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1.
Diabetes Care ; 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015860

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Health-related expenditures resulting from diabetes are rising in the U.S. Medication nonadherence is associated with worse health outcomes among adults with diabetes. We sought to examine the extent of reported cost-related medication nonadherence (CRN) in individuals with diabetes in the U.S. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied adults age ≥18 years with self-reported diabetes from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (2013-2018), a U.S. nationally representative survey. Adults reporting skipping doses, taking less medication, or delaying filling a prescription to save money in the past year were considered to have experienced CRN. The weighted prevalence of CRN was estimated overall and by age subgroups (<65 and ≥65 years). Logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic characteristics independently associated with CRN. RESULTS: Of the 20,326 NHIS participants with diabetes, 17.6% (weighted 2.3 million) of those age <65 years reported CRN, compared with 6.9% (weighted 0.7 million) among those age ≥65 years. Financial hardship from medical bills, lack of insurance, low income, high comorbidity burden, and female sex were independently associated with CRN across age groups. Lack of insurance, duration of diabetes, current smoking, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were associated with higher odds of reporting CRN among the nonelderly but not among the elderly. Among the elderly, insulin use significantly increased the odds of reporting CRN (odds ratio 1.51; 95% CI 1.18, 1.92). CONCLUSIONS: In the U.S., one in six nonelderly and one in 14 elderly adults with diabetes reported CRN. Removing financial barriers to accessing medications may improve medication adherence among these patients, with the potential to improve their outcomes.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(2): e022837, 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014862

RESUMO

Background Suboptimal cardiovascular health (CVH) and social determinants of health (SDOH) have a significant impact on maternal morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the association of SDOH with suboptimal CVH among pregnant women in the United States. Methods and Results We examined cross-sectional data of pregnant women aged 18 to 49 years from the National Health Interview Survey (2013-2017). We ascertained optimal and suboptimal CVH based on the presence of 0 to 1 and ≥2 risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, current smoking, obesity, and insufficient physical activity), respectively. We calculated an aggregate SDOH score representing 38 variables from 6 domains (economic stability; neighborhood, physical environment, and social cohesion; community and social context; food; education; and healthcare system) and divided into quartiles. We used Poisson regression model to evaluate the association of SDOH with suboptimal CVH and risk factors. Our study included 1433 pregnant women (28.8±5.5 years, 13% non-Hispanic Black). Overall, 38.4% (95% CI, 33.9-43.0) had suboptimal CVH versus 51.7% (95% CI, 47.0-56.3) among those in the fourth SDOH quartile. Risk ratios of suboptimal CVH, smoking, obesity, and insufficient physical activity were 2.05 (95% CI, 1.46-2.88), 8.37 (95% CI, 3.00-23.43), 1.54 (95% CI, 1.17-2.03), and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.01-1.42), respectively among those in the fourth SDOH quartile compared with the first quartile. Conclusions Over 50% of pregnant women with the highest SDOH burden had suboptimal CVH, highlighting the public health urgency for interventions in socially disadvantaged pregnant women with renewed strategies toward improving modifiable risk factors, especially smoking and insufficient physical activity.

4.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 15(1): e007917, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35041484

RESUMO

Health care in the United States has seen many great innovations and successes in the past decades. However, to this day, the color of a person's skin determines-to a considerable degree-his/her prospects of wellness; risk of disease, and death; and the quality of care received. Disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD)-the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally-are one of the starkest reminders of social injustices, and racial inequities, which continue to plague our society. People of color-including Black, Hispanic, American Indian, Asian, and others-experience varying degrees of social disadvantage that puts these groups at increased risk of CVD and poor disease outcomes, including mortality. Racial/ethnic disparities in CVD, while documented extensively, have not been examined from a broad, upstream, social determinants of health lens. In this review, we apply a comprehensive social determinants of health framework to better understand how structural racism increases individual and cumulative social determinants of health burden for historically underserved racial and ethnic groups, and increases their risk of CVD. We analyze the link between race, racism, and CVD, including major pathways and structural barriers to cardiovascular health, using 5 distinct social determinants of health domains: economic stability; neighborhood and physical environment; education; community and social context; and healthcare system. We conclude with a set of research and policy recommendations to inform future work in the field, and move a step closer to health equity.

