos extratos de casca de cebola correlacionou-se com seus teores fenólicos e de flavonoides. Os resultados encontrados identificaram que a casca de cebola é uma possível fonte de agentes antioxidantes e compostos fenólicos que podem ser benéficos contra o desenvolvimento de várias doenças crônicas que estão associadas ao estresse oxidativo. Além disso, as camadas externas secas e as cascas da cebola exibiram maior conteúdo fenólico e atividades antioxidantes, em comparação com o bulbo interno. As informações obtidas pelo presente estudo podem promover o uso de outras partes vegetais além do mesocarpo comestível para futuras aplicações em alimentos, ao invés de serem desperdiçadas.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812613

RESUMO

The high energy demand of CO2 absorption-desorption technologies has significantly inhibited their industrial utilization and implementation of the Paris Climate Accord. Catalytic solvent regeneration is of considerable interest due to its low operating temperature and high energy efficiency. Of the catalysts available, heterogeneous catalysts have exhibited relatively poor performances and are hindered by other challenges, which have slowed their large-scale deployment. Herein, we report a facile and eco-friendly approach for synthesizing water-dispersible Fe3O4 nanocatalysts coated with a wide range of amino acids (12 representative molecules) in aqueous media. The acidic properties of water-dispersible nanocatalysts can be easily tuned by introducing different functional groups during the hydrothermal synthesis procedure. We demonstrate that the prepared nanocatalysts can be used in energy-efficient CO2 capture plants with ease-of-use, at very low concentrations (0.1 wt %) and with extra-high efficiencies (up to ∼75% energy reductions). They can be applied in a range of solutions, including amino acids (i.e., short-chain, long-chain, and cyclic) and amines (i.e., primary, tertiary, and primary-tertiary mixture). Considering the superiority of the presented water-dispersible nanocatalysts, this technology is expected to provide a new pathway for the development of energy-efficient CO2 capture technologies.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: 00264, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669793

RESUMO

Allium cepa L. is a commonly consumed vegetable that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and contains nutrients and antioxidants in ample amounts. In spite of the valuable food applications of onion bulb, its peel and outer fleshy layers are generally regarded as waste and exploration of their nutritional and therapeutic potential is still in progress with a very slow progression rate. The present study was designed with the purpose of doing a comparative analysis of the antioxidant potential of two parts of Allium cepa, i.g., bulb (edible part) and outer fleshy layers and dry peels (inedible part). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the onion bulb and peel extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase of porcine was also evaluated. The antioxidant potential of onion peel and bulb extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity. Total flavonoids and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of onion peel were significantly greater as compared to that of onion bulb. Ethanolic extract of onion peel also presented better antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity as compared to the ethanolic extract of bulb, while the aqueous extract of bulb presented weakest antioxidative potential. Onion peel extract's α-glucosidase inhibition potential was also correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The current findings presented onion peel as a possible source of antioxidative agents and phenolic compounds that might be beneficial against development of various common chronic diseases that might have an association with oxidative stress. Besides, outer dry layers and fleshy peels of onion exhibited higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities, compared to the inner bulb. The information obtained by the present study can be useful in promoting the use of vegetable parts other than the edible mesocarp for several future food applications, rather than these being wasted.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cebolas , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Suínos , alfa-Glucosidases
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125973, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492882

RESUMO

The emerging environmental issues necessitate the engineering of novel and well-designed nanoadsorbents for advanced separation and purification applications. Despite recent advances, the facile synthesis of hierarchical micro-mesoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with tuned structures has remained a challenge. Herein, we report a simple defect engineering approach to manipulate the framework, induce mesoporosity, and crease large pore volumes in MIL-101(Cr) by embedding graphene quantum dots (GQDs) during its self-assembly process. For instance, MIL-101@GQD-3 (Vmeso: 0.68 and Vtot: 1.87 cm3/g) exhibited 300.0% and 53.3% more meso and total pore volume compared to those of the conventional MIL-101 (Vmeso: 0.17 and Vtot: 1.22 cm3/g), respectively, resulting in 1.7 and 2.8 times greater benzene and toluene loading at 1 bar and 25 °C. In addition, we found that MIL-101@GQD-3 retained its superiority over a wide range of VOC concentrations and operating temperature (25-55 °C) with great cyclic capacity and energy-efficient regeneration. Considering the simplicity of the adopted technique to induce mesoporosity and tune the nanoporous structure of MOFs, the presented GQD incorporation technique is expected to provide a new pathway for the facile synthesis of advanced materials for environmental applications.

