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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257070, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360228

RESUMO

Nanoparticles (NPs) are insoluble particles with a diameter of fewer than 100 nanometers. Two main methods have been utilized in orthodontic therapy to avoid microbial adherence or enamel demineralization. Certain NPs are included in orthodontic adhesives or acrylic resins (fluorohydroxyapatite, fluorapatite, hydroxyapatite, SiO2, TiO2, silver, nanofillers), and NPs (i.e., a thin layer of nitrogen-doped TiO2 on the bracket surfaces) are coated on the surfaces of orthodontic equipment. Although using NPs in orthodontics may open up modern facilities, prior research looked at antibacterial or physical characteristics for a limited period of time, ranging from one day to several weeks, and the limits of in vitro studies must be understood. The long-term effectiveness of nanotechnology-based orthodontic materials has not yet been conclusively confirmed and needs further study, as well as potential safety concerns (toxic effects) associated with NP size.


Nanopartículas (NPs) são partículas insolúveis com diâmetro inferior a 100 nanômetros. Dois métodos principais têm sido utilizados na terapia ortodôntica para evitar a aderência microbiana ou a desmineralização do esmalte: NPs são incluídas em adesivos ortodônticos ou resinas acrílicas (fluoro-hidroxiapatita, fluorapatita, hidroxiapatita, SiO2, TiO2, prata, nanopreenchimentos) e NPs são revestidas nas superfícies de equipamentos ortodônticos, ou seja, uma camada fina de TiO2 dopado com nitrogênio nas superfícies do braquete. Embora o uso de NPs em ortodontia possa tornar acessível modernos recursos, pesquisas anteriores analisaram as características antibacterianas ou físicas por um período limitado de tempo, variando de 24 horas a várias semanas, por isso devem ser compreendidos os limites dos estudos in vitro. A eficácia de longo prazo de materiais ortodônticos com base em nanotecnologia ainda não foi confirmada de forma conclusiva, o que exige mais estudos, bem como potenciais preocupações de segurança (efeitos tóxicos) associadas ao tamanho da NP.


Assuntos
Ortodontia , Desmineralização , Esmalte Dentário , Nanopartículas , Anti-Infecciosos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e263386, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1403863

RESUMO

Any solid, unprotected, and undefended surface in the aquatic environment will be fouled. Fouling, on the other hand, can affect a wide range of species that can tolerate some epibiosis. Several others, on the other hand, aggressively keep the epibionts off their body surface (antifouling). Antifouling defenses are built into marine plants like seaweed and seagrass. They do have a distinctive surface structure with tightly packed needle-like peaks and antifouling coverings, which may hinder settling bacteria's ability to cling. Chemical antifouling resistance is most probably a biological reaction to epibiosis' ecological drawbacks, especially for organisms capable of performing photosynthesis. The goal of this study was to see how effective natural compounds derived from littoral seaweeds were in preventing fouling. The brown mussel, an important fouling organism, was evaluated in laboratory bioassays against fifty-one populations' crude organic extracts including fort-two macroalgae species. Antifouling activity, exhibited a distinct phylogenetic pattern, with red macroalgae having the largest share of active species, subsequently brown macroalgae. Antifouling action in green seaweeds has never been significant. Seven species showed some level of induced antifouling defense. Our findings appear to back up previous findings about secondary metabolite synthesis in seaweeds, indicating that in the hunt for novel antifoulants, researchers should concentrate their efforts on tropical red macroalgae.


Resumo contaminada. A incrustação, por outro lado, pode afetar uma ampla gama de espécies que podem tolerar alguma epibiose. Vários outros, por outro lado, mantêm agressivamente os epibiontes fora de sua superfície corporal (anti-incrustante). As defesas anti-incrustantes são construídas em plantas marinhas como algas marinhas e ervas marinhas. Elas têm uma estrutura de superfície distinta com picos semelhantes a agulhas bem compactadas e coberturas anti-incrustantes, o que pode dificultar a capacidade de fixação das bactérias. A resistência química anti-incrustante é provavelmente uma reação biológica às desvantagens ecológicas da epibiose, especialmente para organismos capazes de realizar fotossíntese. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a eficácia dos compostos naturais derivados de algas marinhas do litoral na prevenção da incrustação. O mexilhão-marrom, importante organismo incrustante, foi avaliado em bioensaios de laboratório contra extratos orgânicos brutos de 51 populações, incluindo duas espécies de macroalgas. A atividade anti-incrustante exibiu um padrão filogenético distinto, com macroalgas vermelhas tendo a maior participação de espécies ativas, posteriormente macroalgas marrons. A ação anti-incrustante em algas verdes nunca foi significativa. Sete espécies apresentaram algum nível de defesa anti-incrustante induzida. Nossas descobertas parecem corroborar descobertas anteriores sobre a síntese de metabólitos secundários em algas marinhas, indicando que, na busca por novos anti-incrustantes, os pesquisadores devem concentrar seus esforços em macroalgas vermelhas tropicais.


