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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238339, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278513

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was carried out to explore the spider fauna of Buner valley with taxonomic study from February 2018 to January 2019. For this purpose samples were collected, four times at each month from 4 tehsils: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan and Totalai. Two methods were used, hand picking and sweep net for collection of samples. During day and night, three habitats, arid area, agriculture land and building area were search for collection. A total of 534 samples of spider were collected from four sampling sites, in which 379 were belonging to family Araniedae. After confirmation, the identified species were belonging to 8 genera (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia and Poltys) and 19 species. 18 of them were identified to specie level while a single specie to its generic level. The genus Neoscona was the dominant genus 26.31% having 5 species while the genus Argiope 21.05% is the second dominant having 4 species followed by Cyclosa 15.78% having 3 species followed by Cyrtophora and Araneus 10.52% having two species both. The Poltys and Larinia 5.26% are the rarest genera represent single-single specie both. Statistical analysis show that specie richness (D) = 5.77, Simpson index (1-D) = 0.87, Shannon index (H) = 2.33. Diversity of spiders was evenly distributed and calculated Evenness value was H/InS = 0.5408. There is also few atypical species and Fisher alpha estimate high value (Fisher α) = 4.42. Chao-1 estimated we have reported 22 species.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi realizada para explorar a fauna de aranhas do vale Buner, em um estudo taxonômico realizado de fevereiro de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. Para esse fim, foram coletadas amostras, quatro vezes por mês, a partir de 4 subdistritos: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan e Totalai. Foram utilizados dois métodos, coleta manual e rede de varredura, para a obtenção das amostras. Durante o dia e a noite, foram pesquisados ​​três habitats: área árida, área agrícola e área de construção. Foram coletadas 534 amostras de aranha em quatro locais de amostragem, sendo que 379 pertenciam à família Araneidae. Após a confirmação, as espécies identificadas pertenciam a 8 gêneros (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia e Poltys) e a 19 espécies (18 delas foram identificados em seu nível de espécie, enquanto uma única foi identificada em seu nível genérico). O gênero Neoscona foi dominante (26,31%), com 5 espécies, seguido pelos gêneros Argiope (21,05%), com 4 espécies, Cyclosa (15,78%), com 3 espécies, e Cyrtophora e Araneus (10,52%), com 2 espécies. Poltys e Larinia (5,26%) são os gêneros mais raros, representando a mesma espécie. A análise estatística mostrou que a riqueza de espécies (D) foi de 5,77, o índice de Simpson (1-D) foi de 0,87 e o índice de Shannon (H) foi de 2,33. A diversidade de aranhas foi distribuída uniformemente, e o valor calculado da uniformidade foi H / InS = 0,5408. Também existem poucas espécies atípicas, e o alfa de Fisher (Fisher α) estimou o valor de 4,42. Já Chao-1 estimou 22 espécies.

2.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34870347

RESUMO

Due to their rarity, diseases characterized by chronic hypophosphatemia can be under-recognized and suboptimally managed, resulting in poor clinical outcomes. Moreover, serum phosphate may not be measured routinely in primary care practice. Authors participated in several working sessions to advance the understanding of phosphate homeostasis and the causes, consequences, and clinical implications of chronic hypophosphatemia. Phosphate levels are regulated from birth to adulthood. Dysregulation of phosphate homeostasis can result in hypophosphatemia, which becomes chronic if phosphate levels cannot be normalized. Chronic hypophosphatemia may be under-recognized as serum phosphate measurement is not always part of routine analysis in the primary care setting and results might be misinterpreted, for instance, due to age-specific differences not being accounted for and circadian variations. Clinical consequences of chronic hypophosphatemia involve disordered endocrine regulation, affect multiple organ systems, and vary depending on patient age and the underlying disorder. Signs and symptoms of chronic hypophosphatemic diseases that manifest during childhood or adolescence persist into adulthood if the disease is inadequately managed, resulting in an accumulation of clinical deficits and a progressive, debilitating impact on quality of life. Early identification and diagnosis of patients with chronic hypophosphatemia is crucial, and clinical management should be started as soon as possible to maximize the likelihood of improving health outcomes. Furthermore, in the absence of a universally accepted description for "chronic hypophosphatemia", a definition is proposed here that aims to raise awareness of these diseases, facilitate diagnosis, and guide optimal phosphate management strategies by improving monitoring and assessment of patient response to treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
J Clin Med ; 10(24)2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34945166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic carries a high burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We aimed to identify possible predictors of in-hospital major cardiovascular (CV) events in COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively included patients hospitalized for COVID-19 from 10 centers. Clinical, biochemical, electrocardiographic, and imaging data at admission and medications were collected. Primary endpoint was a composite of in-hospital CV death, acute heart failure (AHF), acute myocarditis, arrhythmias, acute coronary syndromes (ACS), cardiocirculatory arrest, and pulmonary embolism (PE). RESULTS: Of the 748 patients included, 141(19%) reached the set endpoint: 49 (7%) CV death, 15 (2%) acute myocarditis, 32 (4%) sustained-supraventricular or ventricular arrhythmias, 14 (2%) cardiocirculatory arrest, 8 (1%) ACS, 41 (5%) AHF, and 39 (5%) PE. Patients with CV events had higher age, body temperature, creatinine, high-sensitivity troponin, white blood cells, and platelet counts at admission and were more likely to have systemic hypertension, renal failure (creatinine ≥ 1.25 mg/dL), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atrial fibrillation, and cardiomyopathy. On univariate and multivariate analysis, troponin and renal failure were associated with the composite endpoint. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a clear divergence of in-hospital composite event-free survival stratified according to median troponin value and the presence of renal failure (Log rank p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, derived from a multicenter data collection study, suggest the routine use of biomarkers, such as cardiac troponin and serum creatinine, for in-hospital prediction of CV events in patients with COVID-19.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242603, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932612

