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1.
Eur J Cancer ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Innovations in treatments, imaging and molecular characterisation have improved outcomes for people with advanced prostate cancer; however, many aspects of clinical management are devoid of high-level evidence. At the Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) 2019, many of these topics were addressed, and consensus was not always reached. The results from clinical trials will most reliably plus the gaps. METHODS: An invited panel of 57 experts voted on 123 multiple-choice questions on clinical management at APCCC 2019. No consensus was reached on 88 (71.5%) questions defined as <75% of panellists voting for the same answer option. We reviewed clinicaltrials.gov to identify relevant ongoing phase III trials in these areas of non-consensus. RESULTS: A number of ongoing phase III trials were identified that are relevant to these non-consensus issues. However, many non-consensus issues appear not to be addressed by current clinical trials. Of note, no phase III but only phase II trials were identified, investigating side effects of hormonal treatments and their management. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of consensus almost invariable indicates gaps in existing evidence. The high percentage of questions lacking consensus at APCCC 2019 highlights the complexity of advanced prostate cancer care and the need for robust, clinically relevant trials that can fill current gaps with high-level evidence. Our review of these areas of non-consensus and ongoing trials provides a useful summary, indicating areas in which future consensus may soon be reached. This review may facilitate academic investigators to identify and prioritise topics for future research.

2.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 38(1): 1633-1638, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775896

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate Hyperthermic-Intra-Vesical Chemotherapy (HIVEC) efficacy regarding 1-year disease-free survival (RFS) rate and bladder preservation rate in patients with High-risk Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC) who fail BCG therapy or are contraindicated to BCG. METHODS: Between June 2016 and October 2019, patients treated with HIVEC for mostly high-risk NMIBC who failed BCG or BCG-naive if BCG contraindicated have been included in our study. These patients had a theoretical indication for cystectomy but were ineligible for surgery or refused it. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients, median age 72 [39-93] years, were included in this study (n = 29 BCG-failure and n = 24 BCG-naive). The median follow-up was 18 months. The bladder preservation rate was 92.4%. The 12 months-RFS rate was 60.5%. The RFS rates for BCG-naive and BCG-failure groups were respectively 70% and 52.2% at 12 months. Three patients progressed to muscle infiltration, all in the BCG-failure group and all in the very high-risk EORTC group. Two of them developed metastatic disease and died from bladder cancer. CONCLUSION: Chemohyperthermia using HIVEC achieved a RFS rate of 60% at 1 year and enabled a bladder preservation rate of 92%. Given the low risk of progression in the BCG-naive group, HIVEC could be a good alternative. Conversely, for patients with very high-risk tumors that fail BCG, cystectomy should remain the standard of care and HIVEC may be discussed cautiously for patients who are not eligible for surgery and well informed of the risk of progression to muscle-invasive disease.

3.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785188

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer among men worldwide. Urinary, bowel, and sexual function, as well as hormonal symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), were prioritised by patients and professionals as part of a core outcome set for localised PCa regardless of treatment type. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) used in localised PCa and recommend PROMs for use in routine practice and research settings. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The psychometric properties of PROMs measuring functional and HRQoL domains used in randomised controlled trials including patients with localised PCa were assessed according to the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) methodology. MEDLINE and Embase were searched to identify publications evaluating psychometric properties of the PROMs. The characteristics and methodological quality of the studies included were extracted, tabulated, and assessed according to the COSMIN criteria. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Overall, 27 studies evaluating psychometric properties of the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC), University of California-Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA-PCI), European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) quality of life core 30 (QLQ-C30) and prostate cancer 25 (QLQ-PR25) modules, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), and the 36-item (SF-36) and 12-item Short-Form health survey (SF-12) PROMs were identified and included in the systematic review. EPIC and EORTC QLQ-C30, a general module that assesses patients' physical, psychological, and social functions, were characterised by high internal consistency (Cronbach's α 0.46-0.96 and 0.68-0.94 respectively) but low content validity. EORTC QLQ-PR25, which is primarily designed to assess PCa-specific HRQoL, had moderate content validity and internal consistency (Cronbach's α 0.39-0.87). UCLA-PCI was characterised by moderate content validity and high internal consistency (Cronbach's α 0.21-0.94). However, it does not directly assess hormonal symptoms, whereas EORTC QLQ-PR25 does. CONCLUSION: The tools with the best evidence for psychometric properties and feasibility for use in routine practice and research settings to assess PROMs in patients with localised PCa were EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25. Since EORTC QLQ-C30 is a general module that does not directly assess PCa-specific issues, it should be adopted in conjunction with the QLQ-PR25 module. PATIENT SUMMARY: We reviewed and appraised the measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measure questionnaires used for patients with localised prostate cancer. We found good evidence to suggest that two questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25) can be used to measure urinary, bowel, and sexual functions and health-related quality of life.

