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1.
World Rabbit Sci. ; 25(2): 147-158, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: but-ib15343

RESUMO

The objective was to evaluate the effect of the interaction of diet density in the rearing phasexdiet density in the reproductive phase on carcass composition, pregnancy rate, and litter performance of primiparous rabbit does. The experiment followed a 2x2x2 factorial (2 seasons, 2 diet densities in the rearing phase and 2 diet densities in reproductive phase, that is, from mating to weaning of the first litter). The reference diet (RD) contained 184 g/kg of crude protein (CP), 165 g/kg of acid detergent fibre (ADF) and 10.5 MJ/kg of digestible energy (DE). The low-density diet (LD) had 147 g/kg of CP, 24 g/kg of ADF and 8.4 MJ/kg of DE. The treatments were applied from 70 d of age until weaning of the first litter at 35 d of age. Ninety-six females from the Botucatu Genetic Group (24 females/experimental group) were mated at 142 d of age. On day 12 of gestation, 23 does were slaughtered to evaluate weights of carcass, organs and dissectible fat, and embryo implantation rate. No effects of diet density in the rearing or in the reproductive phases were detected on feed intake of does during the reproductive phase. Does fed LD during the rearing phase showed lower body weight at mating (3574 47 vs. 3866 43 g, P=0.0001) and during most of the reproductive phase, but they lost less weight in the peripartum. Perirenal fat was lighter in these does (72.8 +/- 10.0 vs. 102.1 +/- 9.6 g, P=0.048) and they showed a lower pregnancy rate (76.1 vs. 91.7%, P=0.045). The does fed RD in the reproductive phase were heavier during this phase (4055 +/- 40 g vs. 3887 +/- 41 g, P=0.0044). The does fed LD in rearing phase and RD in the reproductive phase showed larger litters at weaning, due to decreased kit mortality, than those fed RD in both phases (6.16 +/- 0.47 vs. 3.93 +/- 0.71, P=0.0361). Litters were lighter at weaning when LD was fed in the reproductive phase (3582 +/- 201 vs. 4733 +/- 187, P<0.0001). Feeding a low density diet during the rearing phase and a reference diet during the reproductive phase is the best alternative to improve reproductive performance at the first parity.

2.
Animal ; 10(1): 163-71, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26677935

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature×diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair-fed chickens, meat color was similar to the heat stressed group. Shear force was not influenced by heat stress, but pair-fed chickens showed the tenderest meat. In conclusion, reduction in growth performance and negative changes in meat color in heat stressed chickens were attributed to depression in feed intake, whereas negative changes in body composition, higher meat pH and cooking loss were credited to high ambient temperature per se. Diet supplementation with vitamins C and E as antioxidants did not mitigate any of these negative effects.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Carne/normas , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Temperatura Alta , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
3.
J Appl Genet ; 57(2): 215-24, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26496990

RESUMO

Rapid growth in broilers is associated with susceptibility to metabolic disorders such as pulmonary hypertension syndrome (ascites) and sudden death. This study describes a genome search for QTL associated with relative weight of cardio respiratory and metabolically important organs (heart, lungs, liver and gizzard), and hematocrit value in a Brazilian broiler-layer cross. QTL with similar or different effects across sexes were investigated. At 42 days of age after fasted for 6 h, the F2 chickens were weighed and slaughtered. Weights and percentages of the weight relative to BW42 of gizzard, heart, lungs, liver and hematocrit were used in the QTL search. Parental, F1 and F2 individuals were genotyped with 128 genetic markers (127 microsatellites and 1 SNP) covering 22 linkage groups. QTL mapping analyses were carried out using mixed models. A total of 11 genome-wide significant QTL and five suggestive linkages were mapped. Thus, genome-wide significant QTL with similar effects across sexes were mapped to GGA2, 4 and 14 for heart weight, and to GGA2, 8 and 12 for gizzard %. Additionally, five genome-wide significant QTL with different effects across sexes were mapped to GGA 8, 19 and 26 for heart weight; GGA26 for heart % and GGA3 for hematocrit value. Five QTL were detected in chromosomal regions where QTL for similar traits were previously mapped in other F2 chicken populations. Seven novel genome-wide significant QTL are reported here, and 21 positional candidate genes in QTL regions were identified.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Hematócrito , Tamanho do Órgão/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
4.
J Appl Genet ; 55(1): 97-103, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24288072

