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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246651, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285627

RESUMO

Abstract The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Resumo Os atributos medicinais do mel parecem ofuscar sua importância como alimento funcional. Consequentemente, várias literaturas estão repletas de usos antigos do mel como medicina complementar e alternativa, com relevância para os cuidados de saúde modernos, apoiados por dados clínicos baseados em evidências, com pouca atenção dada às funções nutricionais do mel. O teor de umidade do mel extraído da Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, fazenda de abelhas de Lahore, foi de 12,19%, enquanto o de fonte natural foi de 9,03 ± 1,63%. Da mesma forma, os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel cultivado foram de 0,37% e 5,22%, respectivamente. Já os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel natural foram de 1,70 ± 1,98% e 6,10 ± 0,79%. Da mesma forma, os teores de gordura, fibra dietética e carboidratos de origem cultivada documentados foram de 0,14%, 1,99% e 62,26%, respectivamente. Embora os teores de gordura, fibra alimentar e carboidratos do mel retirado dos recursos naturais fossem de 0,54 ± 0,28%, 2,76 ± 1,07% e 55,32 ± 2,91%, respectivamente. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Da mesma forma, os teores de sacarose e maltose no mel cultivado foram de 2,5% e 12%, enquanto no mel natural foram de 1,35 ± 0,49% e 8,00 ± 1,41%, respectivamente. O presente estudo indica que os teores de umidade, carboidratos, sacarose e maltose foram maiores no mel cultivado em comparação ao mel natural. Em nossa recomendação, o mel natural é melhor que o mel de cultivo.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249159, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339415

RESUMO

Abstract There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Resumo Há uma escassez de pesquisas realizadas sobre a prevalência microbiana em faisões. A microbiota de aves em cativeiro tem significado zoonótico e deve ser caracterizada. O presente estudo está, portanto, planejado para avaliar a microbiota do conteúdo oral, fecal e intestinal de espécies aviárias em cativeiro. Será útil na caracterização de micróbios nocivos. Diferentes amostras retiradas da boca, intestino e fezes de faisões de pescoço redondo (Phasianus colchicus), faisões verdes (Phasianus versicolor), faisões dourados (Chrysolophus pictus) e faisão prateado (Lophura nycthemera). As amostras foram coletadas, diluídas e inoculadas em diferentes placas de ágar (MacConkey, ágar SS, MSA e ágar nutriente) para o cultivo de espécies bacterianas. Colônias de E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Brachyspira spp. e Campylobacter spp foram observados com base na morfologia da colônia. A unidade formadora de colônia mostrou E. coli como bactéria frequentemente encontrada no conteúdo fecal, oral e intestinal de todos os faisões acima. A diferença de significância geral foi encontrada entre as espécies bacterianas de faisões dourados, faisões verdes, faisões de pescoço anelado e faisões prateados. Verificou-se que a E.coli é predominantemente isolada de faisões saudáveis, seguida por Campylobacter, Staphylococcus e Brachyspira.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e245261, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249221

RESUMO

Abstract Present study was planned to determine variations in external and internal quality egg parameters of different avian species including ostrich Struthio camelus, ducks Anas platyrhynchos, chicken Gallus gallus, turkeys Meleagris gallopavo and grey francolin Francolinus pondicerinus. All the birds were kept under similar rearing conditions. A total of 150 eggs were collected for each species to record external features of these eggs. Statistically significant (p<0.05) variations were recorded in egg weight, egg length and egg width between ostrich, ducks, chicken, turkey and quail eggs. Significantly (p<0.05) higher egg weight, egg length and egg width was observed for ostrich eggs while the same was lowest for grey francolin eggs. Similarly, significantly (p<0.05) greater shape index and egg volume values were observed for ostrich eggs while lowest shape index values were recorded for turkey eggs and egg volume was lowest for grey francolin. Significantly, higher (p<0.05) values of egg density were noted for eggs of the quail and the same were lowest for ostrich eggs. Non-significant variations in egg density values were observed between eggs of the ducks, chicken, turkey and grey francolin. It has been concluded that the positive correlations between the internal and external egg quality traits indicated that the traits can be improved through selection.


