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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 00264, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339364

RESUMO

Abstract Allium cepa L. is a commonly consumed vegetable that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and contains nutrients and antioxidants in ample amounts. In spite of the valuable food applications of onion bulb, its peel and outer fleshy layers are generally regarded as waste and exploration of their nutritional and therapeutic potential is still in progress with a very slow progression rate. The present study was designed with the purpose of doing a comparative analysis of the antioxidant potential of two parts of Allium cepa, i.g., bulb (edible part) and outer fleshy layers and dry peels (inedible part). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the onion bulb and peel extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase of porcine was also evaluated. The antioxidant potential of onion peel and bulb extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity. Total flavonoids and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of onion peel were significantly greater as compared to that of onion bulb. Ethanolic extract of onion peel also presented better antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity as compared to the ethanolic extract of bulb, while the aqueous extract of bulb presented weakest antioxidative potential. Onion peel extract's α-glucosidase inhibition potential was also correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The current findings presented onion peel as a possible source of antioxidative agents and phenolic compounds that might be beneficial against development of various common chronic diseases that might have an association with oxidative stress. Besides, outer dry layers and fleshy peels of onion exhibited higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities, compared to the inner bulb. The information obtained by the present study can be useful in promoting the use of vegetable parts other than the edible mesocarp for several future food applications, rather than these being wasted.


Resumo Allium cepa pertence à família Liliaceae e é rica em nutrientes e antioxidantes. Apesar das expressivas aplicações alimentares do bulbo da cebola, sua casca e outras camadas externas são geralmente consideradas resíduos, e seu potencial nutricional e terapêutico ainda é pouco explorado. O presente estudo foi delineado com o objetivo de investigar comparativamente o potencial antioxidante de duas partes de Allium cepa, por exemplo o bulbo (parte comestível) e camadas externas e cascas secas (parte não comestível). Além disso, o efeito inibitório dos extratos do bulbo de cebola e casca sobre a α-glucosidase intestinal de ratos e α-amilase pancreática suína também foi avaliado. O potencial antioxidante dos extratos da casca de cebola e bulbo foi avaliado utilizando-se 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), método de poder antioxidante de redução do ferro (FRAP), método 2,2'-azino-bis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS) de eliminação de radicais, atividade de eliminação de radicais H2O2 e atividade quelante do Fe2+. Os flavonoides totais e os teores fenólicos do extrato de etanol da casca de cebola foram significativamente maiores quando comparados ao do bulbo. O extrato de etanol da casca de cebola também apresentou melhor atividade antioxidante e eliminação de radicais livres quando comparado ao extrato de etanol do bulbo, enquanto o extrato aquoso de bulbo apresentou menor potencial antioxidante. O potencial de inibição da α-glicosidase dos extratos de casca de cebola correlacionou-se com seus teores fenólicos e de flavonoides. Os resultados encontrados identificaram que a casca de cebola é uma possível fonte de agentes antioxidantes e compostos fenólicos que podem ser benéficos contra o desenvolvimento de várias doenças crônicas que estão associadas ao estresse oxidativo. Além disso, as camadas externas secas e as cascas da cebola exibiram maior conteúdo fenólico e atividades antioxidantes, em comparação com o bulbo interno. As informações obtidas pelo presente estudo podem promover o uso de outras partes vegetais além do mesocarpo comestível para futuras aplicações em alimentos, ao invés de serem desperdiçadas.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: 00264, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669793