Assuntos
Alga Marinha
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257021, 2024. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1384077

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to better understand the dynamics of crystallogenic and starting activity in biological fluids of patients throughout surgery and the late postoperative phase in alveococcosis. Samples of saliva from 22 individuals with alveococcosis were included in the research. Biological fluid samples were taken at the time of admission and before the patient was discharged. Following that, slides were made utilizing the teziocrystalloscopy method, which incorporates the investigation of the crystal forming activity of mixed saliva with its starting characteristics using a 0.9 percent sodium chloride solution as the foundation ingredient. Using our own set of criteria, we evaluated the outcomes of crystalloscopic and tezigraphic experiments. Specrophotometric examination of tezigraphic and crystalloscopic facies was done using a PowerWave XS microplate spectrophotometer at wavelengths of 400, 350, and 300 nm to augment the results from ocular morphometry of dried saliva micro slides. Surgical therapy results in a partial normalization of physical and chemical parameters, as well as the composition of the patient's biological fluids after the patient is discharged from the hospital.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender melhor a dinâmica da atividade cristalogênica e inicial nos fluidos biológicos dos pacientes durante a cirurgia e na fase pós-operatória tardia da alveococose. Amostras de saliva de 22 indivíduos com alveococose foram incluídas na pesquisa. Amostras de fluidos biológicos foram coletadas no momento da admissão e antes da alta do paciente. Em seguida, foram confeccionadas lâminas utilizando a técnica de teziocristaloscopia, que combina a investigação da atividade formadora de cristais da saliva mista com suas características iniciais, utilizando uma solução de cloreto de sódio a 0,9% como ingrediente-base. Usando nosso próprio conjunto de critérios, avaliamos os resultados de experimentos cristaloscópicos e tezigráficos. O exame espectrofotométrico da fácies tezigráfica e cristaloscópica foi feito usando um espectrofotômetro de microplaca PowerWave XS nos comprimentos de onda de 400, 350 e 300 nm para aumentar os resultados da morfometria ocular de microplacas de saliva seca. A terapia cirúrgica resulta na normalização parcial dos parâmetros físicos e químicos, bem como da composição dos fluidos biológicos do paciente, após a alta hospitalar.


Assuntos
Humanos , Saliva/fisiologia , Saliva/química , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Equinococose
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e260092, 2024. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374644

RESUMO

Ground beetles (Carabid beetles) may be found in virtually all of the world's habitats. They are one of the three most diverse families of extant beetles, with 34,275 species documented, and they serve as vital ecological markers in all environments. Edaphic living beetles catch and eat a wide variety of arthropods that live in the soil. In the case of weeds, most of the ground beetles eat their seeds and help regulate their populations. The findings of a field study in agrocenoses in South-East Kazakhstan from 2019 to 2020 are presented in this article. Twenty-seven ground beetle species from 9 genera were discovered as a consequence of the study. 670 soil traps yielded a total of 1012 beetles. Polytopic mesophilic beetles provide the foundation of the agrocenoses fauna. Hygrophils, mesophiles, and eurybionts are among the beetles found in irrigated areas, as are mixed and herbivorous species. The Carabidae family of beetles is the most numerous in fields and steppe settings. As a result, mixed-diet beetles can be found depending on the habitat and air temperature. The species of beetles in all fields in the investigation area are in accordance with the insects' complex. During the growth season, the diet of beetles shifts: predatory beetles take precedence initially, followed by mixed-diet beetles.


Os besouros terrestres (besouros carabídeos) podem ser encontrados em praticamente todos os hábitats do mundo. Eles são uma das três famílias mais diversas de besouros existentes, com 34.275 espécies documentadas, e servem como marcadores ecológicos vitais em todos os ambientes. Os besouros vivos edáficos capturam e comem uma grande variedade de artrópodes que vivem no solo. No caso de ervas daninhas, os besouros terrestres, em sua maioria, comem sementes delas e ajudam a regular suas populações. Os resultados do estudo de campo em agrocenoses no sudeste do Cazaquistão de 2019 a 2020 são apresentados neste artigo. Foram descobertas 27 espécies de besouros terrestres de 9 gêneros como consequência do estudo. As 670 armadilhas de solo renderam um total de 1.012 besouros. Besouros mesófilos politópicos fornecem a base para a fauna de agrocenoses. Higrófilos, mesófilos e euribiontes estão entre os besouros encontrados em áreas irrigadas, assim como espécies mistas e herbívoras. Em campos e estepes, a família Carabidae de besouros é a mais numerosa. Como resultado, dependendo do hábitat e da temperatura do ar, podem ser encontrados besouros de dieta mista. As espécies de besouros em todos os campos da área de investigação estão de acordo com o complexo dos insetos. Durante a estação de crescimento, a dieta dos besouros muda: os besouros predadores têm precedência, seguidos dos besouros de dieta mista.