6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246389, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320050

RESUMO

Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Plumas , Animais , Fermentação , Fungos , Resíduos Industriais , Queratinas/metabolismo
7.
Public Health ; 196: 223-228, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined the mediation effects of psychosocial adjustment on the impact of playmate positive support throughout childhood and early adolescence (from age 54 months to 11 years) on later body mass index (BMI) and overweight risk in middle adolescence (age 15 years). STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Among 844 children and their families, positive support between child-playmate dyads was repeatedly assessed from child's age 54 months to Grade 5. Long-term positive support between child-playmate dyads throughout childhood and early adolescence was prospectively linked to child's BMI and overweight/obesity status at age 15 years. The average scores of repeated assessments of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from Grades 3 to 6 were used as mediators. RESULTS: Significant mediations of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were observed on pathways from positive support between child-playmate dyads to later BMI and overweight/obesity status at age 15 years. The observed mediations were mainly sustained with pronounced magnitudes in girls, but not in boys. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated a significant mediating role of psychosocial adjustment. Future research efforts are highly encouraged to replicate our findings and further explore this underlying mediation mechanism.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(15): 6384-6394, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated oils have various health-promoting effects, however, they are highly prone to oxidation. Encapsulation using biopolymers is one of the most effective strategies to enhance oil stability. This research examined the potential of gum arabic and maltodextrin for microencapsulation of omega-3 rich oils, aiming to enhance encapsulation efficiency and stability of encapsulated oil. RESULTS: We encapsulated fish and flaxseed oils by emulsification-spray drying. Spray-dried microcapsules were prepared by oil-in-water emulsions consisting of 10 wt% oil and 30 wt% biopolymer (gum arabic, maltodextrin, or their mixture). Results showed that both microcapsules were spherical in shape with surface shrinkage, and exhibited amorphous structures. Gum arabic-based microcapsules had higher encapsulation efficiency as well as better storage stability for both types of oil. Flaxseed oil microcapsules generally had higher oxidative stability regardless of the type of wall material. CONCLUSIONS: Through a comprehensive characterization of the physical and chemical properties of the emulsions and resulting microcapsules, we proved gum arabic to be a more effective wall material for polyunsaturated oil microencapsulation, especially flaxseed oil. This study provides a promising approach to stabilize oils which are susceptible to deterioration, and facilitates their wider uses as food and nutraceutical products. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Biopolímeros/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Óleos de Peixe/química , Goma Arábica/química , Óleo de Semente do Linho/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Cápsulas/química , Emulsões/química , Oxirredução
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 529-533, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248949

RESUMO

RESUMO O presente estudo foi realizado para determinar a prevalência geral de toxoplasmose em pavões de plumagem diferente e seu efeito nas enzimas de teste da função hepática dos hospedeiros. Um total de cem pavões de plumas diferenciais, como ombro preto (n = 52), azul (n = 28), branco (n = 10) e arlequim (n = 10) foram estudados no zoológico de Bahawalpur, no Paquistão, usando o Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) e ensaio imunossorvente ligado a enzima (ELISA). A prevalência geral por LAT e ELISA foi de 37% e 30%, respectivamente. Por LAT, observou-se uma prevalência não significativamente maior (P≥0,05) em gênero (37,77%) nos machos do que nas fêmeas (36,36%), enquanto os adultos apresentaram uma prevalência maior (37,97%) em relação aos jovens (33,33%). De acordo com o ELISA, uma prevalência significativamente (P <0,05) maior (35,55%) foi observada nos machos do que nas fêmeas (25,45%) e significativamente (P <0,05) maior prevalência (31,64%) foi registrada nos adultos do que nos jovens (23,80%). A análise do perfil bioquímico sérico mostrou que o nível de bilirrubina não teve elevação significativa nos hospedeiros infectados, em comparação aos não infectados, enquanto a concentração de albumina, alanina aminotransferase (ALT), aspartato aminotransferase (AST), fosfatase alcalina (ALP) foi significativamente (P <0,05) diferente nos hospedeiros infectados. Conclui-se que a toxoplasmose afeta as enzimas do teste da função hepática. Essa é uma pesquisa preliminar e requer mais pesquisas em todo o país, com populações e amostras maiores.