RESUMO

Allium cepa L. is a commonly consumed vegetable that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and contains nutrients and antioxidants in ample amounts. In spite of the valuable food applications of onion bulb, its peel and outer fleshy layers are generally regarded as waste and exploration of their nutritional and therapeutic potential is still in progress with a very slow progression rate. The present study was designed with the purpose of doing a comparative analysis of the antioxidant potential of two parts of Allium cepa, i.g., bulb (edible part) and outer fleshy layers and dry peels (inedible part). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the onion bulb and peel extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase of porcine was also evaluated. The antioxidant potential of onion peel and bulb extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity. Total flavonoids and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of onion peel were significantly greater as compared to that of onion bulb. Ethanolic extract of onion peel also presented better antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity as compared to the ethanolic extract of bulb, while the aqueous extract of bulb presented weakest antioxidative potential. Onion peel extract's α-glucosidase inhibition potential was also correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The current findings presented onion peel as a possible source of antioxidative agents and phenolic compounds that might be beneficial against development of various common chronic diseases that might have an association with oxidative stress. Besides, outer dry layers and fleshy peels of onion exhibited higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities, compared to the inner bulb. The information obtained by the present study can be useful in promoting the use of vegetable parts other than the edible mesocarp for several future food applications, rather than these being wasted.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cebolas , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Suínos , alfa-Glucosidases
3.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 22(4): eRBCA-2020-1315, out. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-761982

RESUMO

Objectives of the study were to investigate influence of artificial insemination (AI) in caged and floored flock in comparison to natural mating (NM) on broiler breeders welfare, productive performance and economic appraisal. To execute this experiment, a total of 1440 pullets of Ross-308 Parent Stock along with 168 males were picked from a commercial flock and divided into three groups i.e., AIC=AI in cages, AIF=AI on floor and third was NM=NM on floor. Each group carried 480 females (HH) while 168 males were divided into 41, 48 and 58 for AIC, AIF and NM, respectively. During both phases all procedures and studied parameters were the same except the sperm dose rates which were changed during post peak. According to the results, significantly (p0.05) higher levels of serum corticosterone, glucose and cholesterol were recorded in birds of AIC and respectively as compared to birds being allowed to mate naturally. Whereas, the experimental males and females of AIF and AIC kept for AI exhibited (p0.05) higher body weight, depletion % and feed consumption particularly in post peak phase. However, among the birds subjected to AI, the birds kept in the cages had better performance (p0.05) than the birds kept in the floor. Moreover, frequency rate of insemination in females and milking of males found (p0.05) reciprocal to the depletion, feed intake and body weight during peak but particularly in post peak. Perhaps, various sperm doses remained inert to implicit any impact on studied parameters. Similarly, egg weight was neither affected by housing systems nor by mating strategies during both phases. However, various insemination and milking frequencies noticeably swayed the productive traits under this study. AI in floored flock was found ineffective even in comparison to natural mating. In conclusion, AI in cages brought forth the better productive performance and lesser male depletion, hence, can be recommended.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Aves/fisiologia , Bem-Estar do Animal , Peso Corporal , Fator de Acasalamento , Valor da Vida
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 80: 28-33, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) due to vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae post introduction of the vaccine into the routine immunization program in Pakistan. METHODS: A matched case-control study was conducted at 16 hospitals in Sindh Province, Pakistan. Children aged <5years (eligible to receive PCV10) who presented with radiographically confirmed pneumonia and/or meningitis were enrolled as cases. PCR for the lytA gene was conducted on blood (for radiographic pneumonia) and cerebrospinal fluid (for meningitis) samples to detect S. pneumoniae. The proportion of IPD due to vaccine serotypes (including vaccine-related serogroups) was determined through serial multiplex PCR. For each case, at least five controls were enrolled from children hospitalized at the same institution, matched for age, district, and season. RESULTS: Of 92 IPD patients enrolled during July 2013 to March 2017, 24 (26.0%) had disease caused by vaccine serotypes. Most case (87.5% of 24) and control (66.4% of 134) children had not received any PCV10 doses. The estimated effectiveness of PCV10 against vaccine-type IPD was 72.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) -7.2% to 92.6%) with at least one dose, 78.8% (95% CI -11.9% to 96.0%) for at least two doses, and 81.9% (95% CI -55.7% to 97.9%) for all three doses of vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The vaccine effectiveness point estimates for PCV10 were high and increased with increasing number of doses. However, vaccine effectiveness estimates did not reach statistical significance, possibly due to low power. The findings indicate the likely impact of vaccine in reducing the burden of vaccine-type IPD if vaccine uptake can be improved.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Paquistão , Infecções Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/uso terapêutico , Tamanho da Amostra , Estações do Ano , Sorogrupo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Vacinação
5.
Trop Biomed ; 36(1): 304-309, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597451

