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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256923, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360219

RESUMO

Abstract Naturally occurring mutations in morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are associated with decreased ovulation rate (OR), litter size (LS), and sterility. It is of a great interest to elucidate BMP15 gene in Cholistani sheep breed to uplift socio-economic status and the knowledge of Cholistani sheep breeding in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. In our study, a total of 50 infertile Cholistani sheep aged between 2-6 years and having no blood relation were screened for BMP15 mutations. For this purpose, a high-quality DNA was extracted from the blood of sheep followed by primer designing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification, DNA sequencing, and in silico analyses. Out of total 50 samples, 9 samples including case 1 (T3), case 2 (T8), case 3 (T17), case 4 (T22), case 5 (T25), case 6 (T33), case 7 (T40), case 8 (T44), and case 9 (T47) were found positive for a variety of already reported and novel BMP15 mutations. Further in silico analyses of the observed mutations have shown the functional impact of these mutations on different characteristics (molecular weight, theoretical PI, estimated half-life, instability index, sub-cellular localization, and 3D confirmation) of the encoded proteins, possibly altering the normal functionality. In a nutshell, findings of this study have confirmed the possible essential role of the BMP15 mutations in the infertility of the Cholistani sheep.


Resumo Mutações de ocorrência natural na proteína morfogenética 15 (BMP15) estão associadas à diminuição da taxa de ovulação (TO), tamanho da ninhada (TN) e esterilidade. Estudar a BMP15 na raça Cholistani para elevar o status socioeconômico e o conhecimento da criação de ovinos Cholistani no sul de Punjab, Paquistão. Em nosso estudo, 50 ovelhas Cholistani inférteis sem parentesco sanguíneo foram rastreadas para mutações BMP15. Para tanto, um DNA de alta qualidade foi extraído do sangue dessas ovelhas, seguido de concepção do primer, amplificação da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), sequenciamento de DNA e análises in silico. Do total de 50 amostras, 9, incluindo caso 1 (T3), caso 2 (T8), caso 3 (T17), caso 4 (T22), caso 5 (T25), caso 6 (T33), caso 7 (T40), caso 8 (T44) e caso 9 (T47), foram consideradas positivas para uma variedade de mutações BMP15 novas e já relatadas. Mais análises in silico das mutações observadas mostraram o impacto funcional dessas mutações em diferentes características (peso molecular, PI teórico, meia-vida estimada, índice de instabilidade, localização subcelular e confirmação 3D) das proteínas codificadas, possivelmente alterando a funcionalidade normal. Nossos achados confirmaram o possível papel essencial das mutações BMP15 na infertilidade de ovelhas Cholistani.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245585, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339413

RESUMO

Abstract Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Resumo Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados ​​para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S rRNA. Finalmente, os isolados foram identificados como B. cereus número de acesso LC538271 e K. pneumoniae número de acesso MT078679. A análise do extrato bacteriano S20 por meio de GC-MS indicou a presença de oito compostos de natureza e estrutura diversas. O presente estudo sugere que resíduos da indústria farmacêutica e de ração para aves podem conter bactérias produtoras de antibióticos. Essas bactérias podem ser utilizadas para a produção de antibióticos B. cereus e K. pneumoniae isolados de resíduos de rações de aves e indústrias farmacêuticas têm potencial para produzir antibióticos e podem ser usados ​​para controlar o crescimento microbiano.


Assuntos
Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Resíduos Industriais , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Extratos Vegetais , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Escherichia coli , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248420, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339367

RESUMO

Abstract Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.