RESUMO

Transcription factors (TF) are a wide class of genes in plants, and these can regulate the expression of other genes in response to various environmental stresses (biotic and abiotic). In the current study, transcription factor activity in sugarcane was examined during cold stress. Initially, RNA transcript reads of two sugarcane cultivars (ROC22 and GT08-1108) under cold stress were downloaded from SRA NCBI database. The reads were aligned into a reference genome and the differential expression analyses were performed with the R/Bioconductor edgeR package. Based on our analyses in the ROC22 cultivar, 963 TF genes were significantly upregulated under cold stress among a total of 5649 upregulated genes, while 293 TF genes were downregulated among a total of 3,289 downregulated genes. In the GT08-1108 cultivar, 974 TF genes were identified among 5,649 upregulated genes and 283 TF genes were found among 3,289 downregulated genes. Most transcription factors were annotated with GO categories related to protein binding, transcription factor binding, DNA-sequence-specific binding, transcription factor complex, transcription factor activity in RNA polymerase II, the activity of nucleic acid binding transcription factor, transcription corepressor activity, sequence-specific regulatory region, the activity of transcription factor of RNA polymerase II, transcription factor cofactor activity, transcription factor activity from plastid promoter, transcription factor activity from RNA polymerase I promoter, polymerase II and RNA polymerase III. The findings of above results will help to identify differentially expressed transcription factors during cold stress. It also provides a comprehensive analysis of the regulation of the transcription activity of many genes. Therefore, this study provides the molecular basis for improving cold tolerance in sugarcane and other economically important grasses.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio , Saccharum , Temperatura Baixa , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Saccharum/genética , Saccharum/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(23): 7526-7542, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919255

RESUMO

Infectious diseases, especially viral infections, have emerged as a major concern for public health in recent years. Recently emerged COVID-19, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been declared a pandemic by World Health Organization since March 2020. It was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has since claimed more than a million lives. Complicated symptoms are associated with rising incidence and fatality rates, while many of the vaccine candidates are in the final stages of clinical trials. This review encompasses a summary of existing literature on COVID-19, including the basics of the disease such as the causative agent's genome characterization, modes of transmission of the virus, pathogenesis, and clinical presentations like associated immune responses, neurological manifestations, the variety of host genetic factors influencing the disease and the vulnerability of different groups being affected by COVID-19.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , China , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
7.
Bull Natl Res Cent ; 45(1): 200, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840498

