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1.
Genet Mol Res ; 13(1): 1465-79, 2014 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24634245

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) encompass a class of small non-coding RNAs that often negatively regulate gene expression. miRNAs play an essential role in skeletal muscle, determining the proper development and maintenance of this tissue. In comparison to other organs and tissues, the full set of muscle miRNAs and its expression patterns are still poorly understood. In this report, a chicken skeletal muscle miRNA library was constructed, and the expression of selected miRNAs was further characterized during muscle development in chicken lines with distinct muscling phenotypes. Clone library sequence analysis revealed 40 small RNAs with similarities to previously described chicken miRNAs, seven miRNAs that were never identified before in chicken, and some sequence clusters representing other possible novel miRNAs. Temporal expression profiles of three miRNAs associated with cell proliferation and differentiation (miR-125b, miR-221, and miR-206) in two chicken lines (broiler and layer) revealed the differential steady-state levels of these miRs during skeletal muscle growth and suggests that miR-206 is involved in the muscling phenotype that is observed in growth-selected chicken lines.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Galinhas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , MicroRNAs/química , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Alinhamento de Sequência
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 95(7): 4114-29, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22720968

RESUMO

Achieving accurate genomic estimated breeding values for dairy cattle requires a very large reference population of genotyped and phenotyped individuals. Assembling such reference populations has been achieved for breeds such as Holstein, but is challenging for breeds with fewer individuals. An alternative is to use a multi-breed reference population, such that smaller breeds gain some advantage in accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) from information from larger breeds. However, this requires that marker-quantitative trait loci associations persist across breeds. Here, we assessed the gain in accuracy of GEBV in Jersey cattle as a result of using a combined Holstein and Jersey reference population, with either 39,745 or 624,213 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The surrogate used for accuracy was the correlation of GEBV with daughter trait deviations in a validation population. Two methods were used to predict breeding values, either a genomic BLUP (GBLUP_mod), or a new method, BayesR, which used a mixture of normal distributions as the prior for SNP effects, including one distribution that set SNP effects to zero. The GBLUP_mod method scaled both the genomic relationship matrix and the additive relationship matrix to a base at the time the breeds diverged, and regressed the genomic relationship matrix to account for sampling errors in estimating relationship coefficients due to a finite number of markers, before combining the 2 matrices. Although these modifications did result in less biased breeding values for Jerseys compared with an unmodified genomic relationship matrix, BayesR gave the highest accuracies of GEBV for the 3 traits investigated (milk yield, fat yield, and protein yield), with an average increase in accuracy compared with GBLUP_mod across the 3 traits of 0.05 for both Jerseys and Holsteins. The advantage was limited for either Jerseys or Holsteins in using 624,213 SNP rather than 39,745 SNP (0.01 for Holsteins and 0.03 for Jerseys, averaged across traits). Even this limited and nonsignificant advantage was only observed when BayesR was used. An alternative panel, which extracted the SNP in the transcribed part of the bovine genome from the 624,213 SNP panel (to give 58,532 SNP), performed better, with an increase in accuracy of 0.03 for Jerseys across traits. This panel captures much of the increased genomic content of the 624,213 SNP panel, with the advantage of a greatly reduced number of SNP effects to estimate. Taken together, using this panel, a combined breed reference and using BayesR rather than GBLUP_mod increased the accuracy of GEBV in Jerseys from 0.43 to 0.52, averaged across the 3 traits.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genômica/métodos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/normas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
3.
Anim Genet ; 43(5): 518-24, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22497247

RESUMO

Backfat thickness affects the preservation of the beef carcass after slaughter and confers organoleptic characteristics assessed by the consumer. One of the breeding goals for Canchim, a tropically adapted breed, is to comprehensively increase fat thickness. Our goals were to identify genomic regions associated with backfat in Canchim populations and validate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) overlapping previously identified QTL regions known to affect fat deposition. Fifteen animals with lower and 15 animals with higher residues for backfat, according to a linear model using the SAS GLM procedure, were selected from a population of 1171 animals and genotyped using the BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Initial analysis revealed more than 100 SNPs that discriminated the tails of phenotypic distribution. One extended region of association included the centromeric region of chromosome (Chr) 14. Because this region overlapped with QTL from previous reports, we developed SNP assays to interrogate two linkage disequilibrium blocks, one in the centromeric region and another in the middle region of Chr 14 to confirm the association. The analysis validated the presence of specific haplotypes affecting fat thickness.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/anatomia & histologia , Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Bovinos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Haplótipos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Ultrassonografia
4.
J Anim Sci ; 90(7): 2142-51, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22408089