Resumo O presente estudo foi planejado para determinar variações nos parâmetros externos e internos de qualidade dos ovos de diferentes espécies de aves, incluindo avestruz Struthio camelus, patos Anas platyrhynchos, frango Gallus gallus, perus Meleagris gallopavo e francolin cinza Francolinus pondicerinus. Todas as aves foram mantidas em condições de criação semelhantes. Um total de 150 ovos foi coletado para cada espécie para registrar as características externas desses ovos. Variações estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05) foram registradas no peso do ovo, comprimento do ovo e largura do ovo entre os ovos de avestruz, patos, galinha, peru e codorna. Significativamente (p < 0,05) maior peso do ovo, comprimento e largura do ovo foram observados para ovos de avestruz, enquanto o mesmo foi menor para ovos de francolina cinza. Da mesma forma, significativamente (p < 0,05) maiores valores de índice de forma e volume de ovo foram observados para ovos de avestruz, enquanto os menores valores de índice de forma foram registrados para ovos de peru e o volume de ovo foi menor para francolina cinza. Significativamente, maiores (p < 0,05) valores de densidade de ovos foram observados para ovos de codorna e os mesmos foram menores para ovos de avestruz. Variações não significativas nos valores de densidade de ovos foram observadas entre os ovos de pato, frango, peru e francolina cinza. Concluiu-se que as correlações positivas entre as características internas e externas de qualidade do ovo indicaram que as características podem ser melhoradas por meio da seleção.

4.
Head Neck ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729845

RESUMO

The present study aims to estimate a pooled hazard ratio (HR) comparing overall survival (OS) for salvage surgery compared to nonsurgical management of recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase-Ovid were searched on March 5, 2020, for English-language articles reporting survival for salvage surgery and nonsurgical management of recurrent HNSCC. Meta-analysis of HR estimates using random effects model was performed. Fifteen studies reported survival for salvage surgery and nonsurgical management of recurrence. Five-year OS ranged from 26% to 67% for the salvage surgery groups, compared to 0% to 32% for the nonsurgical management groups. Six studies reported HRs comparing salvage surgery to nonsurgical management; the pooled HR was 0.25 (95% CI [0.16, 0.38]; p < 0.0001). Selection for salvage surgery was associated with one quarter of the mortality rate associated with nonsurgical management in light of confounding factors including subsite and treatment intent.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e254253, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816973

RESUMO

During the present study, specimens were collected from selected sites of Cholistan desert and Kalabagh Game Reserve, Punjab province, Pakistan. Each captured specimen was tagged with voucher number and morphometric measurements were taken. The average snout to vent length was 172.559±1.40 mm and average weight was 92.1±1.30 g. The DNA of Uromastyx hardwickii was amplified and sequenced using 16S rRNA primer set. The obtained DNA sequence has shown reliable and clear species identification. After trimming ambiguous bases, the obtained 16S rRNA fragment was 520 bp while 16S rRNA fragments aligned with closely matched sequence from NCBI comprised of 510 bp. Closely matched sequences of genus Uromastyx were retrieved from NCBI in blast searches. Neighbour-joining tree of genus Uromastyx was constructed based on p-distance using MEGA X. The mean intraspecific variation was 0.095±0.01 while intraspecific variation was ranging from 0-1%. Similarly, interspecific variation of Uromastyx hardwikii with Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti was 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19% respectively. The newly produced DNA was submitted to NCBI and accession number was obtained (MW052563.1). Results of current study provided information about the molecular and morphological identification of Genus Uromastyx. In our recommendation, comprehensive molecular based identification of Pakistan's reptiles is required to report any new or subspecies from country.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Variação Genética/genética , Paquistão , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594450