RESUMO

Background: Indonesia has started the big project of COVID-19 vaccination program since 13 January 2021 by employing the first shot of vaccine to the President of Indonesia as the outbreak and rapid transmission of COVID-19 have endangered not only Indonesian but the global health and economy. This study aimed to investigate the full-length genome mutation analysis of 166 Indonesian SARS-CoV-2 isolates as of 12 January 2021. Results: All data of the isolates were extracted from the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) EpiCoV database. CoVsurver platform was employed to investigate the full-length genome mutation analysis of all isolates. This study also focused on the phylogeny analysis in unlocking the mutation of S protein in Indonesian SARS-CoV-2 isolates. WIV04 isolate that was originated from Wuhan, China was used as the virus reference according to the CoVsurver default. The result showed that a full-length genome mutation analysis of 166 Indonesian SARS-CoV-2 isolates was successfully generated. Every single mutation in S protein was described and then visualized by utilizing BioRender platform. Furthermore, it also found that D614G mutation appeared in 103 Indonesian SARS-CoV-2 isolates. Conclusions: To sum up, this study helped to observe the spread of COVID-19 transmission. However, it also proposed that the epidemiological surveillance and genomics studies might be improved on COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s42269-021-00657-0.

8.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 27(6): 439-447, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768266

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This review addresses important practical questions facing clinicians regarding internet gaming disorder (IGD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and youth (C-Y). The authors investigated data concerning the risk that C-Y who have ADHD will develop IGD, whether effective treatment of ADHD positively influences the course of IGD in C-Y who have both, and other findings that might be of benefit to clinicians who treat C-Y with these conditions. METHODS: We conducted a literature review using 4 databases: PubMed, Scopus, PsychInfo, and Embase. RESULTS: C-Y with ADHD are at greater risk for developing IGD than those without ADHD. A close association exists between the severity of ADHD symptoms and the severity of IGD. It is unknown what proportion of C-Y with ADHD will develop IGD during their developmental trajectory; however, C-Y with IGD are at risk for developing ADHD, and ADHD can also increase the vulnerability of C-Y to IGD. Adolescents with ADHD and IGD have greater deficits in social skills than those with ADHD but no IGD. Lower parental occupational and socioeconomic status and poor family relationships are associated with more severe IGD symptoms. Atomoxetine and methylphenidate are equally effective in alleviating IGD symptoms comorbid with ADHD. CONCLUSIONS: C-Y with ADHD are at increased risk for developing IGD compared with C-Y without ADHD, but it has not been determined at what developmental stage IGD is likely to emerge. Since IGD and ADHD are strongly associated, it is imperative to consider ADHD as a significant risk factor for IGD and vice versa, which can help psychiatrists be alert for early signs of IGD and manage them accordingly.

9.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770753

RESUMO

Marine-derived biowaste increment is enormous, yet could be converted into valuable biomaterial, e.g., hydroxyapatite-based bioceramic. Bioceramic material possesses superiority in terms of thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties. Bioceramic material also has a high level of biocompatibility when projected into biological tissues. Tuning the porosity of bioceramic material could also provide benefits for bioseparation application, i.e., ultrafiltration ceramic membrane filtration for food and dairy separation processes. This work presents the investigation of hydroxyapatite conversion from crab-shells marine-based biowaste, by comparing three different methods, i.e., microwave, coprecipitation, and sol-gel. The dried crab-shells were milled and calcinated as calcium precursor, then synthesized into hydroxyapatite with the addition of phosphates precursors via microwave, coprecipitation, or sol-gel. The compound and elemental analysis, degree of crystallinity, and particle shape were compared. The chemical compounds and elements from three different methods were similar, yet the degree of crystallinity was different. Higher Ca/P ratio offer benefit in producing a bioceramic ultrafiltration membrane, due to low sintering temperature. The hydroxyapatite from coprecipitation and sol-gel methods showed a significant degree of crystallinity compared with that of the microwave route. However, due to the presence of Fe and Sr impurities, the secondary phase of Ca9FeH(PO4)7 was found in the sol-gel method. The secondary phase compound has high absorbance capacity, an advantage for bioceramic ultrafiltration membranes. Furthermore, the sol-gel method could produce a snake-like shape, compared to the oval shape of the coprecipitation route, another benefit to fabricate porous bioceramic for a membrane filter.

10.
Chemistry ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750900

RESUMO

Organic resin cross-linking ZIF-67/SiO2 superhydrophobic (SHPB) multilayer coating was successfully fabricated on metal substrate. The perfluoro-octyl-triethoxy silane (POTS) modified ZIF-67 and SiO2 coating was applied on primary coated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and epoxy resin (EP) via spray coating method. Here, we present that the robust superhydrophobicity can be realized by structuring surfaces at two different length scales, with a nanostructure design to provide water repellence and a microstructure design to provide durability. The as-fabricated multilayer coating displayed superior water-repellence (CA=167.4°), chemical robustness (pH=1-14) and mechanical durability undergoing 120th linear abrasion or 35th rotatory abrasion cycle. By applying different acidic and basic corrosive media and various weathering conditions, it can still maintain superior-hydrophobicity. To get a better insight of interaction between inhibitor molecules and metal surface, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed, showing lower energy gap and increased binding energy of ZPS/SiO2 /PTFE/EP (ZPS=ZIF-67+POTS) multilayer coating compared to the ZIF-67/SiO2 /PTFE/EP, thereby supporting the experimental findings. Additionally, such coatings may be useful for applications such as anti-corrosion, self-cleaning, and anti-icing multi-functionalities.