RESUMO

Interval mapping (IM) implemented in QTL Express or GridQTL is widely used, but presents some limitations, such as restriction to a fixed model, risk of mapping two QTL when there may be only one and no discrimination of two or more QTL using both cofactors located on the same and other chromosomes. These limitations were overcome with composite interval mapping (CIM). We reported QTL associated with performance and carcass traits on chicken chromosomes 1, 3, and 4 through implementation of CIM and analysis of phenotypic data using mixed models. Thirty-four microsatellite markers were used to genotype 360 F2 chickens from crosses between males from a layer line and females from a broiler line. Sixteen QTL were mapped using CIM and 14 QTL with IM. Furthermore, of those 30 QTL, six were mapped only when CIM was used: for body weight at 35 days (first and third peaks on GGA4), body weight at 41 days (GGA1B and second peak on GGA4), and weights of back and legs (both on GGA4). Three new regions had evidence for QTL presence: one on GGA1B associated with feed intake 35-41 d at 404 cM (LEI0107-ADL0183) and two on GGA4 associated with weight of back at 163 cM (LEI0076-MCW0240) and weight gain 35-41 d, feed efficiency 35-41 d and weight of legs at 241 cM (LEI0085-MCW0174). We dissected one more linked QTL on GGA4, where three QTL for BW35 and two QTL for BW41 were mapped. Therefore, these new regions mapped here need further investigations using high-density SNP to confirm these QTL and identify candidate genes associated with those traits.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/genética , Galinhas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Ligação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo
5.
Genet Mol Res ; 12(1): 208-22, 2013 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23408407

RESUMO

In the past, the focus of broiler breeding programs on yield and carcass traits improvement led to problems related to meat quality. Awareness of public concern for quality resulted in inclusion of meat quality traits in the evaluation process. Nevertheless, few genes associated with meat quality attributes are known. Previous studies mapped quantitative trait loci for weight at 35 and 42 days in a region of GGA4 flanked by the microsatellite markers, MCW0240 and LEI0063. In this region, there are 2 fibroblast growth factor binding protein (FGFBP) genes that play an important role in embryogenesis, cellular differentiation, and proliferation in chickens. The objective of this study was to identify and associate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FGFBP1 and FGFBP2 with performance, carcass, and meat quality in experimental and commercial chicken populations. In the commercial population, SNP g.2014G>A in FGFBP1 was associated with decreased carcass weight (P < 0.05), and SNP g.651G>A in FGFBP2 was associated with thawing loss and meat redness content (P < 0.05). Four haplotypes were constructed based on 2 SNPs and were associated with breast weight, thawing loss, and meat redness content. The diplotypes were associated with thawing loss, lightness, and redness content. The SNPs evaluated in the present study may be used as markers in poultry breeding programs to aid in improving growth and meat quality traits.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Carne/normas , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Frequência do Gene , Haplótipos/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
6.
Genet Mol Res ; 12(1): 472-82, 2013 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23420372

RESUMO

Meat quality is an important feature for the poultry industry and is associated with consumer satisfaction. The calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene is related to the tenderness process of meat post- mortem, and the calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene plays an important role in myofibrillar organization and growth. The objective of the present study was to identify polymorphisms in these genes and to determine the association between these polymorphisms and traits of economic interest in poultry. Eleven animals (F1) from an experimental poultry population at Embrapa Swine and Poultry were used to identify the polymorphisms. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the CAPN1 gene, and one SNP was found in the CAPN3 gene. A polymorphism from each gene was selected for genotyping in 152 chickens from the Embrapa F2 experimental population and 311 chickens from a commercial population. Polymorphism g.2554T>C (CAPN1) was associated with body weight at 35 to 42 days, thigh weight, breast weight, carcass weight, and meat lightness content. SNP g.15486C>T (CAPN3) was associated with thigh yield, thawing-cooking loss, and shear force. Results suggest the possibility of using molecular markers in CAPN1 and CAPN3 genes as a tool for performance and meat quality traits in poultry breeding programs.