RESUMO

The Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion assay is a serological technique used in the detection of antibodies and antigens for diagnostic purposes and also used in immunology laboratory courses as a common teaching assay where students observe the geometrical precipitation line patterns that form in the agarose, elucidating degrees of homology between antigens. In this classical technique, students must wait several hours to days to obtain results when protein antigens and antibodies are used. Furthermore, these proteins degrade over time if not frozen or stored in the refrigerator and are the most expensive consumables of the laboratory exercise. In this study, inexpensive and commonly used inorganic ionic salt solutions that are stable and can be stored at room temperature for several years were used to mimic antigens and antibodies. The precipitation lines started to form in the agarose plates after 15 min and fully developed within an hour, showing different geometrical precipitation patterns and spur formations that could be identified by students as full identity, partial identity, and nonidentity between the simulated (inorganic) antigens. Students conducting this exercise in a combined lecture and laboratory immunology course were able to finish the exercise as well as record and discuss results within class time, and tvhey showed increased interest in the laboratory exercise and had a better understanding of antibody-antigen reactions. Thus, this simulated laboratory experiment is an inexpensive, safe, and fast exercise that allows students to observe precipitations reactions of the Ouchterlony assay within the class session time.

7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246243, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468516

RESUMO

The present study reports the existence of cliff racer, Platyceps rhodorachis from the plains of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 10 specimens were captured during the field surveys from June to September, 2018 from different sites of Punjab. Platyceps rhodorachis was identify on the basis of morphology and confirmed through COI gene sequences. The obtained DNA sequences have shown reliable and exact species identification. Newly produced DNA sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis were submitted to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained (MK936174.1, MK941839.1 and MT790210.1). N-J tree based on COI sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis clearly separated as out-group with other members of family Colubridae based on p-distance. The intra-specific genetic variation ranges from 12% to 18%. The DNA sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis kashmirensis, Platyceps rhodorachis ladacensis, Platyceps ventromaculatus, Platyceps ventromaculatus bengalensis and Platyceps ventromaculatus indusai are not available at NCBI to validate their taxonomic positions. In our recommendations, a large scale molecular based identification of Pakistan's herpetofauna is required to report more new or subspecies from country.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Animais , Paquistão , Filogenia , Filogeografia
8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249159, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586192

RESUMO

There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Assuntos
Galliformes , Animais , Escherichia coli , Fezes
9.
Elife ; 102021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586070

RESUMO

How do cells perceive time? Do cells use temporal information to regulate the production/degradation of their enzymes, membranes, and organelles? Does controlling biological time influence cytoskeletal organization and cellular architecture in ways that confer evolutionary and physiological advantages? Potential answers to these fundamental questions of cell biology have historically revolved around the discussion of 'master' temporal programs, such as the principal cyclin-dependent kinase/cyclin cell division oscillator and the circadian clock. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent evidence supporting an emerging concept of 'autonomous clocks,' which under normal conditions can be entrained by the cell cycle and/or the circadian clock to run at their pace, but can also run independently to serve their functions if/when these major temporal programs are halted/abrupted. We begin the discussion by introducing recent developments in the study of such clocks and their roles at different scales and complexities. We then use current advances to elucidate the logic and molecular architecture of temporal networks that comprise autonomous clocks, providing important clues as to how these clocks may have evolved to run independently and, sometimes at the cost of redundancy, have strongly coupled to run under the full command of the cell cycle and/or the circadian clock. Next, we review a list of important recent findings that have shed new light onto potential hallmarks of autonomous clocks, suggestive of prospective theoretical and experimental approaches to further accelerate their discovery. Finally, we discuss their roles in health and disease, as well as possible therapeutic opportunities that targeting the autonomous clocks may offer.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Biogênese de Organelas , Animais , Proteína Quinase CDC2/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular , Humanos
10.
Oral Oncol ; 122: 105512, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the potential utility of intra-oral ultrasound (IOUS) in guiding deep margin clearance and measuring depth of invasion (DOI) of oral tongue carcinomas (OTC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review of consecutive patients with T1-T3 OTC who underwent intraoperative ultrasound-guided resection and a comparator group that had undergone resection without the use of IOUS both by a single surgeon. Data was extracted from operative, pathology and radiology reports. Deep margins and DOI were reviewed by a dedicated head and neck pathologist. Correlation between histologic and ultrasound DOI was assessed using Pearson correlation. RESULTS: A total of 23 patients were included in the study cohort with a comparator group of 21 patients in the control group. None of the patients in the study cohort had a positive (cut-through) deep margin and the mean deep margin clearance was 8.5 ± 4.9 and 6.7 ± 3.8 for the IOUS and non-IOUS groups respectively (p-value 0.18) showing a non-significant improvement in the IOUS group. As a secondary outcome, there was a strong correlation between histologic and ultrasound DOI (0.9449). CONCLUSION: Ultrasound appears to be a potentially effective tool in guiding OTC resections. In this small series, IOUS facilitated deep margin clearance and resulted in a non-statistically significant increase in deep margin clearance. Intraoral ultrasound can accurately measure lesional DOI.