5.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; : 101102, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35041866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial ischemia is a known complication of HCM. Contemporary outcomes and care processes after STEMI are extensively examined; however, there are limited data on outcomes and revascularization strategies of HCM patients with STEMI. METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample 2004-2018 was queried to identify adult patients presenting with a primary diagnosis of STEMI, of whom a subset of patients with concomitant diagnosis of HCM were identified. Complex samples multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to determine the association of HCM with in-hospital outcomes. HCM patients with STEMI who were revascularized were compared with their counterparts who were not revascularized. RESULTS: Of 3,049,068 primary STEMI hospitalizations, 2,583 (0.8%) had an associated diagnosis of HCM. HCM patients were more likely to be elderly and female with less traditional cardiovascular risk factors compared to those without HCM. HCM patients were less likely to receive revascularization compared to those without HCM. STEMI with HCM was associated with similar in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82-1.44; P=0.561) compared to those without HCM. Notably, HCM patients who were revascularized had similar in-hospital mortality (aOR 0.69; 95% CI 0.36-1.33; P=0.266) compared to HCM patients who did not receive revascularization. CONCLUSION: Despite lower rates of revascularization, STEMI in patients with HCM is associated with similar in-hospital mortality compared to those without HCM.

6.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 2022 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The exponential growth in CT utilization in emergency department (ED) until 2008 raised concerns regarding cost and radiation exposure. Head CT was one of the commonest studies. This led to mitigating efforts such as appropriate use guidelines, policy and payment reforms. The impact of these efforts is not fully understood. In addition, disparities in outcomes of acute conditions presenting to the ED is well known however recent trends in imaging utilization patterns and disparities are not well understood. In this study, we describe nationwide trends and disparities associated with head CT in ED settings between 2007 and 2014. METHODS: We analyzed 2007-2017 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) with the primary goal to assess the rate and patterns of head CT imaging in ED. RESULTS: There were an estimated 117 million in 2007 and 139 million ED visits in 2017. There was a 4% increase in the any CT use in 2017 compared to 2007. No significant change in head CT utilization rate was seen. The 2007 head CT rate was 6.7% (95% CI: 6.1-7.3) compared to 7.7% (95% CI: 6.8-8.6) in 2017. Trauma, Headache and Dizziness are the top three indications for head CT use in the ED respectively. On adjusted analyses, significantly higher head CT utilization was seen in elderly, (age>65 yrs) and significantly lower utilization rate was seen in Non-Hispanic Black and Medicaid patients, and patients in rural locations. CONCLUSIONS: Previously reported exponential growth of CT use in ED is no longer seen. In particular, there was no significant change in ED head CT use between 2007 and 2017. Headache and Dizziness remain commonly used indications despite limited utility in most clinical scenarios, indicating continued need for appropriate use of imaging. There is significantly lower CT utilization in Non-Hispanic Black, Medicaid patients and those in rural locations, suggesting disparities in diagnostic work-up in marginalized and rural populations. This underscores the need for standardizing care regardless of race, insurance status and location.