Resumo Muito pouco se sabe sobre a malacofauna no distrito de Swat, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, situada na parte norte do Paquistão. O vale do Swat possui uma variedade de condições ambientais adequadas, proporcionando diferentes tipos de habitats para a flora e a fauna. Levando em consideração esses pontos, o presente estudo foi conduzido para explorar a diversidade dos caracóis terrestres em campos agrícolas e não agrícolas no vale inferior de Swat. Um total de 417 conchas foram coletadas em três locais: Kokarai, Kanju Township e Deolai. Com base em características concológicas, três famílias: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae e Zonitidae foram identificadas usando diferentes chaves de caramujos terrestres. Em Kokarai e Deolai, conchas de membros de todas as famílias mencionadas acima foram encontradas em campos agrícolas. No município de Kanju, foram encontradas conchas de membros da família Bradybaenidae e Zonitidae. A partir dessas constatações, concluiu-se que o distrito de Swat possui uma malacofauna significativa que antes era inexplorada e ajudava mais a literatura existente sobre a malacofauna. Também apoia a ideia de que o agroecossistema é rico em diversidade de espécies. Recomenda-se a realização de um estudo mais aprofundado e extenso para uma taxonomia detalhada das famílias de gastrópodes terrestres descritas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Agricultura , Paquistão , Caramujos
4.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-5, 2023. mapas, tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765499

RESUMO

Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.(AU)


Muito pouco se sabe sobre a malacofauna no distrito de Swat, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, situada na parte norte do Paquistão. O vale do Swat possui uma variedade de condições ambientais adequadas, proporcionando diferentes tipos de habitats para a flora e a fauna. Levando em consideração esses pontos, o presente estudo foi conduzido para explorar a diversidade dos caracóis terrestres em campos agrícolas e não agrícolas no vale inferior de Swat. Um total de 417 conchas foram coletadas em três locais: Kokarai, Kanju Township e Deolai. Com base em características concológicas, três famílias: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae e Zonitidae foram identificadas usando diferentes chaves de caramujos terrestres. Em Kokarai e Deolai, conchas de membros de todas as famílias mencionadas acima foram encontradas em campos agrícolas. No município de Kanju, foram encontradas conchas de membros da família Bradybaenidae e Zonitidae. A partir dessas constatações, concluiu-se que o distrito de Swat possui uma malacofauna significativa que antes era inexplorada e ajudava mais a literatura existente sobre a malacofauna. Também apoia a ideia de que o agroecossistema é rico em diversidade de espécies. Recomenda-se a realização de um estudo mais aprofundado e extenso para uma taxonomia detalhada das famílias de gastrópodes terrestres descritas.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Caramujos/classificação , Biodiversidade
5.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-9, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765492

RESUMO

Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence [...].(AU)


Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S [...].(AU)


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Klebsiella/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus cereus/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/síntese química
6.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-6, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765469

RESUMO

A ninety days nutritional trial was directed to explore the effects of dietary chromium on body composition, gut enzyme activity and physiological status of Cirrhinus mrigala by using G & NG corn. Six experimental diets were prepared by using different levels of chromium chloride hexahydrate (0, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg, each with G & NG corn). For this experimental trial, 480 fingerlings, irrespective of sex were distributed in six aquariums each with replicate. Results revealed that gelatinized corn along with increasing level of Cr2Cl3.6H2O have a positive impact upon body composition of fish. Hematology was positively correlated with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation in gelatinized corn. Amylase gut enzyme also showed significant (P<0.05) increase in group fed with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplemented diet (G corn). However, corn with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation did not revealed any significant impact on gut protease enzyme activity. From these results it can be concluded that both chromium chloride hexahydrate and gelatinized corn in fish feed are very beneficial to improve body composition, enzymes activity and physiological health status of fish.(AU)