11.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378683

RESUMO

The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Assuntos
Mel , Animais , Abelhas , Carboidratos
12.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e245261, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076170

RESUMO

Present study was planned to determine variations in external and internal quality egg parameters of different avian species including ostrich Struthio camelus, ducks Anas platyrhynchos, chicken Gallus gallus, turkeys Meleagris gallopavo and grey francolin Francolinus pondicerinus. All the birds were kept under similar rearing conditions. A total of 150 eggs were collected for each species to record external features of these eggs. Statistically significant (p<0.05) variations were recorded in egg weight, egg length and egg width between ostrich, ducks, chicken, turkey and quail eggs. Significantly (p<0.05) higher egg weight, egg length and egg width was observed for ostrich eggs while the same was lowest for grey francolin eggs. Similarly, significantly (p<0.05) greater shape index and egg volume values were observed for ostrich eggs while lowest shape index values were recorded for turkey eggs and egg volume was lowest for grey francolin. Significantly, higher (p<0.05) values of egg density were noted for eggs of the quail and the same were lowest for ostrich eggs. Non-significant variations in egg density values were observed between eggs of the ducks, chicken, turkey and grey francolin. It has been concluded that the positive correlations between the internal and external egg quality traits indicated that the traits can be improved through selection.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Struthioniformes , Animais , Paquistão
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 285-290, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153367

RESUMO

Abstract Synthetic androgens (male hormones) administered to fish nursery are being used in aquaculture to avoid sexual differentiation and unwanted spawning at the eggs or the first feeding fry stage of fish. Present trial was conducted with the aim to produce male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by egg immersion technique. Through this little insight, the effect of different hormone concentrations (17α-methyltestosterone @ HC:150, 300, 450 and 600 µgl-1) with immersion times (IT: 24, 48 and 72 hrs) and their interaction effect (HC x IT) on the hatching percentage of Cyprinus carpio eggs, percent survival and percent of male's production was evaluated specifically. Results showed that egg hatching percentage decreased with increased IT likewise, survival of treated fry was affected by increasing the IT (P<0.001). The main interaction effect of HC x IT showed that the highest percent of male individuals (95%) was obtained at 450-600 µgl-1 HC for 72 hrs IT, followed by 88-92.50% at 150-300 µgl-1 HC for 72-hrsof IT, 87.50% at 48-hrs of IT for rest of the hormone treatments, and lowest 47.50% was recorded in control (P<0.05). Increased percent male of Cyprinus carpio was obtained with increasing HC across all ITs. It was observed that the immersion treatment at 600µgl-1 for 72 hours was more effective to change the sex ratio of pre hatch Cyprinus carpio. A comparative outlook made from this experimental trial that sex induction of Cyprinus carpio by eggs immersion using synthetic male steroid hormone is an alternative safe technique of fish sex reversal in contrast to oral administration of hormone in fish feed.