7.
Am J Prev Cardiol ; 9: 100312, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35024678

RESUMO

Background: Middle Eastern (ME) immigrants are one of the fastest-growing groups in the US. Although ME countries have a high burden of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), the cardiovascular health status among ME immigrants in the US has not been studied in detail. This study aims to characterize the cardiovascular health status (CVD risk factors and ASCVD burden) among ME immigrants in the US. Methods: We used 2012-2018 data from the National Health Interview Survey, a US nationally representative survey. ME origin, CVD risk factors, and ASCVD status were self-reported. We compared these to US-born non-Hispanic white (NHW) individuals in the US. Results: Among 139,778 adults included, 886 (representing 1.3 million individuals, mean age 46.8) were of ME origin, and 138,892 were US-born NHWs (representing 150 million US adults, mean age 49.3). ME participants were more likely to have higher education, lower income and be uninsured. The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension (22.4% vs 27.4%) and obesity (21.4% vs 31.4%) were significantly lower in ME vs NHW participants, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups in the age-adjusted prevalence of ASCVD, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and smoking. Only insufficient physical activity was higher among ME individuals. ME immigrants living in the US for 10 years or more reported higher age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and ASCVD. Conclusions: ME immigrants in the US have lower odds of hypertension and obesity, and of having a suboptimal CRF profile compared to US-born NHWs. Further studies are needed to determine whether these findings are related to lower risk, selection of a healthier ME subgroup in NHIS, or possible under-detection of cardiovascular risk factors in ME immigrants living in the US.

8.
Am J Prev Cardiol ; 9: 100303, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988538

RESUMO

Food insecurity (FI) - a state of limited access to nutritionally adequate food - is notably more prominent among patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) than the general population. Current research suggests that FI increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality through various behavioral and biological pathways. Importantly, FI is more prevalent among low-income households and disproportionately affects households with children, particularly those led by single mothers. These disparities necessitate solutions specifically geared towards helping these high-risk subgroups, who also experience increased risk of CVD associated with FI. Further, individuals with CVD may experience increased risk of FI due to the financial burden imposed by CVD care. While participation in federal aid programs like the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children has been associated with cardiovascular health benefits, residual FI and lower dietary quality among many families suggest a need for better outreach and expanded public assistance programs. Healthcare systems and community organizations can play a vital role in screening individuals for FI and connecting them with food and educational resources. While further research is needed to evaluate sociodemographic differences in the FI-CVD relationship, interventions at the policy, health system, and community levels can help address both the burden of FI and its impacts on cardiovascular health.

9.
Am Heart J ; 243: 54-65, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587511

RESUMO

The Food and Drug Administration recommends prognostic enrichment of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), aimed at restricting the study population to participants most likely to have events and therefore derive benefit from a given intervention. The coronary artery calcium (CAC) score is powerful discriminator of cardiovascular risk, and in this review we discuss how CAC may be used to augment widely used prognostic enrichment paradigms of RCTs of add-on therapies in primary prevention. We describe recent studies in this space, with special attention to the ability of CAC to further stratify risk among guideline-recommended candidates for add-on risk-reduction therapies. Given the potential benefits in terms of sample size, cost reduction, and overall RCT feasibility of a CAC-based enrichment strategy, we discuss approaches that may help maximize its advantages while minimizing logistical barriers and other challenges. Specifically, use of already existing CAC data to avoid the need to re-scan participants with previously documented high CAC scores, use of increasingly available, large clinical CAC databases to facilitate the identification of potential RCT participants, and implementation of machine learning approaches to measure CAC in existing computed tomography images performed for other purposes, will most likely boost the implementation of a CAC-based enrichment paradigm in future RCTs.

10.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(Suppl 1): S91-S100, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797266

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Income and health insurance are important social determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and may explain much racial/ethnic variation in CVD burden. However, racial/ethnic disparities in cumulative cardiometabolic (CMB) risk profile by insurance type and income level have not been studied on a national scale. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that racial/ethnic minorities experience greater CMB burden at each income level and insurance type than non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). SETTING: This study used nationally representative data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). DESIGN: Observational (cross-sectional). PARTICIPANTS: In total, 134661 (weighted N = 197780611) adults, 18 years or older, from the 2013-2017 NHIS. PRIMARY OUTCOME: CMB risk profile. INTERVENTION/ANALYSIS: Age-adjusted prevalence of optimal, average, and poor CMB risk profile-defined respectively as self-report of 0, 1-2, and 3 or more risk factors of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, or hypercholesterolemia-was examined for NHW, non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB), and Hispanics. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression models were used to test the association between race and ethnicity and CMB profile overall and separately by household income level and insurance type. RESULTS: Overall, 15% of NHB and 11% of Hispanics experienced poor CMB risk profile, compared with 9% for NHW. In fully adjusted models, NHB and Hispanics, respectively had nearly 25%-90% and 10%-30% increased odds of poor CMB profile across insurance types and 45%-60% and 15%-30% increased odds of poor CMB profile across income levels, relative to NHW. The observed disparities were widest for the Medicare group (NHB: OR = 1.90; Hispanics: OR = 1.31) and highest-income level (NHB: OR = 1.62). CONCLUSIONS: Racial/ethnic minorities experience poor CMB profile at each level of income and insurance. These findings point to the need for greater investigation of unmeasured determinants of minority cardiovascular (CV) health, including structural racism and implicit bias in CV care.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(1): e021682, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935456