RESUMO

Babesia microti (B. microti) is an intra erythrocytic protozoan that mainly infects red blood cells and causes babesiosis. Its frequent hosts are rodents, ticks and humans. Dog's blood samples (N = 150) were collected from three different districts in Punjab including Multan (N = 49), Islamabad/Rawalpindi (N = 49) and Lahore (N = 52) while 159 cat's blood samples were collected from Lahore (N = 159). Data on the epidemiological characters of all animals (including age, gender, breed, body temperature, deworming, vaccination, mucus membrane status, hydration status, presence of hematuria and tick infestation) was collected through questionnaire. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified a 238 base pair amplicon specific for 18S rRNA gene of B. microti in two (1.3%) dog and 21 (13.2%) cat blood samples. Amplified PCR products were confirmed by DNA sequencing and the four partial 18S rRNA gene sequences were submitted to the EMBL/GenBank. Among epidemiological factors, high body temperature (P < 0.05) and pale mucous membrane (P < 0.05) were the parameters associated with the presence of B. microti in infected dogs. Females were found to be more infected (P = 0.05) than males and incidence of B. microti infection was higher in cat samples collected during winter months (P = 0.0001) than in summer. In conclusion, we are reporting the prevalence of B. microti in blood samples of cats and dogs from Pakistan for the first time and recommending that this Protozoan parasite should be considered for screening in cats and dogs with compatible clinical signs.

6.
Hum Reprod ; 33(5): 817-831, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29462326

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: What is the role of SFRP2 in endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: SFRP2 acts as a canonical WNT/CTNNB1 signaling agonist in endometriosis, regulating endometriosis lesion growth and indicating endometriosis lesion borders together with CTNNB1 (also known as beta catenin). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Endometriosis is a common, chronic disease that affects women of reproductive age, causing pain and infertility, and has significant economic impact on national health systems. Despite extensive research, the pathogenesis of endometriosis is poorly understood, and targeted medical treatments are lacking. WNT signaling is dysregulated in various human diseases, but its role in extraovarian endometriosis has not been fully elucidated. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We evaluated the significance of WNT signaling, and especially secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2), in extraovarian endometriosis, including peritoneal and deep lesions. The study design was based on a cohort of clinical samples collected by laparoscopy or curettage and questionnaire data from healthy controls and endometriosis patients. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Global gene expression analysis in human endometrium (n = 104) and endometriosis (n = 177) specimens from 47 healthy controls and 103 endometriosis patients was followed by bioinformatics and supportive qPCR analyses. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, primary cell culture and siRNA knockdown approaches were used to validate the findings. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Among the 220 WNT signaling and CTNNB1 target genes analysed, 184 genes showed differential expression in extraovarian endometriosis (P < 0.05) compared with endometrium tissue, including SFRP2 and CTNNB1. Menstrual cycle-dependent regulation of WNT genes observed in the endometrium was lost in endometriosis lesions, as shown by hierarchical clustering. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that SFRP2 and CTNNB1 are novel endometriosis lesion border markers, complementing immunostaining for the known marker CD10 (also known as MME). SFRP2 and CTNNB1 localized similarly in both the epithelium and stroma of extraovarian endometriosis tissue, and interestingly, both also indicated an additional distant lesion border, suggesting that WNT signaling is altered in the endometriosis stroma beyond the primary border indicated by the known marker CD10. SFRP2 expression was positively associated with pain symptoms experienced by patients (P < 0.05), and functional loss of SFRP2 in extraovarian endometriosis primary cell cultures resulted in decreased cell proliferation (P < 0.05) associated with reduced CTNNB1 protein expression (P = 0.05). LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION: SFRP2 and CTNNB1 improved extraovarian endometriosis lesion border detection in a relatively small cohort (n = 20), although larger studies with different endometriosis subtypes in variable cycle phases and under hormonal medication are required. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The highly expressed SFRP2 and CTNNB1 improve endometriosis lesion border detection, which can have clinical implications for better visualization of endometriosis lesions over CD10. Furthermore, SFRP2 acts as a canonical WNT/CTNNB1 signaling agonist in endometriosis and positively regulates endometriosis lesion growth, suggesting that the WNT pathway may be an important therapeutic target for endometriosis. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This study was funded by the Academy of Finland and by Tekes: Finnish Funding Agency for Innovation. The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.


