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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239991, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278503

RESUMO

Abstract High resistance to antimicrobials is associated with biofilm formation responsible for infectious microbes to withstand severe conditions. Therefore, new alternatives are necessary as biofilm inhibitors to control infections. In this study, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of Fagonia indica extracts were evaluated against MDR clinical isolates. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence and disintegration of bacterial cell wall. Fagonia indica has antibacterial effect as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 µg mL-1 and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was 500-3000 µg mL-1 against multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence and disintegration of bacterial cell wall. Fagonia indica had antibacterial effect as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 µg mL-1 and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was 500-3000 µg mL-1 against MDR isolates. The maximum inhibitory effects of Fagonia indica chloroform extract on biofilm formation was observed on Staphylococcus aureus (71.84%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (70.83%) after 48 hrs showing that inhibition is also time dependent. Our results about bacterial cell protein leakage indicated that MDR isolates treated with chloroform extract of Fagonia indica showed maximum protein leakage of K. pneumoniae (59.14 µg mL-1) followed by S. aureus (56.7 µg mL-1). Cell attachment assays indicated that chloroform extract resulted in a 43.5-53.5% inhibition of cell adherence to a polystyrene surface. Our results revealed that extracts of Fagonia indica significantly inhibited biofilm formation among MDR clinical isolates, therefore, could be applied as antimicrobial agents and cost effective biofilm inhibitor against these MDR isolates.


Resumo A alta resistência aos antimicrobianos está associada à formação de biofilme responsável por micróbios infecciosos para suportar condições severas. Portanto, novas alternativas são necessárias como inibidores de biofilme para controlar infecções. Neste estudo, as atividades antimicrobiana e antibiofilme dos extratos de Fagonia indica foram avaliadas contra isolados clínicos MDR. O extrato exibiu seu efeito antibiofilme ao alterar a aderência e a desintegração da parede celular bacteriana. Fagonia indica tem efeito antibacteriano com valores de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) variando de 125 a 500 µg mL-1, e valor de concentração bactericida mínima (MBC) de 500-3000 µg mL-1 contra isolados clínicos multirresistentes (MDR). O extrato exibiu seu efeito antibiofilme ao alterar a aderência e a desintegração da parede celular bacteriana. Fagonia indica teve efeito antibacteriano com valores de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) variando de 125 a 500 µg mL-1, e concentração bactericida mínima (MBC) de 500-3000 µg mL-1 contra isolados MDR. Os efeitos inibitórios máximos do extrato de clorofórmio Fagonia indica na formação de biofilme foi observada em Staphylococcus aureus (71,84%), seguido por Klebsiella pneumoniae (70,83%) após 48 horas, mostrando que a inibição também é dependente do tempo. Nossos resultados sobre extravasamento de proteínas de células bacterianas indicaram que isolados MDR tratados com extrato clorofórmico de Fagonia indica apresentaram vazamento máximo de proteínas de K. pneumoniae (59,14 µg mL-1), seguido por S. aureus (56,7 µg mL-1). Ensaios de fixação de células indicaram que o extrato de clorofórmio resultou em uma inibição de 43,5-53,5% da aderência das células a uma superfície de poliestireno. Nossos resultados revelaram que extratos de Fagonia indica inibiram significativamente a formação de biofilme entre isolados clínicos MDR, portanto, poderiam ser aplicados como agentes antimicrobianos e inibidores de biofilme de baixo custo contra esses isolados MDR.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e239991, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190801