5.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(7): e24423, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 70%-80% of kidney cancers are clear cell renal cell carcinomas (CCRCCs). Patient management is based on imaging (abdominal ultrasound and computerized tomography), surgical excision of the tumor, and pathological analysis. A tissue biopsy is therefore necessary to confirm the diagnosis and avoid unnecessary nephrectomy. For metastatic cancers, a tissue biopsy is essential for establishing the targeted therapy. This biopsy of tumor material is invasive and painful. Other techniques such as liquid biopsy would help reduce the need for tissue biopsy. The development of a simple biological test for diagnosis is essential. CA9 is a powerful marker for the diagnosis of CCRCC. Exosomes have become a major source of liquid biopsy because they carry tumor proteins, RNA, and lipids. Urine is the most convenient biological liquid for exosome sampling. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study (PEP-C study) is mainly to determine whether it is possible to detect urinary exosomal CA9 for the molecular diagnosis of CCRCC. METHODS: This study will include 60 patients with CCRCC and 40 noncancer patients. Exosomes will be isolated from urine samples and exosomal CA9 will be detected by transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: This study is currently underway with funding support from the CHU Saint-Etienne of France. CONCLUSIONS: We expect to demonstrate that urinary tumor exosomes could be a novel liquid biopsy to diagnose CCRCC and to guide clinicians in treatment decision-making. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04053855; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04053855. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/24423.

6.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147405

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Surgical techniques aimed at preserving the neurovascular bundles during radical prostatectomy (RP) have been proposed to improve functional outcomes. However, it remains unclear if nerve-sparing (NS) surgery adversely affects oncological metrics. OBJECTIVE: To explore the oncological safety of NS versus non-NS (NNS) surgery and to identify factors affecting the oncological outcomes of NS surgery. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Relevant databases were searched for English language articles published between January 1, 1990 and May 8, 2020. Comparative studies for patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer (PCa) treated with primary RP were included. NS and NNS techniques were compared. The main outcomes were side-specific positive surgical margins (ssPSM) and biochemical recurrence (BCR). Risk of bias (RoB) and confounding assessments were performed. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Out of 1573 articles identified, 18 studies recruiting a total of 21 654 patients were included. The overall RoB and confounding were high across all domains. The most common selection criteria for NS RP identified were characteristic of low-risk disease, including low core-biopsy involvement. Seven studies evaluated the link with ssPSM and showed an increase in ssPSM after adjustment for side-specific confounders, with the relative risk for NS RP ranging from 1.50 to 1.53. Thirteen papers assessing BCR showed no difference in outcomes with at least 12 mo of follow-up. Lack of data prevented any subgroup analysis for potentially important variables. The definitions of NS were heterogeneous and poorly described in most studies. CONCLUSIONS: Current data revealed an association between NS surgery and an increase in the risk of ssPSM. This did not translate into a negative impact on BCR, although follow-up was short and many men harbored low-risk PCa. There are significant knowledge gaps in terms of how various patient, disease, and surgical factors affect outcomes. Adequately powered and well-designed prospective trials and cohort studies accounting for these issues with long-term follow-up are recommended. PATIENT SUMMARY: Neurovascular bundles (NVBs) are structures containing nerves and blood vessels. The NVBs close to the prostate are responsible for erections. We reviewed the literature to determine if a technique to preserve the NVBs during removal of the prostate causes worse cancer outcomes. We found that NVB preservation was poorly defined but, if applied, was associated with a higher risk of cancer at the margins of the tissue removed, even in patients with low-risk prostate cancer. The long-term importance of this finding for patients is unclear. More data are needed to provide recommendations.