Assuntos
Calpaína/genética , Galinhas/genética , Carne/normas , Animais , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Suínos/genética
7.
Animal ; 7(3): 518-23, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23031323

RESUMO

Rabbits are very sensitive to heat stress because they have difficulty eliminating excess body heat. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of heat stress on slaughter weight, dressing percentage and carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits from two genetic groups. Ninety-six weaned rabbits were used: half were from the Botucatu genetic group and half were crossbreds between New Zealand White sires and Botucatu does. They were assigned to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (two genetic groups and three ambient temperatures: 18°C, 25°C and 30°C) and kept under controlled conditions in three environmental chambers from 5 to 10 weeks of age. Slaughter took place at 10 weeks, on 2 consecutive days. Meat quality measurements were made in the longissimus muscle. Actual average ambient temperature and relative humidity in the three chambers were 18.4°C and 63.9%, 24.4°C and 80.2% and 29.6°C and 75.9%, respectively. Purebred rabbits were heavier at slaughter and had heavier commercial and reference carcasses than crossbreds at 30°C; however, no differences between genetic groups for these traits were found at lower temperatures. No genetic group × ambient temperature interaction was detected for any other carcass or meat quality traits. The percentages of distal parts of legs, skin and carcass forepart were higher in crossbred rabbits, indicating a lower degree of maturity at slaughter in this group. The percentage of thoracic viscera was higher in the purebreds. Lightness of the longissimus muscle was higher in the purebreds, whereas redness was higher in the crossbreds. Slaughter, commercial and reference carcass weights and the percentages of thoracic viscera, liver and kidneys were negatively related with ambient temperature. Commercial and reference carcass yields, and the percentage of distal parts of legs, on the other hand, had a positive linear relationship with ambient temperature. Meat redness and yellowness diminished as ambient temperature increased, whereas cooking loss was linearly elevated with ambient temperature. Meat color traits revealed paler meat in the purebreds, but no differences in instrumental texture properties and water-holding capacity between genetic groups. Purebred rabbits were less susceptible to heat stress than the crossbreds. Heat stress resulted in lower slaughter and carcass weights and proportional reductions of organ weights, which contributed to a higher carcass yield. Moreover, it exerted a small, but negative, effect on meat quality traits.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Carne/normas , Coelhos/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Umidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Coelhos/genética , Temperatura
8.
Anim Genet ; 43(5): 570-6, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22497237

RESUMO

Major objectives of the poultry industry are to increase meat production and to reduce carcass fatness, mainly abdominal fat. Information on growth performance and carcass composition are important for the selection of leaner meat chickens. To enhance our understanding of the genetic architecture underlying the chemical composition of chicken carcasses, an F(2) population developed from a broiler × layer cross was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting protein, fat, water and ash contents in chicken carcasses. Two genetic models were applied in the QTL analysis: the line-cross and the half-sib models, both using the regression interval mapping method. Six significant and five suggestive QTL were mapped in the line-cross analysis, and four significant and six suggestive QTL were mapped in the half-sib analysis. A total of eleven QTL were mapped for fat (ether extract), five for protein, four for ash and one for water contents in the carcass using both analyses. No study to date has reported QTL for carcass chemical composition in chickens. Some QTL mapped here for carcass fat content match, as expected, QTL regions previously associated with abdominal fat in the same or in different populations, and novel QTL for protein, ash and water contents in the carcass are presented here. The results described here also reinforce the need for fine mapping and to perform multi-trait analyses to better understand the genetic architecture of these traits.


Assuntos
Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/genética , Carne/análise , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Composição Corporal , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo
9.
Anim Genet ; 42(2): 117-24, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20880336

RESUMO

An F2 experimental population, developed from a broiler layer cross, was used in a genome scan of QTL for percentage of carcass, carcass parts, shank and head. Up to 649 F2 chickens from four paternal half-sib families were genotyped with 128 genetic markers covering 22 linkage groups. Total map length was 2630 cM, covering approximately 63% of the genome. QTL interval mapping using regression methods was applied to line-cross and half-sib models. Under the line-cross model, 12 genome-wide significant QTL and 17 suggestive linkages for percentages of carcass parts, shank and head were mapped to 13 linkage groups (GGA1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 18 and 27). Under the paternal half-sib model, six genome-wide significant QTL and 18 suggestive linkages for percentages of carcass parts, shank and head were detected on nine chicken linkage groups (GGA1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 12, 14, 15 and 27), seven of which seemed to corroborate positions revealed by the previous model. Overall, three novel QTL of importance to the broiler industry were mapped (one significant for shank% on GGA3 and two suggestive for carcass and breast percentages on GGA14 and drums and thighs percentage on GGA15). One novel QTL for wings% was mapped to GGA3, six novel QTL (GGA1, 3, 7, 8, 9 and 27) and suggestive linkages (GGA2, 4, and 5) were mapped for head%, and suggestive linkages were identified for back% on GGA2, 11 and 12. In addition, many of the QTL mapped in this study confirmed QTL previously reported in other populations.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Genoma/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Animais , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico/veterinária , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Análise de Regressão
10.
Genet Mol Res ; 9(3): 1357-76, 2010 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20645260