RESUMO

Background Evaluating premature (<65 years of age) mortality because of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by demographic and regional characteristics may inform public health interventions. Methods and Results We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's WONDER (Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research) death certificate database to examine premature (<65 years of age) age-adjusted AMI mortality rates per 100 000 and average annual percentage change from 1999 to 2019. Overall, the age-adjusted AMI mortality rate was 13.4 (95% CI, 13.3-13.5). Middle-aged adults, men, non-Hispanic Black adults, and rural counties had higher mortality than young adults, women, NH White adults, and urban counties, respectively. Between 1999 and 2019, the age-adjusted AMI mortality rate decreased at an average annual percentage change of -3.4 per year (95% CI, -3.6 to -3.3), with the average annual percentage change showing higher decline in age-adjusted AMI mortality rates among large (-4.2 per year [95% CI, -4.4 to -4.0]), and medium/small metros (-3.3 per year [95% CI, -3.5 to -3.1]) than rural counties (-2.4 per year [95% CI, -2.8 to -1.9]). Age-adjusted AMI mortality rates >90th percentile were distributed in the Southern states, and those with mortality <10th percentile were clustered in the Western and Northeastern states. After an initial decline between 1999 and 2011 (-4.3 per year [95% CI, -4.6 to -4.1]), the average annual percentage change showed deceleration in mortality since 2011 (-2.1 per year [95% CI, -2.4 to -1.8]). These trends were consistent across both sexes, all ethnicities and races, and urban/rural counties. Conclusions During the past 20 years, decline in premature AMI mortality has slowed down in the United States since 2011, with considerable heterogeneity across demographic groups, states, and urbanicity. Systemic efforts are mandated to address cardiovascular health disparities and outcomes among nonelderly adults.

12.
Am J Prev Cardiol ; 8: 100281, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34877558

RESUMO

Importance: Shared decision-making (SDM), one of the pillars of patient centered care is strongly encouraged and has been incorporated into the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) but the expansion of its use has been limited. Objective: To determine the association of SDM on patient-reported health status, measures of quality of care, healthcare resource utilization, and healthcare spending among US adults with ASCVD. Method: This is a retrospective cohort study in an ambulatory setting, utilizing the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) 2006-2015. Analysis completed in December 2020. Participants included were adults 18 years and over with a diagnosis of ASCVD. We used the average weighted response to self-administered questionnaire evaluating shared-decision-making process as the exposure variable in the regression model. Outcome measures included inpatient hospitalizations, Emergency Department (ED) visits, statin and aspirin use, self-perception of health, and healthcare expenditure. Results: When compared with individuals reporting poor SDM, those with optimal SDM were more likely to report statin and aspirin use [statin use, Odds Ratio (OR) 1.26 (95% CI, 1.09-1.46)], [aspirin use, 1.25 (1.07-1.45)], more likely to have a positive perception of their health and healthcare related quality of life, and were less likely to visit the ED [OR for ≥ 2 ED visits: 0.81 (0.67-0.99)]. There was no difference between groups in annual total or out of pocket healthcare expenditure. Conclusion: This study suggests that effective SDM is associated with better utilization of healthcare resources and patient reported health outcomes. We hope these results could provide useful evidence for expanding the use of SDM in patient-centered care among individuals with ASCVD.