8.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33967010

RESUMO

CONTEXT: While urinary incontinence (UI) commonly occurs after radical prostatectomy (RP), it is unclear what factors increase the risk of UI development. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of patient- and tumour-related prognostic factors for post-RP UI. The primary outcome was UI within 3 mo after RP. Secondary outcomes included UI at 3-12 mo and ≥12 mo after RP. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Databases including Medline, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were searched between January 1990 and May 2020. All studies reporting patient- and tumour-related prognostic factors in univariable or multivariable analyses were included. Surgical factors were excluded. Risk of bias (RoB) and confounding assessments were performed using the Quality In Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed for all prognostic factor, where possible. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: A total of 119 studies (5 randomised controlled trials, 24 prospective, 88 retrospective, and 2 case-control studies) with 131 379 patients were included. RoB was high for study participation and confounding; moderate to high for statistical analysis, study attrition, and prognostic factor measurement; and low for outcome measurements. Significant prognostic factors for postoperative UI within 3 mo after RP were age (odds ratio [OR] per yearly increase 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.05), membranous urethral length (MUL; OR per 1-mm increase 0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.88), prostate volume (PV; OR per 1-ml increase 1.005, 95% CI 1.000-1.011), and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI; OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.09-1.50). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing age, shorter MUL, greater PV, and higher CCI are independent prognostic factors for UI within 3 mo after RP, with all except CCI remaining prognostic at 3-12 mo. PATIENT SUMMARY: We reviewed the literature to identify patient and disease factors associated with urinary incontinence after surgery for prostate cancer. We found increasing age, larger prostate volume, shorter length of a section of the urethra (membranous urethra), and lower fitness were associated with worse urinary incontinence for the first 3 mo after surgery, with all except lower fitness remaining predictive at 3-12 mo.

9.
Eur Urol ; 80(5): 531-545, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962808

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The impact of surgeon and hospital volume on outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP) for localised prostate cancer (PCa) remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review on the association between surgeon or hospital volume and oncological and nononcological outcomes following RP for PCa. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Medline, Medline In-Process, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. All comparative studies for nonmetastatic PCa patients treated with RP published between January 1990 and May 2020 were included. For inclusion, studies had to compare hospital or surgeon volume, defined as caseload per unit time. Main outcomes included oncological (including prostate-specific antigen persistence, positive surgical margin [PSM], biochemical recurrence, local and distant recurrence, and cancer-specific and overall survival) and nononcological (perioperative complications including need for blood transfusion, conversion to open procedure and within 90-d death, and continence and erectile function) outcomes. Risk of bias (RoB) and confounding assessments were undertaken. Both a narrative and a quantitative synthesis were planned if the data allowed. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Sixty retrospective comparative studies were included. Generally, increasing surgeon and hospital volumes were associated with lower rates of mortality, PSM, adjuvant or salvage therapies, and perioperative complications. Combining group size cut-offs as used in the included studies, the median threshold for hospital volume at which outcomes start to diverge is 86 (interquartile range [IQR] 35-100) cases per year. In addition, above this threshold, the higher the caseload, the better the outcomes, especially for PSM. RoB and confounding were high for most domains. CONCLUSIONS: Higher surgeon and hospital volumes for RP are associated with lower rates of PSMs, adjuvant or salvage therapies, and perioperative complications. This association becomes apparent from a caseload of >86 (IQR 35-100) per year and may further improve hereafter. Both high- and low-volume centres should measure their outcomes, make them publicly available, and improve their quality of care if needed. PATIENT SUMMARY: We reviewed the literature to determine whether the number of prostate cancer operations (radical prostatectomy) performed in a hospital affects the outcomes of surgery. We found that, overall, hospitals with a higher number of operations per year have better outcomes in terms of cancer recurrence and complications during or after hospitalisation. However, it must be noted that surgeons working in hospitals with lower annual operations can still achieve similar or even better outcomes. Therefore, making hospital's outcome data publicly available should be promoted internationally, so that patients can make an informed decision where they want to be treated.

10.
N Engl J Med ; 384(17): 1623-1634, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prophylactic administration of tranexamic acid has been associated with reduced postpartum blood loss after cesarean delivery in several small trials, but evidence of its benefit in this clinical context remains inconclusive. METHODS: In a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned women undergoing cesarean delivery before or during labor at 34 or more gestational weeks to receive an intravenously administered prophylactic uterotonic agent and either tranexamic acid (1 g) or placebo. The primary outcome was postpartum hemorrhage, defined as a calculated estimated blood loss greater than 1000 ml or receipt of a red-cell transfusion within 2 days after delivery. Secondary outcomes included gravimetrically estimated blood loss, provider-assessed clinically significant postpartum hemorrhage, use of additional uterotonic agents, and postpartum blood transfusion. RESULTS: Of the 4551 women who underwent randomization, 4431 underwent cesarean delivery, 4153 (93.7%) of whom had primary outcome data available. The primary outcome occurred in 556 of 2086 women (26.7%) in the tranexamic acid group and in 653 of 2067 (31.6%) in the placebo group (adjusted risk ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.94; P = 0.003). There were no significant between-group differences in mean gravimetrically estimated blood loss or in the percentage of women with provider-assessed clinically significant postpartum hemorrhage, use of additional uterotonic agents, or postpartum blood transfusion. Thromboembolic events in the 3 months after delivery occurred in 0.4% of women (8 of 2049) who received tranexamic acid and in 0.1% of women (2 of 2056) who received placebo (adjusted risk ratio, 4.01; 95% CI, 0.85 to 18.92; P = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Among women who underwent cesarean delivery and received prophylactic uterotonic agents, tranexamic acid treatment resulted in a significantly lower incidence of calculated estimated blood loss greater than 1000 ml or red-cell transfusion by day 2 than placebo, but it did not result in a lower incidence of hemorrhage-related secondary clinical outcomes. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health; TRAAP2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03431805.).