Um ensaio nutricional de 90 dias foi dirigido para explorar os efeitos do cromo dietético na composição corporal, atividade enzimática intestinal e estado fisiológico de Cirrhinus mrigala usando milho G & NG. Seis dietas experimentais foram preparadas usando diferentes níveis de cloreto de cromo hexa-hidratado (0, 0,2, 0,4 mg/kg, cada um com milho G e NG). Para este ensaio experimental, 480 alevinos, independentemente do sexo, foram distribuídos em seis aquários, cada um com réplicas. Os resultados revelaram que o milho gelatinizado, juntamente com o aumento do nível de Cr2Cl3.6H2O, tem um impacto positivo na composição corporal dos peixes. A hematologia foi positivamente correlacionada com a suplementação de cloreto de cromo hexa-hidratado em milho gelatinizado. A enzima amilase intestinal também apresentou aumento significativo (P <0,05) no grupo alimentado com dieta suplementada com cloreto de cromo hexa-hidratado (milho G). No entanto, o milho com suplementação de hexahidrato de cloreto de cromo não revelou nenhum impacto significativo na atividade da enzima protease intestinal. Desses resultados, pode-se concluir que tanto o cloreto de cromo hexa-hidratado quanto o milho gelatinizado na alimentação de peixes são muito benéficos para melhorar a composição corporal, a atividade de enzimas e o estado fisiológico de saúde dos peixes.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cyprinidae/sangue , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Cromo/administração & dosagem , Zea mays , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem
7.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e252526, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416847

RESUMO

Acacia modesta (AM) and Opuntia monocantha (OM) are distributed in Pakistan, Afghanistan and India. Both of these plants have different pharmacological properties. This study was designed to evaluate anticancer potential of Acacia modesta (AM) and Opuntia monocantha (OM). Liver cancer cell line HepG2 was used for assessment of anticancer activity. For the evaluation of anti-proliferative effects, cell viability and cell death in all groups of cells were evaluated via MTT, crystal violet and trypan blue assays. For the evaluation of apoptosis ELISA of p53 performed. Furthermore, LDH assay to find out the ability of malignant cells to metabolize pyruvate to lactate and antioxidant enzymes activity (GSH, CAT and SOD) at the end HPLC was performed to find active compound of AM and OM. Cytotoxicity (MTT), Viability assays (trypan blue, crystal viability, MUSE analysis) showed more dead, less live cells in plant treated groups with increase of concentration. Scratch assay for the anti-migratory effect of these plants showed treated groups have not ability to heal scratch/wound. ELISA of p53 for cellular apoptosis showed more release of p53 in treated groups. Antioxidant assay via glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) showed less anti-oxidative potential in treated cancer groups. LDH assay showed more lactate dehydrogenase release in treated groups compared with untreated. HPLC analysis showed the presence of phytochemicals such as steroids, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinone and amino acids in AM and OM plant extracts. Based on all these findings, it can be concluded that ethanolic extracts of Acacia modesta and Opuntia monocantha have promising anti-cancer potential.


Assuntos
Acacia , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Opuntia , Extratos Vegetais , Acacia/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Opuntia/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Azul Tripano , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53
8.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(8)2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35448732

RESUMO

There is an urgent need for innovative strategies to raise the performance of environmentally stressed plants. The seeds of single-cross yellow Zea mays (L.) hybrid Giza-168 were soaked in Cis-(c-Z-Ck) or trans-zeatin-type cytokinin (t-Z-Ck) solutions at a concentration of 50 or 40 µM, respectively. Salinity stress was imposed at 0, 75 or 150 mM NaCl in the Hoagland nutrient solution (full strength) used for irrigation. The total carotenoids content was negatively affected by only 150 mM NaCl, while both 75 and 150 mM NaCl negatively affected the growth and yield components, relative water content, membrane stability index, photochemical activity, gas exchange, K+ and chlorophyll contents, K+/Na+ ratio, and photosynthetic efficiency. However, all of these traits were significantly improved by c-Z-Ck pretreatment and further enhanced by t-Z-Ck pretreatment compared with the corresponding controls. Furthermore, the contents of proline, soluble sugars, ascorbate, and glutathione, as well as enzymatic antioxidant activities, were significantly elevated by both salt stress concentrations and increased more by both biostimulators compared to the control. Compared to c-Z-Ck, t-Z-Ck was superior in mitigating the harmful effects of the high H2O2 levels caused by salt stress on the levels of malondialdehyde and ion leakage compared to the control. Under normal or stress conditions, t-Z-Ck pretreatment was better than c-Z-Ck pretreatment, while both positively affected maize hormonal contents. As a result, t-Z-Ck is recommended to enhance the growth and productivity of maize plants by suppressing the effects of oxidative stress caused by saline water irrigation.