RESUMO

High resistance to antimicrobials is associated with biofilm formation responsible for infectious microbes to withstand severe conditions. Therefore, new alternatives are necessary as biofilm inhibitors to control infections. In this study, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of Fagonia indica extracts were evaluated against MDR clinical isolates. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence and disintegration of bacterial cell wall. Fagonia indica has antibacterial effect as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 µg mL-1 and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was 500-3000 µg mL-1 against multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence and disintegration of bacterial cell wall. Fagonia indica had antibacterial effect as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 µg mL-1 and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was 500-3000 µg mL-1 against MDR isolates. The maximum inhibitory effects of Fagonia indica chloroform extract on biofilm formation was observed on Staphylococcus aureus (71.84%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (70.83%) after 48 hrs showing that inhibition is also time dependent. Our results about bacterial cell protein leakage indicated that MDR isolates treated with chloroform extract of Fagonia indica showed maximum protein leakage of K. pneumoniae (59.14 µg mL-1) followed by S. aureus (56.7 µg mL-1). Cell attachment assays indicated that chloroform extract resulted in a 43.5-53.5% inhibition of cell adherence to a polystyrene surface. Our results revealed that extracts of Fagonia indica significantly inhibited biofilm formation among MDR clinical isolates, therefore, could be applied as antimicrobial agents and cost effective biofilm inhibitor against these MDR isolates.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais , Staphylococcus aureus , Bactérias , Biofilmes , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
3.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(2): e1060, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare genetic disorder, which is characterized by hyper-sensitivity to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Clinical consequences of sun exposure are skin lesions and an increased risk of developing skin cancer. Genetic studies have identified eight genes associated with xeroderma pigmentosum. The proteins encoded by these genes are mainly involved in DNA repair mechanisms. METHODS: Molecular genetic characterization of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum involved positional cloning methods such as homozygosity mapping and subsequent candidate gene analysis. Mutation screening was performed through Sanger DNA sequencing. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In this case study, we report a novel protein truncating mutation in XPC associated with autosomal recessive xeroderma pigmentosum in a consanguineous Pakistani family. Genetic mapping revealed a novel single base insertion of a thymine nucleotide NM_004628.4: c.291dupT (c.291_292insT) in the second exon of XPC. The identified mutation leads to a premature stop codon (TGA) at amino acid position 98 (p.Asp98*) and thus presumably results in a truncated protein. The Xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group C (XPC) is located on 3p25.1 and encodes a protein involved in nucleotide excision repair. The identified mutation presumably truncates all functional domains of the XPC protein, which likely results in the loss of protein function. CONCLUSION: The study expands the knowledge of the mutational spectrum of XPC and is valuable for genetic counseling of affected individuals and their families.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Xeroderma Pigmentoso/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Xeroderma Pigmentoso/patologia
4.
HIV Res Clin Pract ; 20(1): 12-23, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303149