Assuntos
Endometriose/metabolismo , Endométrio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Doenças Peritoneais/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/fisiologia , Adulto , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Doenças Peritoneais/genética
7.
Emerg Med J ; 35(1): 52-55, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28720723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical profile and outcome of critically ill children presenting to a paediatric ED in a lower middle-income country. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of children (<14 years) presenting to the ED of the National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, between January and December 2014 who were assigned to acuity 1 (requiring immediate life-saving interventions) according to the Emergency Severity Index. Data included demographic variables, presenting complaints, interventions and outcomes in the ED. RESULTS: There were 172 162 visits during the year. Of these, 13 551 (8%) were level 1. 64% of level 1 patients were transported to the ED without ambulance service. Neonates (0-28 days) constituted 48% of level 1 children; their most frequent presenting complaints were respiratory symptoms, followed by fever and reluctance to feed. Above the neonatal age group, the most common presenting complaints were gastrointestinal symptoms (with signs of hypoperfusion), followed by seizures, reluctance to feed and respiratory symptoms. 64% of children of >28 days presenting were malnourished. Interventions included cardiopulmonary resuscitation, application of bubble continuous positive airway pressure and endotracheal intubation. Overall mortality was 13%; 63% of all deaths were in the neonatal age group. CONCLUSION: Children with the highest triage acuity represent 8% of all visits to a paediatric ED. In this group, neonates account for nearly half of all the children, and more than half of all the deaths among critically ill children came in ED. A large proportion of high-acuity children are malnourished.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 25(2): 321-331, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27693502

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress is a major obstacle against cartilage repair in osteoarthritis (OA). Anti-oxidant agents can play a vital role in addressing this issue. We evaluated the effect of Vitamin E preconditioning in improving the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to confer resistance against oxidative stress prevailing during OA. METHODS: Vitamin E pretreated MSCs were exposed to oxidative stress in vitro by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and also implanted in surgically-induced rat model of OA. Analysis was done in terms of cell proliferation, apoptosis, cytotoxicity, chondrogenesis and repair of cartilage tissue. RESULTS: Vitamin E pretreatment enabled MSCs to counteract H2O2-induced oxidative stress in vitro. Proliferative markers, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki67 were up-regulated, along with the increase in the viability of MSCs. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFß) was also increased. Reduction of apoptosis, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and caspase 3 (Casp3) genes, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were also observed. Transplantation of Vitamin E pretreated MSCs resulted in increased proteoglycan contents of cartilage matrix. Increased expression of chondrogenic markers, Aggrecan (Acan) and collagen type-II alpha (Col2a1) accompanied by decreased expression of collagen type-I alpha (Col1a1) resulted in increased differentiation index that signifies the formation of hyaline cartilage. Further, there was an increased expression of PCNA and TGFß genes along with a decreased expression of Casp3 and VEGF genes with increased histological score. CONCLUSION: Taken together results of this study demonstrated that Vitamin E pretreated MSCs have an improved ability to impede the progression of OA and thus increased potential to treat OA.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico
9.
ISA Trans ; 53(6): 1881-91, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25200116

RESUMO

This paper aims with the mathematical modelling of an active inflatable device. This device is composed of a compressor, an Electro-pneumatic Pressure Converter (EPC) and an Inflatable Textile fabric Pocket (ITP). The later has interesting mechanical properties and is fabricated using Jacquard knitting technique which allows automatic production of unlimited varieties of pattern weaving without any mould. Thanks to these features, these ITPs have provided a better alternative to the classical airbags made by stretchable polymer material. The proposed mathematical model is obtained by combining sub-models of two main parts of the whole system. In this way, a generalised and flexible model is obtained which can easily take into consideration the ITPs of different shapes. The pressure dynamics inside the ITP are considered by taking into account the air flow rate, variation of the volume of ITP and the length of pneumatic lines joining ITP with compressed air source. The parameters of the whole mathematical model are obtained via identification techniques. The effectiveness of the model is assessed through several experimental tests with the help of a servo hydraulic fatigue testing machine.