13.
Circulation ; 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879218

RESUMO

Background: The 2018 American Heart Association/ American College of Cardiology Multisociety (AHA/ACC/MS) cholesterol guideline states that statin therapy may be withheld or delayed among intermediate risk individuals in the absence of coronary artery calcium (CAC=0). We evaluated whether traditional cardiovascular risk factors are associated with incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events among individuals with CAC=0 over long-term follow-up. Methods: We included participants with CAC=0 at baseline from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a prospective cohort study of individuals free of clinical ASCVD at baseline. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models to study the association between cardiovascular risk factors [cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, preventive medication use (aspirin and statin), family history of premature ASCVD, chronic kidney disease, waist circumference, lipid and inflammatory markers] and adjudicated incident ASCVD outcomes. Results: We studied 3,416 individuals (mean (SD) age 58 (9) years; 63% were female, 33% White, 31% Black, 12% Chinese-American, and 24% Hispanic. Over a median follow-up of 16 years, there were 189 ASCVD events (composite of CHD and stroke) of which 91 were CHD, 88 were stroke, and 10 were both CHD and stroke events. The unadjusted event rates of ASCVD were ≤5 per 1000-person-years among individuals with CAC=0 for most risk factors with the exception of current cigarette smoking (7.3), diabetes mellitus (8.9), hypertension (5.4), and chronic kidney disease (6.8). After multivariable-adjustment, risk factors that were significantly associated with ASCVD: hazard ratio (HR) 95% confidence interval (CI) included current cigarette smoking: 2.12 (1.32,3.42), diabetes mellitus: 1.68 (1.01,2.80), and hypertension: 1.57 (1.06,2.33). Conclusions: Current cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension are independently associated with incident ASCVD over 16-year follow-up among those with CAC=0. Family history of premature ASCVD may be associated with ASCVD risk among women only.

14.
Am Heart J ; 245: 60-69, 2021 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), barriers related to transportation may impair access to care, with potential implications for prognosis. Although few studies have explored transportation barriers among patients with ASCVD, the correlates of delayed care due to transportation barriers have not been examined in this population. We aimed to examine this in U.S. patients with ASCVD using nationally representative data. METHODS: Using data from the 2009-2018 National Health Interview Survey, we estimated the self-reported prevalence of delayed medical care due to transportation barriers among adults with ASCVD, overall and by sociodemographic characteristics. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between various sociodemographic characteristics and delayed care due to transportation barriers. RESULTS: Among adults with ASCVD, 4.5% (95% CI; 4.2, 4.8) or ∼876,000 annually reported delayed care due to transportation barriers. Income (low-income: odds ratio [OR] 4.43, 95% CI [3.04, 6.46]; lowest-income: OR 6.35, 95% CI [4.36, 9.23]) and Medicaid insurance (OR 4.53; 95% CI [3.27, 6.29]) were strongly associated with delayed care due to transportation barriers. Additionally, younger individuals, women, non-Hispanic Black adults, and those from the U.S. South or Midwest, had higher odds of reporting delayed care due to transportation barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 5% of adults with ASCVD experience delayed care due to transportation barriers. Vulnerable groups include young adults, women, low-income people, and those with public/no insurance. Future studies should analyze the feasibility and potential benefits of interventions such as use of telehealth, mobile clinics, and provision of transportation among patients with ASCVD in the U.S.