RESUMO

Background: Study retention is a major challenge in HIV clinical trials conducted with persons recruited from correctional facilities. Objective: To examine study retention in a trial of within-prison methadone initiation and a behavioral intervention among incarcerated men with HIV and opioid dependence in Malaysia. Methods: In this 2x2 factorial trial, 296 incarcerated men with HIV and opioid dependence were allocated to (1) an HIV risk reduction intervention, the Holistic Health Recovery Program for Malaysia (HHRP-M), (2) pre-release methadone initiation, (3) both interventions, or (4) standard care (NCT02396979). Here we estimate effects of these interventions on linkage to the study after prison release and completion of post-release study visits. Results: Most participants (68.9%) completed at least one post-release study visit but few (18.6%) completed all 12. HHRP-M was associated with a 13.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.8%, 23.2%) increased probability of completing at least one post-release study visit. Although not associated with initial linkage, methadone treatment was associated with an 11% (95% CI: 2.0%, 20.6%) increased probability of completing all twelve post-release study visits. Being subject to forced relocation outside Kuala Lumpur after prison release decreased retention by 43.3% (95% CI: -51.9%, -34.8%). Conclusion: Retaining study participants in HIV clinical trials following prison release is challenging and potentially related to the broader challenges that participants experience during community reentry. Researchers conducting clinical trials with this population may want to consider methadone and HHRP as means to improve post-release retention, even in clinical trials where these interventions are not being directly evaluated.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Retenção nos Cuidados/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Retenção nos Cuidados/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
EBioMedicine ; 39: 422-435, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progression of Alzheimer's disease is thought initially to depend on rising amyloidß and its synaptic interactions. Transgenic mice (TASTPM; APPSwe/PSEN1M146V) show altered synaptic transmission, compatible with increased physiological function of amyloidß, before plaques are detected. Recently, the importance of microglia has become apparent in the human disease. Similarly, TASTPM show a close association of plaque load with upregulated microglial genes. METHODS: CA1 synaptic transmission and plasticity were investigated using in vitro electrophysiology. Microglial relationship to plaques was examined with immunohistochemistry. Behaviour was assessed with a forced-alternation T-maze, open field, light/dark box and elevated plus maze. FINDINGS: The most striking finding is the increase in microglial numbers in TASTPM, which, like synaptic changes, begins before plaques are detected. Further increases and a reactive phenotype occur later, concurrent with development of larger plaques. Long-term potentiation is initially enhanced at pre-plaque stages but decrements with the initial appearance of plaques. Finally, despite altered plasticity, TASTPM have little cognitive deficit, even with a heavy plaque load, although they show altered non-cognitive behaviours. INTERPRETATION: The pre-plaque synaptic changes and microglial proliferation are presumably related to low, non-toxic amyloidß levels in the general neuropil and not directly associated with plaques. However, as plaques grow, microglia proliferate further, clustering around plaques and becoming phagocytic. Like in humans, even when plaque load is heavy, without development of neurofibrillary tangles and neurodegeneration, these alterations do not result in cognitive deficits. Behaviours are seen that could be consistent with pre-diagnosis changes in the human condition. FUNDING: GlaxoSmithKline; BBSRC; UCL; ARUK; MRC.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Cognição/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Microglia/fisiologia , Presenilina-1/genética , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hemizigoto , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microglia/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica
6.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 174(8): 839-845, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29031008

RESUMO

TRAPPC9 gene mutations have been linked recently to autosomal recessive mental retardation 13 (MRT13; MIM#613192) with only eight families reported world-wide. We assessed patients from two consanguineous pedigrees of Pakistani descent with non-syndromic intellectual disability and postnatal microcephaly through whole exome sequencing (WES) and cosegregation analysis. Here we report six further patients from two pedigrees with homozygous TRAPPC9 gene mutations, the novel nonsense mutation c.2065G>T (p.E689*) and the previously identified nonsense mutation c.1423C>T (p.R475*). We provide an overview of previously reported clinical features and highlight common symptoms and variability of MRT13. Common findings are intellectual disability and absent speech, and frequently microcephaly, motor delay and pathological findings on MRI including diminished cerebral white matter volume are present. Mutations in TRAPPC9 should be considered in non-syndromic autosomal recessive intellectual disability with severe speech disorder.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Exoma , Homozigoto , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Distúrbios da Fala/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Masculino , Microcefalia/complicações , Linhagem , Prognóstico , Distúrbios da Fala/complicações , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sci Rep ; 7: 44185, 2017 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28266639

RESUMO

Nonsyndromic oculocutaneous Albinism (nsOCA) is clinically characterized by the loss of pigmentation in the skin, hair, and iris. OCA is amongst the most common causes of vision impairment in children. To date, pathogenic variants in six genes have been identified in individuals with nsOCA. Here, we determined the identities, frequencies, and clinical consequences of OCA alleles in 94 previously unreported Pakistani families. Combination of Sanger and Exome sequencing revealed 38 alleles, including 22 novel variants, segregating with nsOCA phenotype in 80 families. Variants of TYR and OCA2 genes were the most common cause of nsOCA, occurring in 43 and 30 families, respectively. Twenty-two novel variants include nine missense, four splice site, two non-sense, one insertion and six gross deletions. In vitro studies revealed retention of OCA proteins harboring novel missense alleles in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of transfected cells. Exon-trapping assays with constructs containing splice site alleles revealed errors in splicing. As eight alleles account for approximately 56% (95% CI: 46.52-65.24%) of nsOCA cases, primarily enrolled from Punjab province of Pakistan, hierarchical strategies for variant detection would be feasible and cost-efficient genetic tests for OCA in families with similar origin. Thus, we developed Tetra-primer ARMS assays for rapid, reliable, reproducible and economical screening of most of these common alleles.