Assuntos
Animais , População , Besouros , Cultivos Agrícolas , Meio Ambiente , Plantas Daninhas , Biodiversidade
5.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e263386, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350949

RESUMO

Any solid, unprotected, and undefended surface in the aquatic environment will be fouled. Fouling, on the other hand, can affect a wide range of species that can tolerate some epibiosis. Several others, on the other hand, aggressively keep the epibionts off their body surface (antifouling). Antifouling defenses are built into marine plants like seaweed and seagrass. They do have a distinctive surface structure with tightly packed needle-like peaks and antifouling coverings, which may hinder settling bacteria's ability to cling. Chemical antifouling resistance is most probably a biological reaction to epibiosis' ecological drawbacks, especially for organisms capable of performing photosynthesis. The goal of this study was to see how effective natural compounds derived from littoral seaweeds were in preventing fouling. The brown mussel, an important fouling organism, was evaluated in laboratory bioassays against fifty-one populations' crude organic extracts including fort-two macroalgae species. Antifouling activity, exhibited a distinct phylogenetic pattern, with red macroalgae having the largest share of active species, subsequently brown macroalgae. Antifouling action in green seaweeds has never been significant. Seven species showed some level of induced antifouling defense. Our findings appear to back up previous findings about secondary metabolite synthesis in seaweeds, indicating that in the hunt for novel antifoulants, researchers should concentrate their efforts on tropical red macroalgae.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Alga Marinha , Animais , Alga Marinha/química , Filogenia , Verduras
6.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260092, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674602

RESUMO

Ground beetles (Carabid beetles) may be found in virtually all of the world's habitats. They are one of the three most diverse families of extant beetles, with 34,275 species documented, and they serve as vital ecological markers in all environments. Edaphic living beetles catch and eat a wide variety of arthropods that live in the soil. In the case of weeds, most of the ground beetles eat their seeds and help regulate their populations. The findings of a field study in agrocenoses in South-East Kazakhstan from 2019 to 2020 are presented in this article. Twenty-seven ground beetle species from 9 genera were discovered as a consequence of the study. 670 soil traps yielded a total of 1012 beetles. Polytopic mesophilic beetles provide the foundation of the agrocenoses fauna. Hygrophils, mesophiles, and eurybionts are among the beetles found in irrigated areas, as are mixed and herbivorous species. The Carabidae family of beetles is the most numerous in fields and steppe settings. As a result, mixed-diet beetles can be found depending on the habitat and air temperature. The species of beetles in all fields in the investigation area are in accordance with the insects' complex. During the growth season, the diet of beetles shifts: predatory beetles take precedence initially, followed by mixed-diet beetles.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Besouros/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas , Cazaquistão , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Solo
7.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e257021, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703637

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to better understand the dynamics of crystallogenic and starting activity in biological fluids of patients throughout surgery and the late postoperative phase in alveococcosis. Samples of saliva from 22 individuals with alveococcosis were included in the research. Biological fluid samples were taken at the time of admission and before the patient was discharged. Following that, slides were made utilizing the teziocrystalloscopy method, which incorporates the investigation of the crystal forming activity of mixed saliva with its starting characteristics using a 0.9 percent sodium chloride solution as the foundation ingredient. Using our own set of criteria, we evaluated the outcomes of crystalloscopic and tezigraphic experiments. Specrophotometric examination of tezigraphic and crystalloscopic facies was done using a PowerWave XS microplate spectrophotometer at wavelengths of 400, 350, and 300 nm to augment the results from ocular morphometry of dried saliva micro slides. Surgical therapy results in a partial normalization of physical and chemical parameters, as well as the composition of the patient's biological fluids after the patient is discharged from the hospital.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Humanos , Saliva
8.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e257070, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35195179

RESUMO

Nanoparticles (NPs) are insoluble particles with a diameter of fewer than 100 nanometers. Two main methods have been utilized in orthodontic therapy to avoid microbial adherence or enamel demineralization. Certain NPs are included in orthodontic adhesives or acrylic resins (fluorohydroxyapatite, fluorapatite, hydroxyapatite, SiO2, TiO2, silver, nanofillers), and NPs (i.e., a thin layer of nitrogen-doped TiO2 on the bracket surfaces) are coated on the surfaces of orthodontic equipment. Although using NPs in orthodontics may open up modern facilities, prior research looked at antibacterial or physical characteristics for a limited period of time, ranging from one day to several weeks, and the limits of in vitro studies must be understood. The long-term effectiveness of nanotechnology-based orthodontic materials has not yet been conclusively confirmed and needs further study, as well as potential safety concerns (toxic effects) associated with NP size.


Assuntos
Braquetes Ortodônticos , Ortodontia , Antibacterianos , Braquetes Ortodônticos/microbiologia , Dióxido de Silício , Titânio
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