11.
Pharmacotherapy ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662448

RESUMO

Data regarding the use of corticosteroids for treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are conflicting. As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic progresses, more literature supporting the use of corticosteroids for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS have emerged. Glucocorticoids are proposed to attenuate the inflammatory response and prevent progression to the fibroproliferative phase of ARDS through their multiple mechanisms and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this systematic review was to comprehensively evaluate the literature surrounding corticosteroid use in ARDS (non-COVID-19 and COVID-19) in addition to a narrative review of clinical considerations of corticosteroid use in these patient populations. OVID Medline and EMBASE were searched. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of corticosteroids for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS in adult patients on mortality outcomes were included. Risk of bias was assessed with the Risk of Bias 2.0 tool. There were 388 studies identified, 15 of which met the inclusion criteria that included a total of 8877 patients. The studies included in our review reported a mortality benefit in 6/15 (40%) studies with benefit being seen at varying time points of mortality follow-up (ICU survival, hospital, and 28 and 60 days) in the COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS studies. The two non-COVID19 trials assessing lung injury score improvements found that corticosteroids led to significant improvements with corticosteroid use. The number of mechanical ventilation-free days significantly were found to be increased with the use of corticosteroids in all four studies that assessed this outcome. Corticosteroids are associated with improvements in mortality and ventilator-free days in critically ill patients with both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS, and evidence suggests their use should be encouraged in these settings. However, due to substantial differences in the corticosteroid regimens utilized in these trials, questions still remain regarding the optimal corticosteroid agent, dose, and duration in patients with ARDS.

12.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-12, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546605

RESUMO

With a large number of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) patients being discharged from hospital with negative test results for SARS-CoV-2, it has been reported that several recovered cases tested positive after discharge (re-positive, RP). This finding has raised several important questions for this novel coronavirus and Covid-19 disease. In this review, we have discussed several important questions, including: (1) Can the virus re-infect recovered individuals? (2) What are the possible causes of the re-positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test in recovered patients? (3) What are the implications of these re-positive cases concerning the spread of the virus? Understanding how recovery from Covid-19 confers immunity to decrease the risk of re-infection is needed to inform current efforts to safely scale back population-based interventions, such as physical distancing. We have also described what is currently known about the immune response to Covid-19, highlighted key gaps in knowledge, and identified opportunities for future research. Overall, the quality of the evidence is poor and we describe the features that should be described for future cases.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Reinfecção/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
RMD Open ; 7(3)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report the impact of burosumab on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and ambulatory function in adults with X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) through 96 weeks. METHODS: Adults diagnosed with XLH were randomised 1:1 in a double-blinded trial to receive subcutaneous burosumab 1 mg/kg or placebo every 4 weeks for 24 weeks (NCT02526160). Thereafter, all subjects received burosumab every 4 weeks until week 96. PROs were measured using the Western Ontario and the McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF) and Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), and ambulatory function was measured with the 6 min walk test (6MWT). RESULTS: Subjects (N=134) were randomised to burosumab (n=68) or placebo (n=66) for 24 weeks. At baseline, subjects experienced pain, stiffness, and impaired physical and ambulatory function. At week 24, subjects receiving burosumab achieved statistically significant improvement in some BPI-SF scores, BFI worst fatigue (average and greatest) and WOMAC stiffness. At week 48, all WOMAC and BPI-SF scores achieved statistically significant improvement, with some WOMAC and BFI scores achieving meaningful and significant change from baseline. At week 96, all WOMAC, BPI-SF and BFI achieved statistically significant improvement, with selected scores in all measures also achieving meaningful change. Improvement in 6MWT distance and percent predicted were statistically significant at all time points from 24 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with XLH have substantial burden of disease as assessed by PROs and 6MWT. Burosumab treatment improved phosphate homoeostasis and was associated with a steady and consistent improvement in PROs and ambulatory function. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02526160.