Assuntos
Albinismo Oculocutâneo/epidemiologia , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/genética , Alelos , Frequência do Gene , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia
8.
Appl Opt ; 55(29): 8256-8265, 2016 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27828071

RESUMO

This is an overview of the adaptive optics used in Advanced LIGO (aLIGO), known as the thermal compensation system (TCS). The TCS was designed to minimize thermally induced spatial distortions in the interferometer optical modes and to provide some correction for static curvature errors in the core optics of aLIGO. The TCS is comprised of ring heater actuators, spatially tunable CO2 laser projectors, and Hartmann wavefront sensors. The system meets the requirements of correcting for nominal distortion in aLIGO to a maximum residual error of 5.4 nm rms, weighted across the laser beam, for up to 125 W of laser input power into the interferometer.

9.
J Transl Med ; 14: 69, 2016 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26956626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proteasome inhibitors are attractive cancer therapeutic agents because they can regulate apoptosis-related proteins. Bortezomib also known as Velcade(®), a proteasome inhibitor that has been approved by the food and drug administration for treatment of patients with multiple myeloma, and many clinical trials are ongoing to examine to the efficacy of bortezomib for the treatment of other malignancies. Bortezomib has been shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit cell growth of many cancer cells. In current study, we determine whether bortezomib induces cell death/apoptosis in CML. METHODS: Cell viability was measured using MTT assays. Apoptosis was measured by annexin V/PI dual staining and DNA fragmentation assays. Immunoblotting was performed to examine the expression of proteins. Colony assays were performed using methylcellulose. RESULTS: Treatment of CML cells with bortezomib results in downregulation of S-phase kinase protein 2 (SKP2) and concomitant stabilization of the expression of p27Kip1. Furthermore, knockdown of SKP2 with small interference RNA specific for SKP2 caused accumulation of p27Kip1. CML cells exposed to bortezomib leads to conformational changes in Bax protein, resulting in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and leakage of cytochrome c to the cytosol. In the cytosol, cytochrome c causes sequential activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, PARP cleavage and apoptosis. Pretreatment of CML cells with a universal inhibitor of caspases, z-VAD-fmk, prevents bortezomib-mediated apoptosis. Our data also demonstrated that bortezomib treatment of CML downregulates the expression of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins. Finally, inhibition of proteasome pathways by bortezomib suppresses colony formation ability of CML cells. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, these findings suggest that bortezomib suppresses the cell proliferation via induction of apoptosis in CML cells by downregulation of SKP2 with concomitant accumulation of p27Kip1, suggesting that proteasomal pathway may form novel therapeutic targets for better management of CML.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bortezomib/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Proteínas Quinases Associadas a Fase S/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Caspases/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Proteínas Ubiquitinadas/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 87(1): 014502, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26827334

RESUMO

The advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics subsystem is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article, we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they have lived up to their design.

11.
Cell Rep ; 10(4): 633-44, 2015 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25620700

RESUMO

We provide microarray data comparing genome-wide differential expression and pathology throughout life in four lines of "amyloid" transgenic mice (mutant human APP, PSEN1, or APP/PSEN1) and "TAU" transgenic mice (mutant human MAPT gene). Microarray data were validated by qPCR and by comparison to human studies, including genome-wide association study (GWAS) hits. Immune gene expression correlated tightly with plaques whereas synaptic genes correlated negatively with neurofibrillary tangles. Network analysis of immune gene modules revealed six hub genes in hippocampus of amyloid mice, four in common with cortex. The hippocampal network in TAU mice was similar except that Trem2 had hub status only in amyloid mice. The cortical network of TAU mice was entirely different with more hub genes and few in common with the other networks, suggesting reasons for specificity of cortical dysfunction in FTDP17. This Resource opens up many areas for investigation. All data are available and searchable at http://www.mouseac.org.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Placa Amiloide/genética , Proteínas tau/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Demência/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Placa Amiloide/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
12.
Hum Mol Genet ; 23(22): 5940-9, 2014 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24951542