Resumo Andrógenos sintéticos (hormônios masculinos) administrados ao viveiro de peixes estão sendo usados ​​na aquicultura para evitar a diferenciação sexual e a desova indesejada nos ovos ou no primeiro estágio de alimentação dos peixes. O presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de produzir carpa comum masculina (Cyprinuscarpio) pela técnica de imersão em ovos. Com essa pequena percepção, o efeito de diferentes concentrações hormonais (17α-metiltestosterona @ HC: 150, 300, 450 e 600 µgl-1) com tempos de imersão (IT: 24, 48 e 72 horas) e seu efeito de interação (HC x IT) na porcentagem de eclosão dos ovos de Cyprinuscarpio, a porcentagem de sobrevivência e a porcentagem da produção masculina foram avaliadas especificamente. Os resultados mostraram que a porcentagem de incubação de ovos diminuiu com o aumento da TI da mesma forma, a sobrevivência dos alevinos tratados foi afetada pelo aumento da TI (P <0,001). O principal efeito de interação do HC x IT mostrou que o maior percentual de indivíduos do sexo masculino (95%) foi obtido com 450-600 µgl-1 HC por 72 horas de TI, seguido por 88-92,50% com 150-300 µgl-1 HC para 72 horas de TI, 87,50% às 48 horas de TI para o restante dos tratamentos hormonais, e 47,50% mais baixos foram registrados no controle (P <0,05). A porcentagem aumentada de macho de Cyprinuscarpio foi obtida com o aumento do HC em todas as TIs. Observou-se que o tratamento de imersão a 600µgl-1 por 72 horas foi mais efetivo na alteração da razão sexual do Cyprinuscarpio antes da eclosão. Uma perspectiva comparativa feita a partir deste ensaio experimental de que a indução sexual de Cyprinuscarpio por imersão de ovos usando hormônio esteróide masculino sintético é uma técnica alternativa segura de reversão do sexo em peixes, em contraste com a administração oral de hormônio na alimentação de peixes.

14.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 81(2): 285-290, Mar.-May 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-762749

RESUMO

Synthetic androgens (male hormones) administered to fish nursery are being used in aquaculture to avoid sexual differentiation and unwanted spawning at the eggs or the first feeding fry stage of fish. Present trial was conducted with the aim to produce male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by egg immersion technique. Through this little insight, the effect of different hormone concentrations (17-methyltestosterone @ HC:150, 300, 450 and 600 µgl-1) with immersion times (IT: 24, 48 and 72 hrs) and their interaction effect (HC x IT) on the hatching percentage of Cyprinus carpio eggs, percent survival and percent of males production was evaluated specifically. Results showed that egg hatching percentage decreased with increased IT likewise, survival of treated fry was affected by increasing the IT (P 0.001). The main interaction effect of HC x IT showed that the highest percent of male individuals (95%) was obtained at 450-600 µgl-1 HC for 72 hrs IT, followed by 88-92.50% at 150-300 µgl-1 HC for 72-hrsof IT, 87.50% at 48-hrs of IT for rest of the hormone treatments, and lowest 47.50% was recorded in control (P 0.05). Increased percent male of Cyprinus carpio was obtained with increasing HC across all ITs. It was observed that the immersion treatment at 600µgl-1 for 72 hours was more effective to change the sex ratio of pre hatch Cyprinus carpio. A comparative outlook made from this experimental trial that sex induction of Cyprinus carpio by eggs immersion using synthetic male steroid hormone is an alternative safe technique of fish sex reversal in contrast to oral administration of hormone in fish feed.(AU)