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Antifibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Ácido Tranexâmico/efeitos adversos , Trombose Venosa/etiologia
11.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-3, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691580

RESUMO

The Odon DeviceTM is an innovative investigational device for assisted vaginal birth (AVB) and has not yet been granted regulatory approval for sale in any country. It is the first innovation in AVB since the introduction of the vacuum extractor in the 1950's and the device is designed for use by different level of trained health care providers. Efficacy studies are presently in progress in two centers: The ASSIST II Study, Bristol, England, and The BESANCON ASSIST Study, Besançon, France. The device consists of an applicator, sleeve and cuff. This original paper illustrates the operating process in real conditions.

12.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 4(2): 150-169, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574012

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The prognosis and optimal management of pN0/pN1 patients with persistently elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 6-8 wk after radical prostatectomy (RP) remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of oncologic outcomes and effectiveness of salvage therapies in men with a detectable PSA level after RP. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review was performed in May 2020. A total of 2374 articles were screened, and 25 studies including 5217 men were selected and included in the systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: PSA persistence was most commonly defined as PSA >0.1 ng/ml. PSA persistence was significantly correlated with disease aggressiveness and associated with worse oncologic outcomes than in men with undetectable PSA levels. The 5-yr recurrence-free survival rates varied from 21.5% to 67.0%. The ≥10-yr cancer-specific survival was 75-88%. Salvage radiotherapy ± androgen deprivation therapy was associated with improved survival outcomes. Risk stratification according to pathologic features, PSA levels/kinetics, and genomic classifier may aid in personalization of treatment. The usefulness of molecular imaging in this setting remains underevaluated. Main limitations of this systematic review are the retrospective design of the included studies and the lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on this specific population. CONCLUSIONS: PSA persistence after RP is strongly correlated with poor oncologic outcomes. Our review suggests a benefit from immediate radiotherapy; however, current evidence is still low. Indication of subsequent therapies should be based on individual discussions, taking into account all the prognostic factors and the efficacy/toxicity imbalance of proposed treatment. Results from ongoing RCTs are awaited to state on the role of more intensified systemic therapy in this population. PATIENT SUMMARY: Patients with a detectable prostate-specific antigen level after surgery are at high risk of subsequent progression. Immediate radiotherapy might improve survival outcomes. Further research into the role of molecular imaging and genomic classifier is needed in this patient population.


Assuntos
Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Terapia de Salvação
14.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 4(3): 405-423, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423943