10.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 5(1): 161-170, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521585

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has strained health care systems and personal protective equipment (PPE) supplies globally. We hypothesized that a collaborative robot system could perform health care worker effector tasks inside a simulated intensive care unit (ICU) patient room, which could theoretically reduce both PPE use and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) exposures. We planned a prospective proof-of-concept feasibility and design pilot study to test 5 discrete medical tasks in a simulated ICU room of a COVID-19 patient using a collaborative robot: push a button on intravenous pole machine when alert occurs for downstream occlusion, adjust ventilator knob, push button on ICU monitor to silence false alerts, increase oxygen flow on wall-mounted flow meter to allow the patient to walk to the bathroom and back (dial-up and dial-down oxygen flow), and push wall-mounted nurse call button. Feasibility was defined as task completion robotically. A training period of 45 minutes to 1 hour was needed to program the system de novo for each task. In less than 30 days, the team completed 5 simple effector task experiments robotically. Selected collaborative robotic effector tasks appear feasible in a simulated ICU room of the COVID-19 patient. Theoretically, this robotic approach could reduce PPE use and staff SARS-CoV-2 exposure. It requires future validation and health care worker learning similar to other ICU device training.

12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1698-1704, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | ID: biblio-1131578

RESUMO

The present study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence and hematological effects of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep and goat in district Dera Ghazi Khan. Blood samples (n=204) were collected comprise goats (n=101) and sheep (n=103) alongwith age, gender and breeds of animals. Samples were collected randomly from 25 flocks of 7 different union council Viz. Vehova, Tibbi Qaisrani, Lakhani, Kohar, Tuman Qaisrani, Nutkani and Kot Qaisrani of Tehsil Taunsa Sharif at least 4 animals from each flock. All ruminants divide into three groups based on age, breed and gender. The prevalence was detected through two different kits Viz. LAT and ELISA kit. The overall prevalence suspected in goats through LAT and ELISA kit was (35.64%), (32.67%) and in sheep was (25.24%), (23.30%) respectively. The Toxoplasma gondii had a significant effect on goats in age groups and non-significant all other groups of goats and sheep. Toxoplasma gondii had a significant effect on all hematological parameters like Hemoglobin, total leukocyte cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes, platelets, and red blood cells, except monocytes. In conclusion of the current study, toxoplasmosis is prevalent among ruminants, reveals the possibility of transmission to humans on the use of host animals as protein source.(AU)


O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a prevalência e efeitos hematológicos de Toxoplasma gondii em ovelhas e cabras no distrito Dera Ghazi Khan. Amostras de sangue (n=204) foram coletadas para incluir cabras (n=101) e ovelhas (n=103), além de idade, gênero e raça dos animais. Amostras foram coletadas aleatoriamente de 25 rebanhos de 7 conselhos sindicais: Vehova, Tibbi Qaisrani, Lakhani, Kohar, Tuman Qaisrani, Nutkani e Kot Qaisrani of Tehsil Taunsa Sharif com pelo menos 4 animais em cada rebanho. Todos os ruminantes foram divididos em três grupos baseados em idade, raça e gênero. A prevalência foi detectada usando dois kits, LAT e ELISA. A prevalência total suspeita em cabras através dos kits LAT e ELISA foi (35.64%), (32.67%) e em ovelhas foi (25.24%), (23.30%) respectivamente. O Toxoplasma gondii teve efeito significativo em cabras em grupos de idade e não significativo em todos os outros grupos de cabras e ovelhas. Toxoplasma gondii teve efeito significativo em todos os parâmetros hematológicos como hemoglobina, células totais de leucócitos, granulócitos, linfócitos, plaquetas e glóbulos vermelhos, exceto monócitos. O presente estudo conclui que toxoplasmose é prevalente entre ruminantes, e revela a possibilidade de transmissão para humanos com o uso de animais hospedeiros como fonte de proteína.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Cabras/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Paquistão , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Prevalência
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 384: 121317, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586916