Andrógenos sintéticos (hormônios masculinos) administrados ao viveiro de peixes estão sendo usados na aquicultura para evitar a diferenciação sexual e a desova indesejada nos ovos ou no primeiro estágio de alimentação dos peixes. O presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de produzir carpa comum masculina (Cyprinuscarpio) pela técnica de imersão em ovos. Com essa pequena percepção, o efeito de diferentes concentrações hormonais (17-metiltestosterona @ HC: 150, 300, 450 e 600 µgl-1) com tempos de imersão (IT: 24, 48 e 72 horas) e seu efeito de interação (HC x IT) na porcentagem de eclosão dos ovos de Cyprinuscarpio, a porcentagem de sobrevivência e a porcentagem da produção masculina foram avaliadas especificamente. Os resultados mostraram que a porcentagem de incubação de ovos diminuiu com o aumento da TI da mesma forma, a sobrevivência dos alevinos tratados foi afetada pelo aumento da TI (P 0,001). O principal efeito de interação do HC x IT mostrou que o maior percentual de indivíduos do sexo masculino (95%) foi obtido com 450-600 µgl-1 HC por 72 horas de TI, seguido por 88-92,50% com 150-300 µgl-1 HC para 72 horas de TI, 87,50% às 48 horas de TI para o restante dos tratamentos hormonais, e 47,50% mais baixos foram registrados no controle (P 0,05). A porcentagem aumentada de macho de Cyprinuscarpio foi obtida com o aumento do HC em todas as TIs. Observou-se que o tratamento de imersão a 600µgl-1 por 72 horas foi mais efetivo na alteração da razão sexual do Cyprinuscarpio antes da eclosão. Uma perspectiva comparativa feita a partir deste ensaio experimental de que a indução sexual de Cyprinuscarpio por imersão de ovos usando hormônio esteróide masculino sintético é uma técnica alternativa segura de reversão do sexo em peixes, em contraste com a administração oral de hormônio na alimentação de peixes.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Carpas , Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Hormônios , Imersão , Sexualidade
15.
Laryngoscope ; 131(11): 2497-2504, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate the impact of specific treatment-related variables on functional and quality of life outcomes in oral cavity cancer (OCC) patients. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective Cohort. METHODS: Patients with primary OCC at least 6 months after resection and adjuvant therapy were included. Patients completed surveys including the Speech Handicap Index (SHI), M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI), and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck (FACT-HN). Performance Status Scale (PSS) and tongue mobility scale were completed to allow provider-rated assessment of speech and tongue mobility, respectively. Additional details regarding treatment were also collected. These data were used to generate a predictive model using linear regression. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients with oral tongue and/or floor of mouth (FOM) resection were included in our study. In multivariable analysis, greater postoperative tongue range of motion (ROM) and time since treatment improved SHI. Flap reconstruction and greater postoperative tongue ROM increased MDADI and PSS (eating and speech). A larger volume of resected tissue was inversely correlated with PSS (diet and speech). Tumor site was an important predictor of PSS (all sections). There were no statistically significant predictors of FACT-HN. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, we propose a battery of tools to assess function in OCC patients treated with surgery. Using the battery of tools we propose, our results show that a surgical endpoint that preserves tongue mobility and employs flap reconstruction resulted in better outcomes, whereas those with greater volume of tissue resected and FOM involvement resulted in poorer outcomes. Larger prospective studies are needed to validate our findings. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 131:2497-2504, 2021.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais/efeitos adversos , Distúrbios da Fala/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Deglutição/efeitos dos fármacos , Deglutição/efeitos da radiação , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/complicações , Projetos Piloto , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fala/efeitos dos fármacos , Fala/efeitos da radiação , Distúrbios da Fala/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Viral Immunol ; 34(6): 392-400, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566741

RESUMO

The staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are classified as superantigens due to their potent stimulation of the immune system resulting in T cell activation and prodigious cytokine production and toxicity. This study examined the ability of superantigens to induce prophylactic antiviral activity in vivo and in vitro and evaluated potential superantigen mimetic peptides. Prophylactic treatment of mice in vivo with intraperitoneal injections of SE superantigens SEA and SEB (both at 20 µg/day for 3 days) prevented encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV)-induced lethality in 100% and 80% of mice, respectively, as compared with control saline-treated groups in which EMCV was lethal to all mice. Furthermore, SEA (2 µg/mL) and SEB (1 µg/mL) induced antiviral activity in mouse splenocytes to produce an antiviral factor since their supernatant prevented EMCV lysis of L929 cells in tissue culture. It was found that superantigens do not directly prevent EMCV infection, but rather indirectly through inducing interferon gamma (IFNγ) production in cells as the antiviral factor. Evaluation of various superantigen mimetic peptides showed that one peptide (SEA3) had superantigen-like activity by inducing IFNγ production in cells but without the cellular proliferation, as associated with superantigens. However, the induction of IFNγ activation by the SEA3 peptide was not as pronounced, and took a much higher peptide concentration, when compared with the parent superantigen. If the negative side effects of superantigens can be eliminated, their beneficial properties can be harnessed for prophylactic treatment of viral infections and other pathologies requiring a robust immune response.