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The clinical effectiveness of focal therapy (FT) for localised prostate cancer (PCa) remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the evidence base for primary FT for localised PCa via a systematic review (SR) to formulate clinical practice recommendations. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A protocol-driven, PRISMA-adhering SR comparing primary FT (sub-total, focal, hemi-gland, or partial ablation) versus standard options (active surveillance [AS], radical prostatectomy [RP], or external beam radiotherapy [EBRT]) was undertaken. Only comparative studies with ≥50 patients per arm were included. Primary outcomes included oncological, functional, and quality-of-life outcomes. Risk of bias (RoB) and confounding assessments were undertaken. Eligible SRs were reviewed and appraised (AMSTAR) and ongoing prospective comparative studies were summarised. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Out of 1119 articles identified, four primary studies (1 randomised controlled trial [RCT] and 3 retrospective studies) recruiting 3961 patients and ten eligible SRs were identified. Only qualitative synthesis was possible owing to clinical heterogeneity. Overall, RoB and confounding were moderate to high. An RCT comparing vascular-targeted focal photodynamic therapy (PDT) with AS found a significantly lower rate of treatment failure at 2 yr with PDT. There were no differences in functional outcomes, although PDT was associated with worse transient adverse events. However, the external validity of the study was contentious. A retrospective study comparing focal HIFU with robotic RP found no significant differences in treatment failure at 3 yr, with focal HIFU having better continence and erectile function recovery. Two retrospective cohort studies using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data compared focal laser ablation (FLA) against RP and EBRT, reporting significantly worse oncological outcomes for FLA. The overall data quality and applicability of the primary studies were limited because of clinical heterogeneity, RoB and confounding, lack of long-term data, inappropriate outcome measures, and poor external validity. Virtually all the SRs identified concluded that there was insufficient high-certainty evidence to make definitive conclusions regarding the clinical effectiveness of FT, with the majority of SRs judged to have a low or critically low confidence rating. Eight ongoing prospective comparative studies were identified. Ways of improving the evidence base are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The certainty of the evidence regarding the comparative effectiveness of FT as a primary treatment for localised PCa was low, with significant uncertainties. Until higher-certainty evidence emerges from robust prospective comparative studies measuring clinically meaningful outcomes at long-term time points, FT should ideally be performed within clinical trials or well-designed prospective cohort studies. PATIENT SUMMARY: We examined the literature to determine the effectiveness of prostate-targeted treatment compared with standard treatments for untreated localised prostate cancer. There was no strong evidence showing that focal treatment compares favourably with standard treatments; consequently, focal treatment is not recommended for routine standard practice.

15.
World J Urol ; 39(5): 1421-1429, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643031

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer (PC) have rapidly progressed through the past years. Various factors should be taken into account while treating individual patients to ensure optimal and careful decision making. The purpose of this consensus review is to summarize the current practice patterns when managing patients with advanced prostate cancer (APC) as there is still a lack of or very limited evidence on its clinical management in some areas. METHODS: Pre-defined questions were shared with experts prior to the consensus session that took place in Cairo, Egypt in April 2019 during the 8th International gastrointestinal, liver and uro-oncology conference (IGILUC). Voting was based mainly on the expert opinions of the panel after a thorough discussion and review of available evidence from guidelines or best evidence available concerning the topic at hand. RESULTS: A strong consensus or unanimity was reached on 47% of the proposed questions. Notably, the panelists reached consensus on several topics based on high-level expert opinion. These findings contribute in several ways to our understanding of the management of PC and provide a basis for future recommendations. There was also a lack of consensus on other several topics, which suggests the need for further supporting data addressing these knowledge gaps. CONCLUSION: This review offers a thorough understanding of APC practice and offers insight on the various opinions shared amongst experts in the field that can serve as guidance regionally and deepens our understanding of disease management globally.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Humanos , Masculino
16.
J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod ; 50(2): 101943, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In 5 % of vaginal deliveries in case of cephalic presentation there is a persistent occipital posterior position known to be associated with a higher maternal and neonatal morbidity. In these situations, vacuum extractor seems to be the best choice for assisted delivery but it also has limits and contraindications, for example an important caput succadenum or premature birth. The aim of our study was to evaluate the rate of intra-pelvic rotation of persistent occipital posterior position without instrumental rotation in case of operative delivery with spatulas. METHODS: This is a retrospective, monocentric and descriptive study evaluating the rate of spontaneous intra-pelvic rotation of persistent occipital posterior position in case of assisted delivery with spatulas among all live births at the Besançon University Medical Center between 2010 and 2017. RESULTS: There were 20 205 births during the study and 81(0,4 %) operative deliveries by spatulas in case of persistent occipital posterior position. Delivery in occiput anterior (OA) position was obtained in 36 cases (44.4 %). There was no significant difference in maternal or neonatal morbidity between both groups and perineum injuries were less severe in case of OA delivery. CONCLUSION: Operative deliveries by spatulas without instrumental rotation in case of persistent occipital-posterior position seem to be a relevant alternative to vacuum extractor, especially in case of premature birth or important caput succedaneum without altering the maternal or neonatal prognostic.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Apresentação no Trabalho de Parto , Forceps Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Períneo/lesões , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Eur Urol ; 79(2): 263-282, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present a summary of the 2020 version of the European Association of Urology (EAU)-European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)-European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO)-European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR)-International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) guidelines on the treatment of relapsing, metastatic, and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The working panel performed a literature review of the new data (2016-2019). The guidelines were updated, and the levels of evidence and/or grades of recommendation were added based on a systematic review of the literature. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography computed tomography scanning has developed an increasingly important role in men with biochemical recurrence after local therapy. Early salvage radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy appears as effective as adjuvant radiotherapy and, in a subset of patients, should be combined with androgen deprivation. New treatments have become available for men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (PCa), nonmetastatic CRPC, and metastatic CRPC, along with a role for local radiotherapy in men with low-volume metastatic hormone-sensitive PCa. Also included is information on quality of life outcomes in men with PCa. CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge in the field of advanced and metastatic PCa and CRPC is changing rapidly. The 2020 EAU-EANM-ESTRO-ESUR-SIOG guidelines on PCa summarise the most recent findings and advice for use in clinical practice. These PCa guidelines are first endorsed by the EANM and reflect the multidisciplinary nature of PCa management. A full version is available from the EAU office or online (http://uroweb.org/guideline/prostate-cancer/). PATIENT SUMMARY: This article summarises the guidelines for the treatment of relapsing, metastatic, and castration-resistant prostate cancer. These guidelines are evidence based and guide the clinician in the discussion with the patient on the treatment decisions to be taken. These guidelines are updated every year; this summary spans the 2017-2020 period of new evidence.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica/terapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
18.
Eur Urol ; 79(2): 214-221, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative chemotherapy (neoadjuvant or adjuvant) has been developed to increase overall survival for nonmetastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Retrospective studies or prospective phase II trials have been reported to use dose-dense methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (dd-MVAC) or gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC). As dd-MVAC has shown higher response rates in metastatic disease, better efficacy is expected in the perioperative setting. OBJECTIVE: We designed a randomized phase III trial to compare the efficacy of dd-MVAC or GC in MIBC perioperative (neoadjuvant or adjuvant) setting. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 500 patients were randomized from February 2013 to March 2018 in 28 centers and received either six cycles of dd-MVAC every 2 wk or four cycles of GC every 3 wk. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary endpoint (progression-free survival at 3 yr) was not reported. We focused on secondary endpoints: chemotherapy toxicity and pathological responses. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: In the neoadjuvant group, 218 patients received dd-MVAC and 219 received GC. Of the patients, 60% received six cycles in the dd-MVAC arm and 84% received four cycles in the GC arm; 199 (91%) and 198 (90%) patients underwent surgery, respectively. Complete pathological response (ypT0pN0) was observed in 84 (42%) and 71 (36%) patients, respectively (p=0.2). An organ-confined status (

Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Vimblastina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Período Perioperatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Vimblastina/efeitos adversos
19.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(2): 469-476, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617640

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is used for (re)staging prostate cancer (PCa) and as a biomarker for evaluating response to therapy, but lacks established response criteria. A panel of PCa experts in nuclear medicine, radiology, and/or urology met on February 21, 2020, in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, to formulate criteria for PSMA PET/CT-based response in patients treated for metastatic PCa and optimal timing to use it. METHODS: Panelists received thematic topics and relevant literature prior to the meeting. Statements on how to interpret response and progression on therapy in PCa with PSMA PET/CT and when to use it were developed. Panelists voted anonymously on a nine-point scale, ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (9). Median scores described agreement and consensus. RESULTS: PSMA PET/CT consensus statements concerned utility, best timing for performing, criteria for evaluation of response, patients who could benefit, and handling of radiolabeled PSMA PET tracers. Consensus was reached on all statements. PSMA PET/CT can be used before and after any local and systemic treatment in patients with metastatic disease to evaluate response to treatment. Ideally, PSMA PET/CT imaging criteria should categorize patients as responders, patients with stable disease, partial response, and complete response, or as non-responders. Specific clinical scenarios such as oligometastatic or polymetastatic disease deserve special consideration. CONCLUSIONS: Adoption of PSMA PET/CT should be supported by indication for appropriate use and precise criteria for interpretation. PSMA PET/CT criteria should categorize patients as responders or non-responders. Specific clinical scenarios deserve special consideration.


Assuntos
Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Neoplasias da Próstata , Consenso , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia
20.
Eur Urol ; 79(1): 11-15, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172721

RESUMO

The transperineal approach is preferred to reduce prostate biopsy (PB)-related infections. Fluoroquinolones are suspended for prophylaxis of PB in the European Union; therefore, alternative antibiotics based on local resistance, or targeted prophylaxis, in conjunction with povidone-iodine rectal preparation are recommended for transrectal PB.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Próstata/patologia , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Biópsia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia
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