RESUMO

In this work, a series of nanoporous carbon materials were synthesized using Iranian asphaltene as a low-cost carbon source and modified by melamine as a new nitrogen-rich promoter (M-IANC). The adsorption capacity of benzene and toluene on the synthesized M-IANCs was measured at low and high concentrations by an in-house built apparatus. The results demonstrated that the addition of melamine remarkably increased the mesoporous volume (up to 1.61 cm3/g) in the nanoporous carbon structure and, subsequently, created a large surface area (2692 m2/g) and pore volume (1.71 cm3/g). The resulting M-IANC-C nanostructure (melamine:PIA mass ratio of 1:2) depicted 228.18 wt.% and 82.08 wt.% adsorption capacity for benzene and toluene, respectively, which were 19.4 and 2.8 times higher than commercial activated carbon. In addition to the distinguished adsorptive behavior for benzene and toluene removal, M-IANC-C exhibited higher cyclic adsorption capacity than those of unmodified IANC sample after four consecutive cycles. The adsorption mechanism and the role of melamine groups in the adsorption of benzene and toluene were also studied by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Besides the inexpensive cost of the carbon source (asphaltene), results also indicate that the M-IANC can be a suitable candidate for VOC adsorption.

14.
Data Brief ; 27: 104741, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763398

RESUMO

The data presented in this paper are related to the published research article "Development of aqueous-based phase change amino acid solvents for energy-efficient CO2 capture: The role of antisolvent" [1]. The raw and analyzed data include the equilibrium and kinetics of CO2 absorption, the density and concentration of different CO2-containing species at upper and lower liquid phases, and particle size distribution of solid particles precipitated during CO2 absorption of aqueous and aqueous-based amino acid solvents. In addition, the SEM images of solid precipitates at the end of CO2 absorption are presented. The detailed values of this phase change amino acid solvent are crucial for large-scale implementation of CO2 capture systems with phase change behavior.

15.
J Appl Microbiol ; 126(6): 1708-1721, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882965

RESUMO

AIMS: The current study was aimed to evaluate the beneficial effects and bioremediation potential of a Cd-tolerant bacterial strain, Serratia sp. CP-13, on the physiological and biochemical functions of Linum usitatissimum L., under Cd stress. METHODS AND RESULTS: The bacterial strain was isolated from the wastewater collection point of Chakera, Faisalabad, Pakistan, as this place contains industrial wastewater of the Faisalabad region. The Serratia sp. CP-13, identified through 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, exhibited a significant phyto-beneficial potential in terms of in vitro inorganic phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid production and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Effects of Serratia sp. CP-13 inoculation on L. usitatissimum were evaluated by growing the plants in CdCl2 (0, 5 or 10 mg kg-1 dry soil)-spiked soil. Without inoculation of Serratia sp. CP-13, Cd stress significantly reduced the plant biomass as well as the quantity of proteins and photosynthetic pigments due to enhanced H2 O2 , malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and impaired nutrient homeostasis. Subsequently, Serratia sp. CP-13 increased the plant fresh and dry biomass, plant antioxidation capacity, whereas it decreased the lipid peroxidation under Cd stress. In parallel, Serratia sp. inoculation assisted the Cd-stressed plants to maintain an optimum level of nutrients (K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe and Mn). CONCLUSIONS: The isolated bacterial strain (Serratia sp. CP-13) when applied to Cd-stressed L. usitatissimum inhibited the Cd uptake, reduced Cd-induced lipid peroxidation, maintained the optimum level of nutrients and thereby, enhanced L. usitatissimum growth. The analysis of bio-concentration and translocation factor revealed that L. usitatissimum with Serratia sp. CP-13 inoculation sequestered Cd in plant rhizospheric zone. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Serratia sp. CP-13 inoculation is a potential candidate for the development of low Cd-accumulating linseed and could be used for phytostabilization of Cd-contaminated rhizosphere/soil colloids.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Linho/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/fisiologia , Serratia/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Cádmio/toxicidade , Linho/efeitos dos fármacos , Linho/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
16.
Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric ; 10(1): 34-47, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present research was tailored to explore the prophylactic role of garlic extracts to mitigate some diet related malfunctions. The recent patents regarding antidiabetic agents (US 20140147528 A1) and garlic compositions (US 20110129580 A1) also helped in the study design. METHODS: Bioevaluation trials were conducted on Sprague Dawley rats by feeding garlic extracts for a period of sixty days. Accordingly, three studies were carried out comprising of normal, hyperglycemic and hypercholesterolemic rats. Drink & feed intakes and weight gain were measured throughout the trial. After sixty days, collected sera from rats were analyzed for serum cholesterol, LDL, HDL & triglyceride levels and glucose & insulin concentrations. Finally, the data obtained were subjected to statistical modeling. RESULTS: Results concerning the bioevaluation trials revealed that maximum 12.39% reduction was observed in serum cholesterol in Study III (hypercholesterolemic rats) on the provision of garlic supercritical extract (nutraceutical diet) followed by 10.24% decline in rats fed on solvent extract supplemented diet (functional diet). Regarding LDL, maximum decrease (17.02%) was recorded on the administration of diet having garlic supercritical extract to the hypercholesterolemic rats. While in Study II (hyperglycemic rats) maximum decrease of 11.03% in glucose level was recorded in rats fed on supercritical extract containing diet. In the same group maximum increase in insulin (7.95%) was recorded. CONCLUSIONS: From the current investigations, it can be concluded that garlic based designer foods possess the prophylactic perspectives to alleviate the risk of metabolic ailments. Thus, it can be used in the diet based therapeutic interventions as an adjuvant to pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Dieta , Alho/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 21(2): eRBCA-2019-0993, nov. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-26214