10.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 22(11): 1894-901, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25128628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Adipose derived MSCs (ADMSCs) in combination with chondrocytes in counteracting oxidative stress in chondrocytes in vitro and in rat model of osteoarthritis (OA). METHOD: Cultured chondrocytes were exposed to oxidative stress with 200 µM Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), followed by co-culture with ADMSCs or chondrocytes or combination of both cell types in a transwell culture system for 36 h. The cytoprotective effect was assessed by immunocytochemistry and gene expression analysis. In vivo study evaluated therapeutic effect of the above mentioned three treatments after transplantation in OA rats. RESULTS: The Combination of ADMSCs + Chondrocytes decreased the extent of oxidative stress-induced damage of chondrocytes. Enhanced expression level of Acan and Collagen type-II alpha (Col2a1) with a correspondingly decreased expression of Collagen type-I alpha (Col1a1) and Matrix metallopeptidase 13 (Mmp13) was maximally observed in this group. Moreover, reduced count of annexin-V positive cells, Caspase (Casp3) gene expression and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release with concomitantly enhanced viability and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene was observed. In vivo study showed that homing of cells and proteoglycan contents of knee joints were significantly better in ADMSCs + Chondrocytes transplanted rats. Increased expression of Acan and Col2a1 along with decreased expression of Col1a1 and Mmp13 indicated formation of hyaline cartilage in this group. These rats also demonstrated significantly reduced expression of Casp3 while increased expression of PCNA genes than the other cell transplanted groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that a combination of ADMSCs and chondrocytes may be a more effective therapeutic strategy against OA than the use of ADMSCs or chondrocytes separately.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/transplante , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/genética , Osteoartrite do Joelho/genética , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/uso terapêutico , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos , Western Blotting , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Colágeno Tipo I/biossíntese , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imuno-Histoquímica , Articulação do Joelho/efeitos dos fármacos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/biossíntese , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA/genética , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
Int J Surg ; 12(8): 789-93, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24918695

RESUMO

Oriental cholangiohepatitis, or recurrent pyogenic cholangitis is only noted in certain parts of the world, especially South East Asia. Due to increasing immigration the disease is now being seen in western countries also. Treating physicians may face difficulty in managing such cases due to lack of exposure. Furthermore management of such cases is not standardized because of lack of a universally accepted classification system. Here we review the disease and share our long experience with management of these patients.


Assuntos
Colangite/cirurgia , Hepatite/cirurgia , Ásia Sudeste , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Biliar , Colangite/epidemiologia , Colangite/patologia , Enterostomia , Feminino , Hepatectomia , Hepatite/epidemiologia , Hepatite/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes
12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 61(6): 483-9, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23305464

