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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246389, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285638

RESUMO

Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Resumo A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246389, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320050

RESUMO

Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Plumas , Animais , Fermentação , Fungos , Resíduos Industriais , Queratinas/metabolismo
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5791, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707515

RESUMO

This study was conducted to assess the spatial distribution of beetles in mountain ecosystems and their elevational diversity. Malaise, pitfall and light traps were used to collect beetles from nine different mountains in Malaysia from September 2014 to September 2016, where from Gunung Angsi, Gunung Belumut, Gunung Basor and Gunung Tebu samples were collected at 500 m and 1000 m (above sea level) elevations, while beetles were sampled at 500 m, 1000 m and 1500 masl from Gunung Benom, Gunung Inas, Cameron Highland, Gunung Besar Hantu and Gunung Basor. In this study, 9628 beetles belonging to 879 different species were collected with highest representation from family Staphylinidae and Carabidae. Chamah Highland had the highest beetle diversity followed by Gunung Benom, Gunung Inas, Cameron Highland, Gunung Belumut, and Gunung Basor. Chamah Highland was different to all mountains on abundance and species richness. The highest species richness was observed at 1000 m, followed by 500 m and 1500 m. We identified characteristic species associated with habitat conditions at Gunung Benoum and Gunung Inas mountains, according to INDVAL values. The beetle diversity of the sampled mountains showed multiple alpha and beta patterns according to type of mountain ecosystem and elevation, providing guidelines for the scientific community to underpin conservation efforts in Malaysia.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 546, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436680

RESUMO

Our study focused on quantifying the alterations of streamflow at a weir site due to the construction of a mini-hydropower plant in the Gurugoda Oya (Sri Lanka), and evaluating the spatial responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to altered flow regime. The HEC-HMS 3.5 model was applied to the Gurugoda Oya sub-catchment to generate streamflows for the time period 1991-2013. Pre-weir flows were compared to post-weir flows with 32 Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration using the range of variability approach (RVA). Concurrently, six study sites were established upstream and downstream of the weir, and benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled monthly from May to November 2013 (during the wet season). The key water physico-chemical parameters were also determined. RVA analysis showed that environmental flow was not maintained below the weir. The mean rate of non-attainment was ~ 45% suggesting a moderate level of hydrologic alteration. Benthic macroinvertebrate communities significantly differed between the study sites located above and below the weir, with a richness reduction due to water diversion. The spatial distribution of zoobenthic fauna was governed by water depth, dissolved oxygen content and volume flow rate. Our work provides first evidence on the effects of small hydropower on river ecosystem in a largely understudied region. Studies like this are important to setting-up adequate e-flows.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrologia , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Rios , Animais , Estações do Ano , Sri Lanka , Fatores de Tempo , Água
5.
J Vet Res ; 61(4): 535-542, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978120

RESUMO

Introduction: Eight microsatellite loci were used to define genetic diversity among five native water buffalo breeds in Pakistan. Material and Methods: Blood samples (10 mL) from 25 buffaloes of each of the Nili, Ravi, Nili-Ravi, Kundhi, and Azi-Kheli breeds were collected aseptically from the jugular vein into 50 ml Falcon tubes containing 200 µl of 0.5 M EDTA. The phenol-chloroform method was used to extract DNA and the regions were amplified for microsatellite analysis. The eight microsatellite markers ETH10, INRA005, ILSTS029, ILSTS033, ILSTS049, ILSTS052, ETH225, and CSSM66 were analysed. Results: The effective number of alleles across all loci was as usual lower than the observed values with a mean value of 2.52 alleles per locus. The overall allele frequency varied from 0.0041 for alleles B, I, and J over respective loci ILSTS052, INRA005, and ILSTS029 to 0.80 for allele H over locus ILSTS029. The average observed and expected heterozygosity values across all polymorphic loci in all studied buffalo breeds were 0.43 and 0.53, respectively. The overall value for polymorphic information content of considered microsatellite markers was 0.53, suggesting their appropriateness for genetic diversity analysis in buffalo. The mean Fis value was 0.13 and all loci except ILSTS049 were found significantly deviated from HWE, most likely due to non-random breeding. The five buffalo populations were genetically less diverse as indicated by a small mean Fst value (0.07). The average gene flow (Nm) indicative for population migration was calculated as 3.31. Nei's original measures of genetic distance (Ds) revealed ancient divergence of the Nili and Azi-Kheli breeds (Ds = 0.1747) and recent divergence of the Nili and Ravi breeds (Ds = 0.0374). Conclusion: These estimates of genetic diversity were seen to coincide with phenotypic differentiation among the studied buffalo breeds. The present study reports the first microsatellite marker-based genetic diversity analysis in Pakistani buffalo breeds, and might facilitate similar studies in other livestock breeds of Pakistan.