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementation of garlic, ginger in the diets of broiler chickens and assessment in terms of feed intake, growth performance and economics of feeding. The results showed that groups supplemented with 0.5% garlic powder and 0.5% ginger powder has shown significant effects on body weight as compared to the control group at day 28. Groups supplemented with 0.5% garlic powder and 0.5% ginger powder show significant increase in body weight than the groups supplemented with 0.25% garlic powder and 0.25% ginger powder. Between different supplemented groups, villus length and width of duodenum and jejunum of birds served with 0.5% garlic powder and 0.5% ginger powder is significantly higher than the villus length and width of birds supplemented with 0.25% garlic and 0.25% ginger powder. Between different supplemented groups, villus length of ileum of the group supplemented with 0.5% garlic powder is significantly (p 0.05) lower than the villus length of the groups supplemented with 0.25% garlic powder and 0.25% ginger powder.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alho/anatomia & histologia , Intestino Delgado/química , Intestino Delgado/citologia
18.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 20(4): 817-824, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-19748

RESUMO

Although in-feed antibiotics work for broiler chicken's growth, they are a source of public health hazard. Therefore, there is a need for alternates which can act as growth promoter without deleterious effects on the health of meat consumers. Moringa oleifera is one such phytobiotic which is reported to possess antimicrobial and immuno-modulatory properties. This study investigated the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MOLP) supplementation on meat quality and bone morphometry of broiler. One-day-old chicks (n=100), divided into five groups (four replicates with n=5), were fed a basal diet (control group) or same diet supplemented with 6, 9, 12 or 15 g/kg MOLP. On d-35, two birds per replicate were euthanized to collect samples of breast muscle, blood and tibia bone. The MOLP supplementation significantly increased pH of breast muscle and ash percentage of tibia bone. The diameter of breast muscle fibres and also weight and weight length index of tibia bone significantly increased with 12 and 15 g/kg MOLP. The water holding capacity (WHC) of breast muscle was significantly higher with 9 and 15 g/kg MOLP; whereas robusticity index of tibia bone significantly decreased with 12 and 15 g/kg MOLP inclusion compared to the control group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Moringa oleifera leaf powder (12g/kg) increased pH, water holding capacity, and muscle fibre diameter of breast muscle and also weight, ash percentage and density indices of tibia bone in broiler chickens.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Recém-Nascido , Moringa oleifera/efeitos adversos , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Músculos Peitorais , Tíbia , Anti-Infecciosos , Fatores Imunológicos
19.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 101 Suppl 1: 114-121, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28627054