RESUMO

Vaccination is considered as an important tool to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). A good quality vaccine containing relevant serotypes and matching strains is a pre-requisite for vaccination to be effective. The present study investigated the quality of different brands of FMD vaccine available in Pakistan, including three locally produced and two imported products. All the vaccines were found free of bacterial or fungal contamination. No adverse effects were noted in suckling mice and buffalo calves inoculated with the vaccines, showing that the vaccines were sterile and safe. The humoral immune response to the FMD vaccines was determined in buffalo calves for 234 days post-vaccination. Very low humoral immune responses against FMD serotypes O, A and Asia 1 viruses were detected to the locally produced vaccines. The imported vaccines, however, elicited a higher antibody response which persisted for a long period in one of the 2 vaccines. The present study highlights the need of assessing an independent vaccine quality control of finished FMD vaccine products.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/normas , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Búfalos/imunologia , Búfalos/virologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Camundongos , Paquistão , Controle de Qualidade , Vacinação/normas , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
13.
J Pediatr ; 163(1 Suppl): S79-S85.e1, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23773598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in preventing severe pneumonia in Asian children has been questioned, and many large Asian countries yet to introduce Hib conjugate vaccine in immunization programs. The primary objective of this study was to assess Hib conjugate vaccine effectiveness (VE) on radiologically-confirmed pneumonia in children born after introduction of Hib conjugate vaccine in Pakistan. STUDY DESIGN: A matched case-control study enrolled cases of radiologically-confirmed pneumonia in several hospitals serving low-income populations during 2009-2011. Cases were matched by age and season with 3 hospital and 5 neighborhood controls. Pneumonia was diagnosed using standardized World Health Organization criteria for chest radiograph interpretation. Matched OR were estimated for VE. RESULTS: A total of 1027 children with radiologically-confirmed pneumonia were enrolled; 975 cases, 2925 hospital controls, and 4875 neighborhood controls were analyzed. The coverage for 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B-Hib conjugate vaccine was 13.7%, 18%, and 22.7% in cases, hospital controls and neighborhood controls, respectively. Estimated Hib VE for radiologically-confirmed pneumonia was 62% with 3 doses of vaccine using hospital controls and 70% using neighborhood controls. CONCLUSIONS: Hib conjugate vaccine prevented a significant fraction of radiologically-confirmed pneumonia in children in Pakistan. Maximizing impact on child survival needs improved immunization coverage.


Assuntos
Infecções por Haemophilus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/administração & dosagem , Haemophilus influenzae tipo b/imunologia , Programas de Imunização , Pneumonia Bacteriana/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por Haemophilus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Haemophilus/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Bacteriana/imunologia , Pobreza , Radiografia , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20122012 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23257642

RESUMO

A 48-year old Caucasian woman presented with chest pain on exertion and was diagnosed with an anomalous origin of dominant right coronary artery, it then ran a short intramural course in the wall of the aorta. Right coronary artery (RCA) was reimplanted on cardiac bypass at normal exit point on the aortic root. The heart was adequately protected with antegrade cold blood cardioplegia via the aortic root and regular direct cardioplegia via the coronary ostia. The patient could not come off cardiopulmonary bypass after surgery and required right ventricular assist device support to be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient ultimately recovered well and her right heart function is normalising. We believe that antegrade cardioplegia via the aortic root caused increased pressure in the aorta and squashed RCA in the wall of the aorta causing failure of myocardial protection and stunning of the right ventricle. This could be prevented with alternative myocardial protection strategies like direct cardioplegia via the coronary ostium.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/complicações , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Parada Cardíaca Induzida/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Genet Mol Res ; 11(3): 1960-6, 2012 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22869552

RESUMO

Aromatic basmati rice is vulnerable to bacterial blight disease. Genes conferring resistance to bacterial blight have been identified in coarse rice; however, their incorporation into basmati varieties compromises the prized basmati aroma. We identified bacterial blight resistance genes Xa4, xa5, Xa7, and xa13 in 52 basmati landraces and five basmati cultivars using PCR markers. The Xa7 gene was found to be the most prevalent among the cultivars and landraces. The cultivars Basmati-385 and Basmati-2000 also contained the Xa4 gene; however, xa5 and xa13 were confined to landraces only. Ten landraces were found to have multiple resistance genes. Landraces Basmati-106, Basmati-189 and Basmati-208 contained Xa4 and Xa7 genes. Whereas, landraces Basmati-122, Basmati-427, Basmati-433 were observed to have xa5 and Xa7 genes. Landraces Basmati-48, Basmati-51A, Basmati-334, and Basmati-370A possessed Xa7 and xa13 genes. The use of landraces containing recessive genes xa5 and xa13 as donor parents in hybridization with cultivars Basmati-385 and Basmati-2000, which contain the genes Xa4 and Xa7, will expedite efforts to develop bacterial blight-resistant basmati rice cultivars through marker assisted selection, based on a pyramiding approach, without compromising aroma and grain quality.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Ecótipo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Oryza/genética , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
16.
ISRN Surg ; 2011: 268674, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22084750

RESUMO

Duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma (DGP) is a rare tumor that characteristically occurs in the second part of duodenum. These appear as submucosal masses that protrude into the lumen of a duodenum. Gastrointestinal bleeding is the commonest manifestation of DGP. Metastatic spread to regional lymph nodes occurs rarely. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for DGP. A case of a DGP is reported in young female who presented with a recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE) documented a mass in the ampullary region with ulceration in its middle which was bleeding. Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding necessitated an emergency pancreaticoduodenectomy. Histopathology of specimen documented gangliocytic paraganglioma.