6.
Opt Express ; 24(9): 9465-72, 2016 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27137560

RESUMO

A compact (1.2 mm2) fully integrated mid-IR spectrometer operating in the 3 µm wavelength range is presented. To our knowledge this is the longest wavelength integrated spectrometer operating in the important wavelength window for spectroscopy of organic compounds. The spectrometer is based on a silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating filter. An array of InAs0.91Sb0.09 p-i-n photodiodes is heterogeneously integrated on the spectrometers output grating couplers using adhesive bonding. The spectrometer insertion loss is less than 3 dB and the waveguide-referred responsivity of the integrated photodiodes at room temperature is 0.3 A/W.

7.
Trop Biomed ; 32(3): 399-401, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26695198

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, is a parasitic disease caused by trematodes from the genus Schistosoma that can infect humans and animals. S. mansoni, S. japonicum, and S. mekongi all causes intestinal schistosomiasis except S. haematobium that causes urinary schistosomiasis. It is only specie which effects urinary system, it can affect liver, heart, lungs also but very rarely. Schistosoma haematobium is endemic to over 50 countries in Africa and the Middle East and Western Asia and may be fatal in HIV positive people. A number of reports from the African countries like Nigeria have been reported. A few cases are reported but in Pakistan it has never been reported before in native people. It is first time reported in Pakistan in the intestine of Rahu (Labeo rohita). The purpose of this study is to elaborate the approach of zoonotic agent by various other routes including the commonly available fish.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Schistosoma haematobium/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose Urinária/veterinária , Animais , Intestinos/parasitologia , Paquistão , Esquistossomose Urinária/parasitologia
8.
Opt Express ; 22(22): 27300-8, 2014 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25401880

RESUMO

This paper demonstrates a very compact wavelength meter for on-chip laser monitoring in the shortwave infrared wavelength range based on an optimized arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) filter with an integrated photodiode array. The AWG response is designed to obtain large nearest neighbor crosstalk (i.e. large overlap) between output channels, which allows accurately measuring the wavelength of a laser under test using the centroid detection technique. The passive AWG is fabricated on a 220 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform and is combined with GaInAsSb-based photodiodes. The photodiodes are heterogeneously integrated on the output grating couplers of the AWG using DVS-BCB adhesive bonding. The complete device with AWG and detectors has a footprint of only 2 mm(2) while the measured accuracy and resolution of the detected wavelength is better than 20pm.

9.
Opt Express ; 21(10): 11659-69, 2013 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23736389

RESUMO

The design and characterization of silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 µm is reported. The devices are fabricated on 200 mm SOI wafers in a CMOS pilot line. Both arrayed waveguide grating structures and planar concave grating structures were designed and tested. Low insertion loss (1.5-2.5 dB) and good crosstalk characteristics (15-20 dB) are demonstrated, together with waveguide propagation losses in the range of 3 to 6 dB/cm.


Assuntos
Refratometria/instrumentação , Silício/química , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/instrumentação , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/instrumentação , Condutividade Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento
10.
Opt Express ; 21(5): 6101-8, 2013 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23482178

RESUMO

We present a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based spectrometer platform for a wide operational wavelength range. Both planar concave grating (PCG, also known as echelle grating) and arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) spectrometer designs are explored for operation in the short-wave infrared. In addition, a total of four planar concave gratings are designed to cover parts of the wavelength range from 1510 to 2300 nm. These passive wavelength demultiplexers are combined with GaInAsSb photodiodes. These photodiodes are heterogeneously integrated on SOI with benzocyclobutene (DVS-BCB) as an adhesive bonding layer. The uniformity of the photodiode characteristics and high processing yield, indicate a robust fabrication process. We demonstrate good performance of the miniature spectrometers over all operational wavelengths which paves the way to on-chip absorption spectroscopy in this wavelength range.

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