RESUMO

Reproductive efficiency is of economic importance in commercial beef cattle production, since failure to achieve pregnancy reduces the number of calves marketed. Identification of genetic markers with predictive merit for reproductive success would facilitate early selection of females and avoid inefficiencies associated with sub-fertile cows. To identify regions of the genome harboring variation affecting reproductive success, we applied a genome-wide association approach based on the >700,000 SNP marker assay. To include the largest number of individuals possible under the available budget, cows from several populations were assigned to extremes for reproductive efficiency, and DNA was pooled within population and phenotype before genotyping. Surprisingly, pools prepared from DNA of low reproductive cattle returned fluorescence intensity data intermediate between fertile females and males for SNP mapped to the Y chromosome (i.e., male sex chromosome). The presence of Y-associated material in low reproductive heifers or cows was confirmed by Y-directed PCR, which revealed that 21 to 29% of females in the low reproductive category were positive by a Y chromosome PCR test normally used to sex embryos. The presence of the Y chromosome anomaly was further confirmed with application of additional Y-specific PCR amplicons, indicating the likelihood of the presence of some portion of male sex chromosome in female cattle in various beef cattle herds across the U.S. Discovery of this Y anomaly in low reproductive females may make an important contribution to management of reproductive failures in beef cattle operations.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Infertilidade Feminina/veterinária , Taxa de Gravidez , Cromossomo Y/genética , Alelos , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma , Infertilidade Feminina/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
5.
Anim Biotechnol ; 21(3): 188-202, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20665291

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to use single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located on bovine chromosome 20 to fine map a previously identified QTL associated with the incidence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Crossbred steers (GPE 7; n = 539) derived from sires of 7 Bos taurus breeds and having veterinary records related to IBK were used to test the association of a total of 105 SNP located under the most relevant region of the QTL. Five SNP were significantly associated with IBK (P < 0.05), as animals inheriting differing genotypes from individual SNP exhibited significantly different incidence rates of IBK. The population also had numerous other phenotypes, supporting evaluation of association of the 105 markers with carcass traits to identify potential antagonistic effects of implementing a marker-assisted selection program for IBK susceptibility. An association of 2 SNP for marbling and tenderness was identified, along with 3 SNP associated with the percentage of carcasses classified as choice. Four SNP were significantly associated with fat yield, 2 SNP with longissimus muscle area, and 2 additional SNP with dressing percentage. The association of these markers indicates that the evaluated QTL region may, in fact, harbor the causative mutations responsible for the variation observed in IBK susceptibility and carcass quality and composition traits. Thus, further evaluation of SNP in this region is necessary in order to identify mutations accounting for the largest degree of variation for IBK and carcass traits.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Ceratoconjuntivite Infecciosa/genética , Animais , Composição Corporal/genética , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Cromossomos , Genótipo , Incidência , Ceratoconjuntivite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
6.
Anim. Reprod. ; 7(3): 205-205, July/September 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-5918

RESUMO

Our laboratory is interested in post-translational modifications of histone proteins, with studies ranging from identification of novel modifications to functional characterization of these marks. Ultimately, we seek to provide a greater understanding of how histone modifications work together to form a ‘histone code. This code is thought to regulate the recruitment of effector proteins that regulate the diverse functions associated with DNA, including gene transcription and DNA repair. Our recent studies show that RNA polymerase II recruits a variety of chromatinmodifying enzymes that contribute to the disruption, reassembly and maintenance of chromatin structure during the transcription elongation process. One enzyme we have focused on is Set2, which associates with the transcribing polymerase and methylates nucleosomal H3 on lysine 36. H3K36 methylation results in the recruitment of a histone deacetylase complex which functions to prevent inappropriate transcription initiation from occurring within the transcribed regions of genes. I will discuss our recent progress toward understanding how Set2 contributes to the organization and function of chromatin. In addition, I will highlight our progress on a proteomics project that is providing new insights into how “readers” of the histone code bind their cognate modifications using high-density histone peptide arrays.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/análise , Expressão Gênica/genética
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 92(7): 3431-6, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19528621