15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2139564, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928357

RESUMO

Importance: Preeclampsia is an independent risk factor for future cardiovascular disease and disproportionally affects non-Hispanic Black women. The association of maternal nativity and duration of US residence with preeclampsia and other cardiovascular risk factors is well described among non-Hispanic Black women but not among women of other racial and ethnic groups. Objective: To examine differences in cardiovascular risk factors and preeclampsia prevalence by race and ethnicity, nativity, and duration of US residence among Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic White women. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional analysis of the Boston Birth Cohort included a racially diverse cohort of women who had singleton deliveries at the Boston Medical Center from October 1, 1998, to February 15, 2016. Participants self-identified as Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, or non-Hispanic White. Data were analyzed from March 1 to March 31, 2021. Exposures: Maternal nativity and duration of US residence (<10 vs ≥10 years) were self-reported. Main Outcome and Measures: Diagnosis of preeclampsia, the outcome of interest, was retrieved from maternal medical records. Results: A total of 6096 women (2400 Hispanic, 2699 non-Hispanic Black, and 997 non-Hispanic White) with a mean (SD) age of 27.5 (6.3) years were included in the study sample. Compared with Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women, non-Hispanic Black women had the highest prevalence of chronic hypertension (204 of 2699 [7.5%] vs 65 of 2400 [2.7%] and 28 of 997 [2.8%], respectively), obesity (658 of 2699 [24.4%] vs 380 of 2400 [15.8%] and 152 of 997 [15.2%], respectively), and preeclampsia (297 of 2699 [11.0%] vs 212 of 2400 [8.8%] and 71 of 997 [7.1%], respectively). Compared with their counterparts born outside the US, US-born women in all 3 racial and ethnic groups had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity (Hispanic women, 132 of 556 [23.7%] vs 248 of 1844 [13.4%]; non-Hispanic Black women, 444 of 1607 [27.6%] vs 214 of 1092 [19.6%]; non-Hispanic White women, 132 of 776 [17.0%] vs 20 of 221 [9.0%]), smoking (Hispanic women, 98 of 556 [17.6%] vs 30 of 1844 [1.6%]; non-Hispanic Black women, 330 of 1607 [20.5%] vs 53 of 1092 [4.9%]; non-Hispanic White women, 382 of 776 [49.2%] vs 42 of 221 [19.0%]), and severe stress (Hispanic women, 76 of 556 [13.7%] vs 85 of 1844 [4.6%]; non-Hispanic Black women, 231 of 1607 [14.4%] vs 120 of 1092 [11.0%]; non-Hispanic White women, 164 of 776 [21.1%] vs 26 of 221 [11.8%]). After adjusting for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors, birth status outside the US (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.74 [95% CI, 0.55-1.00]) and shorter duration of US residence (aOR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.41-0.93]) were associated with lower odds of preeclampsia among non-Hispanic Black women. However, among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women, maternal nativity (aOR for Hispanic women, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.72-1.60]; aOR for non-Hispanic White women, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.49-1.96]) and duration of US residence (aOR for Hispanic women <10 years, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.67-1.59]; aOR for non-Hispanic White women <10 years, 1.20 [95% CI, 0.48-3.02]) were not associated with preeclampsia. Conclusions and Relevance: Nativity-related disparities in preeclampsia persisted among non-Hispanic Black women but not among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women after adjusting for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Further research is needed to explore the interplay of factors contributing to nativity-related disparities in preeclampsia, particularly among non-Hispanic Black women.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etnologia , Adulto , Boston/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Gravidez , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922873

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we sought to evaluate whether the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score can enhance current paradigms for risk stratification among individuals with hypertriglyceridemia in primary prevention. The eligibility criteria for icosapent ethyl (IPE) were used as case example. BACKGROUND: Recent trials of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk-reduction therapies for individuals with hypertriglyceridemia without clinical ASCVD restricted enrollment to participants with diabetes or various other risk factors. These criteria were mirrored in the Food and Drug Administration product label for IPE. METHODS: We pooled 2,345 participants with triglycerides 150 to <500 mg/dL (or >178-<500 mg/dL if not on a statin) and without clinical ASCVD from MESA, CARDIA, the Dallas Heart Study, and the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. We evaluated the incidence of ASCVD events overall, by IPE eligibility (as defined in the product label), and further stratified by CAC scores (0, >0-100, >100). The number needed to treat for 5 years (NNT5) to prevent 1 event was estimated among IPE-eligible participants, assuming a 21.8% relative risk reduction with IPE. In exploratory analyses, the NNT5 was also estimated among noneligible participants. RESULTS: There was marked heterogeneity in CAC burden overall (45% CAC 0; 24% CAC >100) and across IPE eligibility strata. Overall, 17% of participants were eligible for IPE and 11.9% had ASCVD events within 5 years. Among participants eligible for IPE, 38% had CAC >100, and their event rates were markedly higher (15.9% vs 7.2%) and the NNT5 2.2-fold lower (29 vs 64) than those of the 25% eligible participants with CAC 0. Among the 83% participants not eligible for IPE, 20% had CAC >100, their 5-year incidence of ASCVD (13.9%) was higher than the overall incidence among IPE-eligible participants. CONCLUSIONS: CAC can improve current risk stratification and therapy allocation paradigms among individuals with hypertriglyceridemia without clinical ASCVD. Future trials of risk-reduction therapies in hypertriglyceridemia could use CAC >100 to enroll a high-risk study sample, with implications for a larger target population.