RESUMO

Some factors complicate comparisons between linkage maps from different studies. This problem can be resolved if measures of precision, such as confidence intervals and frequency distributions, are associated with markers. We examined the precision of distances and ordering of microsatellite markers in the consensus linkage maps of chromosomes 1, 3 and 4 from two F(2) reciprocal Brazilian chicken populations, using bootstrap sampling. Single and consensus maps were constructed. The consensus map was compared with the International Consensus Linkage Map and with the whole genome sequence. Some loci showed segregation distortion and missing data, but this did not affect the analyses negatively. Several inversions and position shifts were detected, based on 95% confidence intervals and frequency distributions of loci. Some discrepancies in distances between loci and in ordering were due to chance, whereas others could be attributed to other effects, including reciprocal crosses, sampling error of the founder animals from the two populations, F(2) population structure, number of and distance between microsatellite markers, number of informative meioses, loci segregation patterns, and sex. In the Brazilian consensus GGA1, locus LEI1038 was in a position closer to the true genome sequence than in the International Consensus Map, whereas for GGA3 and GGA4, no such differences were found. Extending these analyses to the remaining chromosomes should facilitate comparisons and the integration of several available genetic maps, allowing meta-analyses for map construction and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. The precision of the estimates of QTL positions and their effects would be increased with such information.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos/genética , Ligação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Animais , Brasil , Genética Populacional , Genoma/genética
11.
Genet Mol Res ; 9(1): 188-207, 2010 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20198575

RESUMO

Macro- and microarrays are well-established technologies to determine gene functions through repeated measurements of transcript abundance. We constructed a chicken skeletal muscle-associated array based on a muscle-specific EST database, which was used to generate a tissue expression dataset of ~4500 chicken genes across 5 adult tissues (skeletal muscle, heart, liver, brain, and skin). Only a small number of ESTs were sufficiently well characterized by BLAST searches to determine their probable cellular functions. Evidence of a particular tissue-characteristic expression can be considered an indication that the transcript is likely to be functionally significant. The skeletal muscle macroarray platform was first used to search for evidence of tissue-specific expression, focusing on the biological function of genes/transcripts, since gene expression profiles generated across tissues were found to be reliable and consistent. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed consistent clustering among genes assigned to 'developmental growth', such as the ontology genes and germ layers. Accuracy of the expression data was supported by comparing information from known transcripts and tissue from which the transcript was derived with macroarray data. Hybridization assays resulted in consistent tissue expression profile, which will be useful to dissect tissue-regulatory networks and to predict functions of novel genes identified after extensive sequencing of the genomes of model organisms. Screening our skeletal-muscle platform using 5 chicken adult tissues allowed us identifying 43 'tissue-specific' transcripts, and 112 co-expressed uncharacterized transcripts with 62 putative motifs. This platform also represents an important tool for functional investigation of novel genes; to determine expression pattern according to developmental stages; to evaluate differences in muscular growth potential between chicken lines, and to identify tissue-specific genes.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
12.
Anim Genet ; 40(5): 729-36, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19466938

RESUMO

An F(2) population established by crossing a broiler male line and a layer line was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting abdominal fat weight, abdominal fat percentage and serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Two genetic models, the line-cross and the half-sib, were applied in the QTL analysis, both using the regression interval method. Three significant QTL and four suggestive QTL were mapped in the line-cross analysis and four significant and four suggestive QTL were mapped in the half-sib analysis. A total of five QTL were mapped for abdominal fat weight, six for abdominal fat percentage and four for triglyceride concentration in both analyses. New QTL associated with serum triglyceride concentration were mapped on GGA5, GGA23 and GG27. QTL mapped between markers LEI0029 and ADL0371 on GGA3 for abdominal fat percentage and abdominal fat weight and a suggestive QTL on GGA12 for abdominal fat percentage showed significant parent-of-origin effects. Some QTL mapped here match QTL regions mapped in previous studies using different populations, suggesting good candidate regions for fine-mapping and candidate gene searches.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Galinhas/genética , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Abdome/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico/veterinária , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Genótipo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
13.
Anim Genet ; 40(2): 200-8, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19170675