RESUMO

Nearly 57,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) were investigated to determine usefulness of the associated SNP for genomic prediction. Genotypes were obtained for 12,591 bulls and cows, and SNP were selected based on 5,503 bulls with genotypes from a larger set of SNP. The following SNP were deleted: 6,572 that were monomorphic, 3,213 with scoring problems (primarily because of poor definition of clusters and excess number of clusters), and 3,649 with a minor allele frequency of <2%. Number of SNP for each minor allele frequency class (> or =2%) was fairly uniform (777 to 1,004). For 5 contiguous SNP assigned to chromosome 7, no bulls were heterozygous, which indicated that those SNP are actually on the nonpseudoautosomal portion of the X chromosome. Another 178 SNP that were not assigned to a chromosome but that had many fewer heterozygotes than expected were also assigned to the X chromosome. Existence of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was investigated by comparing observed with expected heterozygosity. For 11 SNP, the observed percentage of heterozygous individuals differed from the expected by >15%; therefore, those SNP were deleted. For 2,628 SNP, the genotype at another SNP was highly correlated (i.e., genotypes were identical for >99.5% of bulls), and those were deleted. After edits, 40,874 SNP remained. A parent-progeny conflict was declared when the genotypes were alternate homozygotes. Mean number of conflicts was 2.3 when pedigree was correct and 2,411 when it was incorrect. The sire was genotyped for >93% of animals. Maternal grandsire genotype was similarly checked; however, because alternate homozygotes could be valid, a conflict threshold of 16% was used to indicate a need for further investigation. Genotyping consistency was investigated for 21 bulls genotyped twice with differences primarily from SNP that were not scored in one of the genotypes. Concordance for readable SNP was extremely high (99.96-100%). Thousands of SNP that were polymorphic in Holsteins were monomorphic in Jerseys or Brown Swiss, which indicated that breed-specific SNP sets are required or that all breeds need to be considered in the SNP selection process. Genotypes from the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip are of high accuracy and provide the basis for genomic evaluations in the United States and Canada.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Genoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Animais , Canadá , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Estados Unidos
8.
J Anim Sci ; 87(5): 1576-81, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19213716

RESUMO

A microsatellite-based genome scan of a Wagyu x Limousin F(2) cross population previously demonstrated QTL affecting LM area and fatty acid composition were present in regions near the centromere of BTA2. In this study, we used 70 SNP markers to examine the centromeric 24 megabases (Mb) of BTA2, including the Limousin-specific F94L myostatin allele (AB076403.1; 415C > A) located at approximately 6 Mb on the draft genome sequence of BTA2. A significant effect of the F94L marker was observed (F = 60.17) for LM area, which indicated that myostatin is most likely responsible for the effect. This is consistent with previous reports that the substitution of Leu for Phe at AA 94 of myostatin (caused by the 415C > A transversion) is associated with increased muscle growth. Surprisingly, several fatty acid trait QTL, which affected the amount of unsaturated fats, also mapped to or very near the myostatin marker, including the ratio of C16:1 MUFA to C16:0 saturated fat (F = 16.72), C18:1 to C18:0 (F = 18.88), and total content of MUFA (F = 17.12). In addition, QTL for extent of marbling (F = 14.73) approached significance (P = 0.05), and CLA concentration (F = 9.22) was marginally significant (P = 0.18). We also observed associations of SNP located at 16.3 Mb with KPH (F = 15.00) and for the amount of SFA (F = 12.01). These results provide insight into genetic differences between the Wagyu and Limousin breeds and may lead to a better tasting and healthier product for consumers through improved selection for lipid content of beef.