RESUMO

Due to public health hazards of subtherapeutic use of antibiotics in poultry feed, there is a need for alternatives. Moringa oleifera is a phytobiotic, which is reported to possess antimicrobial and immuno-modulatory properties. This study aimed to investigate effects of M. oleifera leaf powder (MOLP) supplementation on growth performance and intestinal microarchitecture of broiler chickens. Day-old broiler chicks (n = 100) were randomly divided into five groups with four replicates each having five birds. Birds were fed a corn-based basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5% MOLP. Body weight and feed conversion ratio were recorded on weekly basis. On day 35, two birds per replicate were selected to collect samples of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecal tonsils and bursa of Fabricius. Tissue samples were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or combined alcian blue and PAS technique. Supplementation of MOLP had no effect on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, bursa weight and intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IEL) count. Birds fed with 1.2% MOLP had higher (p < 0.05) body weight, length and empty weight of small intestine, and weight of empty and filled ceca. Villus height (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), villus surface area (duodenum) and villus height:crypt depth (ileum) were higher (p < 0.05) in 1.2% MOLP group compared with non-supplemented group. In duodenum, total goblet cell count was higher (p < 0.05) in all the supplemented groups when compared with non-supplemented birds. Acidic mucin count was higher (p < 0.05) in duodenum, jejunum and ileum of 1.2% MOLP group compared with the control group. Bursal follicle count was higher (p < 0.05) in 1.2% MOLP group compared with non-supplemented group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 1.2% MOLP modulated intestinal microarchitecture and acidic mucin production without any apparent effect on growth.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Moringa oleifera/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia
20.
Lancet ; 388(10039): 62-72, 2016 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27155903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The CORONIS trial reported differences in short-term maternal morbidity when comparing five pairs of alternative surgical techniques for caesarean section. Here we report outcomes at 3 years follow-up. METHODS: The CORONIS trial was a pragmatic international 2 × 2 × 2 × 2× 2 non-regular fractional, factorial, unmasked, randomised controlled trial done at 19 sites in Argentina, Chile, Ghana, India, Kenya, Pakistan, and Sudan. Pregnant women were eligible if they were to undergo their first or second caesarean section through a planned transverse abdominal incision. Women were randomly assigned by a secure web-based allocation system to one intervention from each of the three assigned pairs. All investigators, surgeons, and participants were unmasked to treatment allocation. In this follow-up study, we compared outcomes at 3 years following blunt versus sharp abdominal entry, exteriorisation of the uterus for repair versus intra-abdominal repair, single versus double layer closure of the uterus, closure versus non-closure of the peritoneum, and chromic catgut versus polyglactin-910 for uterine repair. Outcomes included pelvic pain; deep dyspareunia; hysterectomy and outcomes of subsequent pregnancies. Outcomes were assessed masked to the original trial allocation. This trial is registered with the Current Controlled Trials registry, number ISRCTN31089967. FINDINGS: Between Sept 1, 2011, and Sept 30, 2014, 13,153 (84%) women were followed-up for a mean duration of 3·8 years (SD 0·86). For blunt versus sharp abdominal entry there was no evidence of a difference in risk of abdominal hernias (adjusted RR 0·66; 95% CI 0·39-1·11). We also recorded no evidence of a difference in risk of death or serious morbidity of the children born at the time of trial entry (0·99, 0·83-1·17). For exteriorisation of the uterus versus intra-abdominal repair there was no evidence of a difference in risk of infertility (0·91, 0·71-1·18) or of ectopic pregnancy (0·50, 0·15-1·66). For single versus double layer closure of the uterus there was no evidence of a difference in maternal death (0·78, 0·46-1·32) or a composite of pregnancy complications (1·20, 0·75-1·90). For closure versus non-closure of the peritoneum there was no evidence of a difference in any outcomes relating to symptoms associated with pelvic adhesions such as infertility (0·80, 0·61-1·06). For chromic catgut versus polyglactin-910 sutures there was no evidence of a difference in the main comparisons for adverse pregnancy outcomes in a subsequent pregnancy, such as uterine rupture (3·05, 0·32-29·29). Overall, severe adverse outcomes were uncommon in these settings. INTERPRETATION: Although our study was not powered to detect modest differences in rare but serious events, there was no evidence to favour one technique over another. Other considerations will probably affect clinical practice, such as the time and cost saving of different approaches. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council and the Department for International Development.


Assuntos
Cesárea/métodos , Peritônio/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Útero/cirurgia , Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos , Adulto , Categute , Dissecação/métodos , Dispareunia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Pélvica/epidemiologia , Poliglactina 910 , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez
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