18.
Indian J Surg ; 72(5): 367-72, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21966134

RESUMO

For the last century T tube drainage of the bile duct has remained standard practice following choledochlithotomy. It vents the biliary tree, provides route for cholangiography and management of residual stones. However, T tubes are associated with significant complications. This retrospective study compared the use of Endonasobiliary drainage tubes and the T tube in 66 patients who underwent open choledocholithotomy for effectiveness and complications. Both groups were statistically comparable. Only 15.15% patients in the Endonasobiliary drainage group, while 45.45% patients in the T tube group developed complications. Severe complications such as biliary peritonitis and intraperitoneal collections were noted only in the T tube group. The Endonasobiliary drainage tube was removed significantly earlier and patients from this group were discharged earlier as compared to those in the T tube. The Endonasobiliary drainage tube is as effective as the T tube in postoperative biliary drainage and allows cholangiograms to be performed. Its use is associated with less complications and it can be removed safely earlier than the T tube. Thus patients have a shorter time with tubes and can be discharged home earlier.

19.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 60(9): 729-32, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21381578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of nutritional rickets in children hospitalized with severe pneumonia. METHOD: This study was carried out at the department of paediatric medicine at National Institute of Child Health Karachi. It is a case series done over a period of six months from 15th November 2008 to 15th may 2009. Patients admitted (n=137) with severe pneumonia were included in the study and were investigated for presence of rickets with serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase. Those having low to normal calcium low phosphorus and raised alkaline phosphatase were labeled as having rickets. All data collected were entered on Performa. Children with familial, vitamin D dependent/resistant rickets, secondary rickets, and cerebral palsy or on anti convulsant therapy were excluded from this study. RESULTS: Out of 137 patients, with severe pneumonia, 83 were male and 54 female. Frequency of nutritional rickets in children with severe pneumonia was observed in 101(74%) cases. Rickets was more common in 2 to 12 months of age, i.e., 79.8% (67/84) and in those children who were breast fed (85.3% vs. 40%). Frequency was higher in those children who were not exposed to sunlight. CONCLUSION: Pneumonia is a very common presentation of rickets. This study suggests that rickets may be more common in children who are breast fed and those who have less exposure to sunlight.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Cálcio/sangue , Fósforo/sangue , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Raquitismo/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Distribuição por Idade , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/complicações , Raquitismo/sangue , Raquitismo/complicações , Raquitismo/tratamento farmacológico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo
20.
Urol Int ; 83(2): 222-5, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19752621

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors affecting steinstrasse (SS) and study the impact of pre-shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) stenting in the prevention of SS and related complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The cohort included 4,644 patients with renal stones treated by SWL. Three hundred and twenty-six (7%) developed SS. Initially, all patients were managed conservatively (group 1); interventions were reserved for those in whom conservative treatment failed (group 2). The 2 groups were further analyzed to identify factors influencing the need for intervention. The impact of pre-SWL stenting on the development of SS and the need for intervention was also assessed. RESULTS: Expectant management was successful in 176 (54%) patients, while 150 (46%) required intervention for SS. The size of the stones had a significant association with the number of sessions required (p < 0.01) and the development of SS. The placement of a stent prior to SWL decreased neither the sessions of SWL (p < 0.01) nor the interventions required for SS and related complications. CONCLUSIONS: SWL for larger stones is a potentially significant complication of SWL and is associated with significant morbidity. Ureteral stents decrease the acute presentations of patients with SS; however, it does not decrease the ultimate need for intervention in the management of SS.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/complicações , Cálculos Renais/terapia , Litotripsia , Stents , Ureter/cirurgia , Cálculos Ureterais/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Cálculos Ureterais/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
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