Assuntos
Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Humanos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente
14.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol ; : 8919887211036188, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prior research suggests that restless leg syndrome (RLS) is prevalent in Parkinson's disease (PD) with insufficient evidence to support the relationship between RLS, PD, and pain. This study explored the relationship between pain in PD patients and its association with the prevalence and severity of RLS. METHOD: 127 PD patients were assessed for PD and RLS using the U.K. Brain bank Criteria and the Restless Leg Syndrome diagnostic criteria, respectively. These patients were also assessed for pain perception and interference using the Brief Pain Inventory. RESULTS: The results demonstrated Parkinson's disease patients who reported pain scored 23 more Restless Leg Syndrome prevalence points (p < 0.05), and 8.5 counts higher for Restless Leg Syndrome severity (p < 0.05) compared to the group of Parkinson's disease patients denying pain. DISCUSSION: The presence of pain in PD patients indicated a higher RLS prevalence and an increased RLS severity. This finding suggests patients suffering from pain interference may experience more severe RLS symptoms. This demonstrates an inextricable link and association between pain in PD patients and RLS. Further robust investigations are required to elucidate any potential causative links, which can inform more holistic treatment principles.

16.
J Bone Miner Res ; 36(11): 2162-2176, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342378

RESUMO

The availability of anti-osteoporosis medications with rapid onset and high potency requires tools to identify patients at high imminent fracture risk (IFR). There are few tools that predict a patient's IFR. We aimed to develop and validate tools for patients with a recent fracture and for patients initiating oral bisphosphonate therapy. Models for two separate cohorts, those with incident fragility fracture (IFx) and with incident oral bisphosphonate prescription (OBP), were developed in primary care records from Spain (SIDIAP database), UK (Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD), and Denmark (Danish Health Registries). Separate models were developed for hip, major, and any fracture outcomes. Only variables present in all databases were included in Lasso regression models for the development and logistic regression models for external validation. Discrimination was tested using area under curve (AUC) and calibration was assessed using observed versus predicted risk plots stratified by age, sex, and previous fracture history. The development analyses included 35,526 individuals in the IFx and 41,401 in the OBP cohorts, with 671,094 in IFx and 330,256 in OBP for the validation analyses. Both the IFx and OBP models demonstrated similarly good performance for hip fracture at 1 year (with AUCs of 0.79 [95% CI 0.75 to 0.82] and 0.87 [0.83 to 0.91] in Spain, 0.71 [0.71 to 0.72] and 0.73 [0.72 to 0.74] in the UK, and 0.70 [0.70 to 0.70] and 0.69 [0.68 to 0.70] in Denmark), and lower discrimination for major osteoporotic and any fracture sites. Calibration was good across all three countries. Discrimination and calibration for the 2-year models was similar. The proposed IFR prediction models could be used to identify more precisely patients at high imminent risk of fracture and inform anti-osteoporosis treatment selection. The freely available model parameters permit local validation and implementation. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299679