Assuntos
Alelos , Bovinos/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Carne/normas , Músculo Esquelético/química , Miostatina/genética , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
9.
Dev Biol (Basel) ; 132: 231-237, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18817307

RESUMO

As a complement to the Bovine HapMap Consortium project, we initiated a systematic study of the copy numbervariation (CNV) within the same cattle population using array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). Oligonucleotide CGH arrays were designed and fabricated to cover all chromosomes with an average interval of 6 kb using the latest bovine genome assembly. In the initial screening, three Holstein bulls were selected to represent major paternal lineages of the Holstein breed with some maternal linkages between these lines. Dual-label hybridizations were performed using either Hereford L1 Dominette 01449 or L1 Domino 99375 as reference. The CNVs were represented by gains and losses of normalized fluorescence intensities relative to the reference. The data presented here, for the first time, demonstrated that significant amounts of germline and fewer somatic CNVs exist in cattle, that many CNVs are common both across diverse cattle breeds and among individuals within a breed, and that array CGH is an effective tool to systematically detect bovine CNV. Selected CNVs have been confirmed by independent methods using real-time (RT) PCR. The strategy used in this study, based on genome higher-orderarchitecture variation, is a powerful approach to generating resources for the identification of novel genomic variation and candidate genes for economically important traits.


Assuntos
Células Germinativas , Mutação , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos , Primers do DNA , Genótipo , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
Anim Genet ; 39(6): 655-8, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18699832

RESUMO

We present a detailed breakpoint mapping and population frequency analysis of a 214-kb microdeletion that removes multiple olfactory receptor genes. Using progressive rounds of PCR assays, we mapped the upstream and downstream breakpoints of this microdeletion event to approximately 1 and 12 kb genomic regions, respectively. We developed PCR-based genotyping assays, characterized a dairy cattle panel of 96 samples and found that the frequency of the deletion allele was over 51%. Our results indicated that this microdeletion is an ancient event occurring in one of the earlier founders, and that it has been stably inherited across generations in the North American dairy cattle population.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Deleção de Genes , Polimorfismo Genético , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Genoma , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
12.
Anim Genet ; 38(2): 120-5, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17302794

RESUMO

High-density whole-genome maps are essential for ordering genes or markers and aid in the assembly of genome sequence. To increase the density of markers on the bovine radiation hybrid map, and hence contribute to the assembly of the bovine genome sequence, an Illumina BeadStation was used to simultaneously type large numbers of markers on the Roslin-Cambridge 3000 rad bovine-hamster whole-genome radiation hybrid panel (WGRH3000). In five multiplex reactions, 6738 sequence tagged site (STS) markers were successfully typed on the WGRH3000 panel DNA. These STSs harboured SNPs that were developed as a result of the bovine genome sequencing initiative. Typically, the most time consuming and expensive part of creating high-density radiation hybrid (RH) maps is genotyping the markers on the RH panel with conventional approaches. Using the method described in this article, we have developed a high-density whole-genome RH map with 4690 loci and a linkage map with 2701 loci, with direct comparison to the bovine whole-genome sequence assembly (Btau_2.0) in a fraction of the time it would have taken with conventional typing and genotyping methods.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Genoma/genética , Mapeamento de Híbridos Radioativos/métodos , Animais , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genótipo , Sitios de Sequências Rotuladas
13.
Anim Biotechnol ; 16(1): 17-29, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15926260