9.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260355, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475994

RESUMO

Bioaccumulation of toxic heavy metals in the human body can give rise to adverse health effects, the severity of which depends upon their dosage and duration of exposure. In this study, yearlings of two different species of edible fish, i.e., Tor putitora (Mahseer) and Ctenopharyngodon Idella (grass carp), were exposed to different concentrations of lead nitrate in a controlled environment of aquarium for three different lengths of duration (14, 28, and 60 days). The bioaccumulation of lead in different organs, including gills, skin, muscles, liver, intestine, and swim bladder of the fish, was assessed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Generally, the highest lead concentration was observed in the gills and lowest in the muscles for both species at each experimental dosage and duration. In 14-days exposure, the relative pattern of bioaccumulation in different organs was observed as gill > liver > skin > intestine > swim bladder > muscle for both fish species. Similarly, the pattern of bioaccumulation observed in 28-days exposure was as: gill > liver > intestine > skin > swim bladder > muscle in both species. Whereas, pattern in 60-days exposure was observed as gill > liver > intestine > swim bladder > muscle > skin. The data shows that grass carp had stored higher concentrations of lead than Mahseer, which may be attributed to the fact that they are omnivorous. Furthermore, the lowest bioaccumulation was recorded in the muscles until the 56th day of the exposure, after which the concentration steadily increased in the muscles. The observed pattern highlights the importance of exposure's duration to lead; chronic exposure could result in its bioaccumulation at toxic concentrations in the muscles, which is particularly of concern because the fish muscles are heavily consumed as food worldwide.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chumbo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e256923, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137843

RESUMO

Naturally occurring mutations in morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are associated with decreased ovulation rate (OR), litter size (LS), and sterility. It is of a great interest to elucidate BMP15 gene in Cholistani sheep breed to uplift socio-economic status and the knowledge of Cholistani sheep breeding in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. In our study, a total of 50 infertile Cholistani sheep aged between 2-6 years and having no blood relation were screened for BMP15 mutations. For this purpose, a high-quality DNA was extracted from the blood of sheep followed by primer designing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification, DNA sequencing, and in silico analyses. Out of total 50 samples, 9 samples including case 1 (T3), case 2 (T8), case 3 (T17), case 4 (T22), case 5 (T25), case 6 (T33), case 7 (T40), case 8 (T44), and case 9 (T47) were found positive for a variety of already reported and novel BMP15 mutations. Further in silico analyses of the observed mutations have shown the functional impact of these mutations on different characteristics (molecular weight, theoretical PI, estimated half-life, instability index, sub-cellular localization, and 3D confirmation) of the encoded proteins, possibly altering the normal functionality. In a nutshell, findings of this study have confirmed the possible essential role of the BMP15 mutations in the infertility of the Cholistani sheep.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 15 , Infertilidade , Ovinos , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 15/genética , Feminino , Infertilidade/veterinária , Mutação , Ovulação , Paquistão , Ovinos/genética
12.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 18(1): 181-191, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270409