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and cellular micronuclei in snuff dippers (Naswar) compared to healthy control subjects. The case control study was conducted over 9 months at a tertiary care center. Sixty patients were divided into two groups: Snuff dippers (SD) (Naswar) and non-snuff dippers (NSD) (control subjects). The included self-reported SD used Snuff twice daily for more than 12 months. UWS was collected and salivary TNF-α assessment was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For cellular micronuclei, buccal mucosa was brushed to obtain cells in Naswar users, fixed with a dibutylphthalate polystyrene xylene (DPX) mounting to view micronuclei. Means and standard deviations were compared using the t-test and outcomes were related using Pearson correlation, considering p ≤ 0.05 as significant. The mean age of participants was 38.85 ± 11.56 years. The mean duration of snuff use was 20.43 ± 12.79 years and the common site for Naswar placement was the lower vestibule (n = 19, 63.3%). TNF-α levels among SD were 9.6 ± 3.3 pg/mL, which were significantly higher than levels in NSD, 5.2 ± 3 pg/mL (p < 0.05). The number of cellular micronuclei in SD was 30.7 ± 7.8, which was comparatively higher than in NSD, which was 9.2 ± 3.3 (p < 0.05). The duration of snuff use was positively correlated to TNF-α levels (p = 0.048) rather than the micronuclei number (p = 0.97). SD showed higher levels of TNF-α and cellular micronuclei compared with NSD (control subjects); a positive correlation was shown with the duration of snuff use. We conclude that TNF-α and micronuclei are potential salivary biomarkers for an oral biological effect in snuff (Naswar) users.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Adulto , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect with absent or diminutive primum defect is challenging because of atrial septal malposition and abnormal anatomy of the left atrioventricular valve. We sought to define the incidence, anatomy, and surgical outcomes of this entity. METHODS: We identified all patients in our institutional database presenting for complete atrioventricular septal defect repair from 2006 to 2018. Operative reports and echocardiograms were reviewed to determine the presence and size of the primum defect, atrioventricular valve anatomy, degree of atrioventricular valve regurgitation, repair method, and complications, including reoperation for atrioventricular valve regurgitation. Functionally univentricular patients and those receiving repair at an outside institution were excluded. RESULTS: Of 183 patients with complete atrioventricular septal defect, absent/diminutive primum defect occurred in 16 patients (8.7%; 10 absent, 6 diminutive). Six patients (38%) had leftward malposition of the atrium septum on the common atrioventricular valve. The rate of reoperation for left atrioventricular valve regurgitation was 31% (3 early, 2 late), for which preoperative predictors included leftward malposition of the atrial septum onto the common atrioventricular valve (4/6 patients with malposition required reoperation, P = .036, Fisher exact test). One patient exhibiting this risk factor died. The overall rate of moderate or greater left atrioventricular valve regurgitation on the most recent postoperative echocardiogram was 13% (2/16 patients; median follow-up, 141 days; range, 3-2236 days). CONCLUSIONS: Complete atrioventricular septal defect with absent or diminutive primum defect is a unique variant of complete atrioventricular septal defect for which the risk of reoperation for left atrioventricular valve regurgitation after complete repair is high and risk factors include leftward malposition of the atrial septum on the common atrioventricular valve.

19.
Brain Circ ; 7(2): 85-91, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189351

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the young age (≤50 years) is a major cause of disability. The underlying mechanism of AIS in this age group is usually different from elderly. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is used to detect the potential cardiac sources of embolism in AIS patients. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TEE) is superior to detect specific underlying cardio-aortic source of embolism when compared to TTE. We aim to evaluate the diagnostic yield and therapeutic impact of TEE in AIS of young adults. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the consecutive patients with AIS in our comprehensive center in a 5-year period from our prospectively collected registry. We selected patients with age ≤50 years who had acute infarcts on brain magnetic resonance imaging or head computed tomography and underwent TEE as part of their diagnostic workup. Demographic details including, age, gender, body mass index, cardiovascular risk factors profile, and TEE findings were collected. RESULTS: Among a total 7,930 patients, 876 (11.04%) were found to be ≤50 years old. Among those, TEE was done in 113 patients (12.8%) in addition to TTE. Those who underwent TEE had a mean age of 40.4 ± 7.9 years, 60 were male (53%), 7 (6.2%) had a history of coronary artery disease, 38 (33%) had a history of diabetes, and 45 (40%) had a history of smoking. TEE showed new abnormal findings in a total of 15 patients (13.2%) that were not reported in their TTEs. Out of these, left atrial appendage thrombus was found in 5, infective endocarditis in 4, atrial septal aneurysms associated with patent foramen ovale (PFO) in 3, and spontaneous mobile echo density in three patients. Overall, new findings from TEE resulted in change in the secondary stroke prevention strategy in 14 patients of those who underwent TEE (12.3%). TEE also confirmed the presence of PFO, which was present on TTE with bubble study in 20 (17.6%) patients. CONCLUSION: TEE may provide additional information in the evaluation of the AIS in young adults, which could lead to change of the secondary stroke prevention strategy.

20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(10): 3923-3932, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109607

RESUMO

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has potentially conflicting roles in health and disease. COVID-19 coronavirus binds to human cells via ACE2 receptor, which is expressed on almost all body organs. Boosting the ACE2 receptor levels on heart and lung cells may provide more cellular enter to virus thereby worsening the infection. Therefore, among the drug targets, ACE2 is suggested as a vital target of COVID-19 therapy. This hypothesis is based on the protective role of the drugs acting on ACE2. Therefore, this review discusses the impact and challenges of using ACE2 as a target in the current therapy of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Antivirais/química , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/química , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/química , Alanina/metabolismo , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/química , Azitromicina/metabolismo , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/química , Hidroxicloroquina/metabolismo , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Vitamina D/química , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico
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