17.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; : 101070, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical and economic burden of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in young adults (<45 years) is understudied. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used the National Inpatient Sample database between 2004 and 2018 to study trends in PCI volume, in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and health care expenditure among adults aged 18- 44 years who underwent PCI. The data were weighted to explore national estimates of the entire US hospitalized population. We identified 558,611 PCI cases, equivalent to 31.4 per 1,000,000 person-years; 25.4% were women, and 69.5% were White adults. Overall, annual PCI volume significantly decreased from 41.6 per 100,000 in 2004 to 21.9 per 100,000 in 2018, mainly due to 83% volume reduction in non-myocardial infarction (MI) cases. The prevalence of cardiometabolic comorbidities, smoking, and drug abuse increased. Overall, in-hospital mortality was 0.87%; women had higher mortality than men (1.12% vs. 0.78%; P=0.01). The crude and risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality significantly increased between 2004 and 2018. Women, STEMI, NSTEMI, drug abuse, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, and renal failure were associated with higher odds of in-hospital mortality. Inflation-adjusted cost significantly increased over time ($21,567 to $24,173). CONCLUSION: We noted reduction in PCI volumes but increasing mortality and clinical comorbidities among young patients undergoing PCI. Demographic disparities existed with women having higher in-hospital mortality than men.

19.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 17(4): 15-27, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824678

RESUMO

Disease prevention frameworks and clinical practice guidelines in the United States (US) have traditionally ignored upstream social determinants of health (SDOH), which are critical for reducing disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD)-the leading cause of death in the US. Existing evidence demonstrates a protective effect of social support, social cohesion, and community engagement on overall health and wellbeing. Increasing community and social support is a major objective of the Healthy People 2030 initiative, with special provisions for vulnerable populations. However, to date, existing evidence of the association between community and social context (CSC)-an integral SDOH domain-and CVD has not been reviewed extensively. In particular, the individual and cumulative impact of CSC on CVD risk and the pathways linking CSC to cardiovascular outcomes are not well understood. In this review, we critically appraise current knowledge of the association between CSC and CVD, describe potential pathways linking CSC to CVD, and identify opportunities for evidence-based policy and practice interventions to improve CVD outcomes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis
20.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 17(4): 79-86, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824684

RESUMO

Compelling results from clinical trials supporting intensive risk-reduction therapies to reduce associated morbidity and mortality in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) provided the impetus for medical societies to integrate these evidence-based results into clinical practice guidelines. Current evidence, however, points toward gaps in the management of patients with established ASCVD. Some of these gaps are related to barriers to guideline implementation, and strategies are needed to overcome these barriers. In this review, we propose a framework incorporating comprehensive tools for enhanced guideline-directed management in secondary prevention of ASCVD. This aid includes a 13-point checklist with supporting educational and system-based tools for effective evidence-based pharmacological and nonpharmacological care. This proposed tool targets primary care providers and cardiologists in the outpatient setting who provide direct medical care for patients with established ASCVD.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Lista de Checagem , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Prevenção Secundária
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