17.
Braz J Biol ; 81(2): 285-290, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901653

RESUMO

Synthetic androgens (male hormones) administered to fish nursery are being used in aquaculture to avoid sexual differentiation and unwanted spawning at the eggs or the first feeding fry stage of fish. Present trial was conducted with the aim to produce male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by egg immersion technique. Through this little insight, the effect of different hormone concentrations (17α-methyltestosterone @ HC:150, 300, 450 and 600 µgl-1) with immersion times (IT: 24, 48 and 72 hrs) and their interaction effect (HC x IT) on the hatching percentage of Cyprinus carpio eggs, percent survival and percent of male's production was evaluated specifically. Results showed that egg hatching percentage decreased with increased IT likewise, survival of treated fry was affected by increasing the IT (P<0.001). The main interaction effect of HC x IT showed that the highest percent of male individuals (95%) was obtained at 450-600 µgl-1 HC for 72 hrs IT, followed by 88-92.50% at 150-300 µgl-1 HC for 72-hrsof IT, 87.50% at 48-hrs of IT for rest of the hormone treatments, and lowest 47.50% was recorded in control (P<0.05). Increased percent male of Cyprinus carpio was obtained with increasing HC across all ITs. It was observed that the immersion treatment at 600µgl-1 for 72 hours was more effective to change the sex ratio of pre hatch Cyprinus carpio. A comparative outlook made from this experimental trial that sex induction of Cyprinus carpio by eggs immersion using synthetic male steroid hormone is an alternative safe technique of fish sex reversal in contrast to oral administration of hormone in fish feed.


Assuntos
Carpas , Androgênios/farmacologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Imersão , Masculino
18.
Laryngoscope ; 131(4): 782-787, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate the definition of a clear margin and the use of frozen section (FS) among practicing head and neck surgeons in oral cancer management. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: We designed a survey that was sent to American Head and Neck Society (AHNS) members via an email link. RESULTS: A total of 185 (13% of 1,392) AHNS members completed our survey. Most surgeons surveyed (96.8%) use FS to supplement oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma resections. Fifty-five percent prefer a specimen-based approach. The majority of respondents believe FS is efficacious in guiding re-resection of positive margins, with 81% considering the new margin to be negative. More than half of respondents defined a distance of >5 mm on microscopic examination as a negative margin. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid oral cancer resections that result in positive margins on final analysis, and thus the need for additional therapy, most surgeons surveyed use FS. A majority of surveyed surgeons now prefer a specimen-based approach to margin assessment. Although there is a debate on what constitutes a negative margin, most surgeons surveyed believe it to be >5 mm on microscopic examination. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:782-787, 2021.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Margens de Excisão , Neoplasias Bucais/cirurgia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Secções Congeladas , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
19.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 131(12): 2875-2886, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disrupts motoneurons that control movement and some vital functions, however, exact details of the neuronal circuits involved in ALS have yet to be fully endorsed. To contribute to our understanding of the responsible neuronal circuits, we aimed to investigate the spinal recurrent inhibition (RI) and post-activation depression (P-AD) in ALS patients. METHODS: In two groups of ALS patients, i.e. lumbar-affected (clinical signs in leg muscles) and nonlumbar-affected (clinical signs in arms or bulbar region but not in the legs), RI and P-AD on the soleus muscle were investigated using single motor units and amplitude changes of H-reflex in surface electromyography, respectively. The data were compared with healthy subjects. RESULTS: Compared to controls, P-AD of H-reflex was reduced severely in lumbar-affected patients and reduced to a certain degree in nonlumbar-affected patients. Similarly, a significant reduction in the duration of RI on firing motoneurons was found in lumbar-affected patients (11.5 ± 2.6 ms) but not in nonlumbar-affected patients (29.7 ± 12.4 ms, P < 0.0001) compared to controls (30.8 ± 7.2 ms, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The current study revealed that spinal inhibitory circuits are impaired in ALS. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings may provide insight for proposing new therapeutic approaches and following disease progression in humans.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Reflexo H/fisiologia , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Eletromiografia/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Depressão Sináptica de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
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