RESUMO

Asymmetric cell division is essential for normal human brain development. Mutations in several genes encoding centrosomal proteins that participate in accurate cell division have been reported to cause autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH). By homozygosity mapping including three affected individuals from a consanguineous MCPH family from Pakistan, we delineated a critical region of 18.53 Mb on Chromosome 1p21.3-1p13.1. This region contains the gene encoding HsSAS-6, a centrosomal protein primordial for seeding the formation of new centrioles during the cell cycle. Both next-generation and Sanger sequencing revealed a homozygous c.185T>C missense mutation in the HsSAS-6 gene, resulting in a p.Ile62Thr substitution within a highly conserved region of the PISA domain of HsSAS-6. This variant is neither present in any single-nucleotide polymorphism or exome sequencing databases nor in a Pakistani control cohort. Experiments in tissue culture cells revealed that the Ile62Thr mutant of HsSAS-6 is substantially less efficient than the wild-type protein in sustaining centriole formation. Together, our findings demonstrate a dramatic impact of the mutation p.Ile62Thr on HsSAS-6 function and add this component to the list of genes mutated in primary microcephaly.


Assuntos
/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/química , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exoma , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Microcefalia/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Paquistão , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Alinhamento de Sequência
13.
Appl Opt ; 52(26): 6452-7, 2013 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24085119

RESUMO

A method for active control of the spatial profile of a laser beam using adaptive thermal lensing is described. A segmented electrical heater was used to generate thermal gradients across a transmissive optical element, resulting in a controllable thermal lens. The segmented heater also allows the generation of cylindrical lenses, and provides the capability to steer the beam in both horizontal and vertical planes. Using this device as an actuator, a feedback control loop was developed to stabilize the beam size and position.

14.
Med J Malaysia ; 67(1): 45-51, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22582548

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a rare biliary tract epithelial malignancy. We described the clinical features of CCA patients in our institution. A 10-year retrospective study of patients with cholangiocarcinoma in University Malaya Medical Centre was conducted. Clinical data and outcomes in relation to the three anatomical groups of CCA were collected and analysed. Of the 69 patients that were included 55% were male. Mean age was 61 years. Twelve (17%) had intrahepatic, 38 (55%) perihilar and 19 (28%) distal tumour. Mean age (p=0.043), median duration of symptoms (p=0.011), jaundice (p<0.001), total bilirubin level (p=0.003), INR (p=0.005) and mean tumour size (p=0.048) were significantly related to the site of tumour. Only 12 patients had curative resection with seven R0 resections. Cholangiocarcinoma is increasingly diagnosed in our population. Despite that, the diagnosis is still often late. Age, jaundice and tumour size may predict anatomical location of CCA.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Colangiocarcinoma/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 83(3): 033109, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22462908

RESUMO

We present the design and performance of the LIGO Input Optics subsystem as implemented for the sixth science run of the LIGO interferometers. The Initial LIGO Input Optics experienced thermal side effects when operating with 7 W input power. We designed, built, and implemented improved versions of the Input Optics for Enhanced LIGO, an incremental upgrade to the Initial LIGO interferometers, designed to run with 30 W input power. At four times the power of Initial LIGO, the Enhanced LIGO Input Optics demonstrated improved performance including better optical isolation, less thermal drift, minimal thermal lensing, and higher optical efficiency. The success of the Input Optics design fosters confidence for its ability to perform well in Advanced LIGO.