RESUMO

An F(2) resource population, derived from a broiler x layer cross, was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for body weights at days 1, 35 and 41, weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency from 35 to 41 days and intestinal length. Up to 577 F(2) chickens were genotyped with 103 genetic markers covering 21 linkage groups. A preliminary QTL mapping report using this same population focused exclusively on GGA1. Regression methods were applied to line-cross and half-sib models for QTL interval mapping. Under the line-cross model, eight QTL were detected for body weight at 35 days (GGA2, 3 and 4), body weight at 41 days (GGA2, 3, 4 and 10) and intestine length (GGA4). Under the half-sib model, using sire as common parent, five QTL were detected for body weight at day 1 (GGA3 and 18), body weight at 35 days (GGA2 and 3) and body weight at 41 days (GGA3). When dam was used as common parent, seven QTL were mapped for body weight at day 1 (GGA2), body weight at day 35 (GGA2, 3 and 4) and body weight at day 41 (GGA2, 3 and 4). Growth differences in chicken lines appear to be controlled by a chronological change in a limited number of chromosomal regions.


Assuntos
Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/genética , Ração Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Hibridização Genética , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Aumento de Peso/genética
14.
Animal ; 2(11): 1627-32, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22444014

RESUMO

This study was designed to investigate the effects of the interaction among genetic group, sex and age on the frequencies and cross-sectional areas of myofiber types in rabbits. A total of 48 straightbred and crossbred Botucatu rabbits, males and females, were involved in a split plot design with a 2 × 2 (genetic groups × genders) factorial arrangement. Young rabbits were weaned at 35 days of age and sequentially slaughtered, four per genetic group × sex combination, at 42, 63 and 84 days of age. The flexor carpi radialis muscle was dissected, histological sections (10 µm) were obtained and the frequencies and cross-sectional areas of myofiber types: I, IIA and IIB/X were determined. An effect of the genetic group × sex × slaughter age interaction was found on the frequency distribution of myofiber types. A transition from type IIA to type IIB/X fibers was observed (P < 0.01) with advancing age, except in crossbred females, but the frequency of IIA fibers was already lower (57.3%) and of IIB/X fibers numerically higher (33.7%) in this group at 42 days. The proportions of IIA fibers in straightbred males, crossbred males and straightbred females decreased from 80.1%, 89.4% and 68.8% at 42 days to 43.9%, 52.3% and 40.1% at 63 days, respectively, whereas the proportions of type IIB/X fibers, in the same groups, increased from 10.3%, 1.6% and 22.3% at 42 days to 42.2%, 37.0% and 49.8% at 63 days, respectively. In all three age points, type IIA fibers showed the largest cross-sectional areas, followed by type I and IIB/X fibers. The cross-sectional areas of IIB/X fibers were larger in crossbreds, but no differences were found between genetic groups concerning fiber types IIA and I. All three types of fibers showed positive linear association with age, but relative to the initial area type IIB/X fibers presented a higher degree of hypertrophy (144% up to 84 days) than type IIA and I fibers (86% and 85%, respectively). The flexor carpi radialis muscle was, on average, heavier in crossbred than in straightbred females, but no difference was observed between crossbred and straightbred males. Differences in the weight of flexor carpi radialis muscle were attributed to the hypertrophy of type IIB/X fibers in the crossbreds.

15.
Anim Genet ; 37(2): 95-100, 2006 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16573522

RESUMO

With the objective of mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for performance and carcass traits, an F2 chicken population was developed by crossing broiler and layer lines. A total of 2063 F2 chicks in 21 full-sib families were reared as broilers and slaughtered at 42 days of age. Seventeen performance and carcass traits were measured. Parental F(0) and F1 individuals were genotyped with 80 microsatellites from chicken chromosome 1 to select informative markers. Thirty-three informative markers were used for selective genotyping of F2 individuals with extreme phenotypes for body weight at 42 days of age (BW42). Based on the regions identified by selective genotyping, seven full-sib families (649 F2 chicks) were genotyped with 26 markers. Quantitative trait loci affecting body weight, feed intake, carcass weight, drums and thighs weight and abdominal fat weight were mapped to regions already identified in other populations. Quantitative trait loci for weights of gizzard, liver, lungs, heart and feet, as well as length of intestine, not previously described in the literature were mapped on chromosome 1. This F2 population can be used to identify novel QTLs and constitutes a new resource for studies of genes related to growth and carcass traits in poultry.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Cromossomos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Brasil , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites
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