RESUMO

Tissue-specific cDNA library sequences (expressed sequence tags, or EST) yield a detailed snapshot of gene expression and are useful in developing second-generation molecular resources (i.e., microarrays) for gene expression profiling. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize an intestine-specific cDNA library to examine the transcriptome of the bovine gut and identify expressed genes that influence ruminant nutrition and health. We describe BARC-8BOV, a normalized cDNA library developed from mRNA isolated from four distinct intestinal locations (duodenal, jejunal and ileal small intestine, colon) of Holstein dairy cattle resulting in 19,110 5'-EST deposited into the NCBI GenBank EST database. Assembly and clustering of these 19,110 clone sequences yielded 11,208 unique elements (3,419 contigs and 7,789 singletons) with an average length of 695 base pairs. Analysis strongly suggests normalization and tissue pooling were effective at increasing the discovery rate of new bovine sequence. A total of 1,123 sequence elements not previously identified in cattle, but with similarity to known genes in other animal species, were identified and shown to be involved in numerous critical biological processes. An additional 745 transcripts were not previously represented as EST in nucleotide or protein databases, and further analysis of these could lead to the identification of gut-specific transcript variants of known genes or potentially the discovery of novel bovine genes. Of the 11,208 assembled sequences, 11,034, or 98.4%, match sequences present in the bovine DNA trace archive at NCBI, and add to a bovine EST database previously lacking significant gut tissue representation. Ultimately, these data will also contribute in efforts to annotate the bovine genome.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , Biblioteca Gênica , Intestinos/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Complementar/isolamento & purificação , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/fisiologia , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Feminino , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Anim Genet ; 35(3): 213-9, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15147393

RESUMO

Sequence-based gene expression data are used to interpret results from functional genomic and proteomics studies. Although more than 300 000 bovine-expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are available in public databases, a more thorough and directed sampling of the expressed genome is needed to identify new transcripts and improve assembly and annotation of existing transcript sequences. Accordingly, we examined the utility of constructing cDNA libraries synthesized by arbitrarily primed RT-PCR of mRNA from tissues not well represented in the publicly available bovine EST database. A total of 33 cDNA libraries were constructed from healthy and infected mammary gland tissues of Brazilian Gir and Holstein cattle. This series of libraries was used to generate 6481 open reading frame-expressed sequence tags (ORESTES) that assembled into 1798 unique sequence elements of which, 1157 did not significantly match sequence assemblies available in the Bos taurus gene index. However, a total of 264 of these 1157 sequence elements aligned with mouse and human expressed sequences demonstrating that ORESTES is an effective resource for discovery of novel expressed sequences in cattle. Furthermore, comparison of the alignment position of bovine ORESTES-derived sequence elements to human gene reference sequences suggested that the priming events for cDNA synthesis more often occurred at the central portion of a transcript, which may have contributed to the relatively high rate of novel sequence discovery.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Biblioteca Gênica , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/química , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Genetics ; 163(3): 1123-34, 2003 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12663549

RESUMO

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) provide an abundant source of DNA polymorphisms in a number of eukaryotic species. Information on the frequency, nature, and distribution of SNPs in plant genomes is limited. Thus, our objectives were (1) to determine SNP frequency in coding and noncoding soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) DNA sequence amplified from genomic DNA using PCR primers designed to complete genes, cDNAs, and random genomic sequence; (2) to characterize haplotype variation in these sequences; and (3) to provide initial estimates of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in soybean. Approximately 28.7 kbp of coding sequence, 37.9 kbp of noncoding perigenic DNA, and 9.7 kbp of random noncoding genomic DNA were sequenced in each of 25 diverse soybean genotypes. Over the >76 kbp, mean nucleotide diversity expressed as Watterson's theta was 0.00097. Nucleotide diversity was 0.00053 and 0.00111 in coding and in noncoding perigenic DNA, respectively, lower than estimates in the autogamous model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Haplotype analysis of SNP-containing fragments revealed a deficiency of haplotypes vs. the number that would be anticipated at linkage equilibrium. In 49 fragments with three or more SNPs, five haplotypes were present in one fragment while four or less were present in the remaining 48, thereby supporting the suggestion of relatively limited genetic variation in cultivated soybean. Squared allele-frequency correlations (r(2)) among haplotypes at 54 loci with two or more SNPs indicated low genome-wide LD. The low level of LD and the limited haplotype diversity suggested that the genome of any given soybean accession is a mosaic of three or four haplotypes. To facilitate SNP discovery and the development of a transcript map, subsets of four to six diverse genotypes, whose sequence analysis would permit the discovery of at least 75% of all SNPs present in the 25 genotypes as well as 90% of the common (frequency >0.10) SNPs, were identified.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Soja/genética , Transcrição Genética , Primers do DNA , DNA de Plantas/genética , Enzimas/genética , Amplificação de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Soja/classificação , Soja/enzimologia
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