16.
J Bone Joint Surg Br ; 93(4): 464-9, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21464483

RESUMO

This prospective study assessed the effect of social deprivation on the Oxford hip score at one year after total hip replacement. An analysis of 1312 patients undergoing 1359 primary total hip replacements for symptomatic osteoarthritis was performed over a 35-month period. Social deprivation was assessed using the Carstairs index. Those patients who were most deprived underwent surgery at an earlier age (p = 0.04), had more comorbidities (p = 0.02), increased severity of symptoms at presentation (p = 0.001), and were not as satisfied with their outcome (p = 0.03) compared with more affluent patients. There was a significant improvement in Oxford scores at 12 months relative to pre-operative scores for all socioeconomic categories (p < 0.001). Social deprivation was a significant independent predictor of mean improvement in Oxford scores at 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables (p = 0.001). Deprivation was also associated with an increased risk of dislocation (odds ratio 5.3, p < 0.001) and mortality at 90 days (odds ratio 3.2, p = 0.02). Outcome, risk of dislocation and early mortality after a total hip replacement are affected by the socioeconomic status of the patient.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/reabilitação , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril/psicologia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Opt Express ; 18(3): 2767-81, 2010 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20174106

RESUMO

We present an experimental demonstration of adaptive control of modal properties of optical beams. The control is achieved via heat-induced photothermal actuation of transmissive optical elements. We apply the heat using four electrical heaters in thermal contact with the element. The system is capable of controlling both symmetrical and astigmatic aberrations providing a powerful means for in situ correction and control of thermal aberrations in high power laser systems. We demonstrate a tunable lens with a focusing power varying from minus infinity to -10 m along two axes using SF57 optical glass. Applications of the proposed system include laser material processing, thermal compensation of high laser power radiation, and optical beam steering.

18.
Opt Express ; 17(4): 2149-65, 2009 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19219119

RESUMO

Marginally stable power recycling cavities are being used by nearly all interferometric gravitational wave detectors.With stability factors very close to unity the frequency separation of the higher order optical modes is smaller than the cavity bandwidth. As a consequence these higher order modes will resonate inside the cavity distorting the spatial mode of the interferometer control sidebands. Without losing generality we study and compare two designs of stable power recycling cavities for the proposed 5 kilometer long Australian International Gravitational Observatory (AIGO), a high power advanced interferometric gravitational wave detector. The length of various optical cavities that form the interferometer and the modulation frequencies that generate the control sidebands are also selected.


Assuntos
Gravitação , Interferometria/instrumentação , Transdutores , Austrália , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Opt Express ; 17(21): 19181-9, 2009 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20372655

RESUMO

Gaussian beam propagation is well described by the q-parameter and the ABCD matrices. A variety of ABCD matrices are available that represent commonly occurring scenarios/components in optics. One important phenomenon that has not been studied in detail is the interference of two optical beams with different q-parameters undergoing interference. In this paper, we describe the effect of interference of two Gaussian beams. We derive an ABCD matrix for the addition of two beams that takes into account both the amplitude and phase difference between two beams. This ABCD matrix will help greatly in determining the propagation of beams inside complex interferometers and finding the solutions for the coupled cavity Eigenmodes.

20.
Opt Express ; 16(14): 10018-32, 2008 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18607409

RESUMO

The current LIGO detectors will undergo an upgrade which is expected to improve their sensitivity and bandwidth significantly. These advanced gravitational-wave detectors will employ stable recycling cavities to better confine their spatial eigenmodes instead of the currently installed marginally stable power recycling cavity. In this letter we describe the general layout of the recycling cavities and give specific values for a first possible design. We also address the issue of mode mismatch due to manufacturing tolerance of optical elements and present a passive compensation scheme based upon optimizing the distances between optical elements.


Assuntos
Interferometria/instrumentação , Óptica e Fotônica , Eletrônica , Desenho de Equipamento , Interferometria/métodos , Modelos Estatísticos , Modelos Teóricos , Transdutores
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