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The aim of the Improving CPAP Adherence Program was to assess the impact of a multidimensional treatment framework based on shared decision-making, patient activation, and caregiver engagement on improving long-term positive airway pressure (PAP) adherence in patients newly diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea. METHODS: In this pilot study, patients aged ≥ 18 years with a new obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis who qualified for PAP treatment and lived with a caregiver were randomly assigned to receive either the multidimensional treatment (intervention, n = 28) or unrelated education (control group, n = 32). All patients and their caregiver participated in a group visit. The intervention group attended 4 structured sessions: interactive education, peer coaching, hands-on experience, and a semistructured motivational interview. The control group was educated on physical activity and lifestyle only. Objective PAP adherence data were obtained at baseline (day that they received PAP machine to group visit), group visit to 3 months, and 3-6 months. RESULTS: In an age-adjusted model, the mean daily use of PAP increased significantly over the 3 time periods (P = .03). Intervention-arm participants gained a mean 1.23 hours (95% confidence interval, 0.33-2.13) in PAP mean daily use between 3 and 6 months vs those in the control arm (P = .008). We saw no difference in the percentage of PAP adherence across time between the 2 arms. CONCLUSIONS: A multifaceted patient-centered intervention with caregiver engagement improved PAP adherence vs control levels, a beneficial effect sustained for the 6 months. Our findings suggest that caregivers, with the appropriate training, can improve patients' PAP adherence by providing a socially supportive environment. CITATION: Khan NNS, Todem D, Bottu S, Badr MS, Olomu A. Impact of patient and family engagement in improving continuous positive airway pressure adherence in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Sleep Med. 2022;18(1):181-191.


Assuntos
Entrevista Motivacional , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Adolescente , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Humanos , Cooperação do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia
13.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 82: 1-7, 2022. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-31329

RESUMO

Optimum planting arrangement is an important attribute for efficient utilization of available resources and to obtain high yield of cotton. Application of plant growth promoter and retardant on cotton in improved planting density are the innovative techniques in the establishment of more productive cotton crop. Therefore, we planned a field study to assess the role of bio-stimulant and growth retardant in the resource utilization efficiency of cotton cultivars planted under variable row spacing at Agronomic Research Area Bahauddin Zakariya University and Usmania Agricultural Farm Shujabad during Kharif 2012. Experimental treatments consisted of cotton genotypes viz. CIM-573 and CIM-598, cultivated under conventional (75 cm), medium (50 cm) and ultra-narrow row spacing (25 cm) with foliar spray of bio-stimulant (moringa leaf extract) and growth retardant (mepiquate chloride), either sole or in combination, keeping distilled water as a control. Exogenously applied MLE alone and MLE + MC significantly enhanced the number of squares, flowers and green bolls per plant leading to higher cotton seed and lint yield of CIM 598 cultivar cultivated under conventional row spacing. While application of MC alone and MLE + MC produced maximum micronaire value, fiber strength and fiber uniformity ratio of CIM 573 cultivar cultivated under conventional row spacing. The results suggested that application of MLE is a possible approach to enhance the cotton productivity and the use of MC to enhance the fiber quality attributes under conventional row spacing.(AU)


A configuração ideal de plantio é um atributo importante para a utilização eficiente dos recursos disponíveis e para obter alto rendimento de algodão. A aplicação de promotores de crescimento de plantas e reguladores de crescimento no algodão em uma densidade de plantio adequada são técnicas inovadoras na obtenção de safras de algodão mais produtivas. Portanto, foi planejado um estudo de campo para avaliar o papel de um bioestimulante e um regulador de crescimento na eficiência da utilização de recursos de cultivares de algodão plantadas com espaçamento variável entre linhas na Área de Pesquisa Agronômica Universidade Bahauddin Zakariya e Usmania Agricultural Farm Shujabad durante Kharif 2012. Os tratamentos experimentais consistiram em genótipos de algodão viz. CIM-573 e CIM-598, cultivadas sob espaçamento convencional (75 cm), médio (50 cm) e ultraestreito (25 cm) e pulverização foliar de bioestimulante (extrato de folha de moringa) e regulador de crescimento (cloreto de mepiquato)), sozinho ou combinado, mantendo a água destilada como controle. O MLE aplicado exogenamente sozinho e o MLE + MC aumentaram significativamente o número de quadrados, flores e cápsulas verdes por planta, levando a um maior rendimento de sementes e fibra de algodão da cultivar CIM 598 cultivada sob espaçamento convencional entre fileiras. Enquanto a aplicação de MC sozinho e MLE + MC produziu valor máximo de micronaire, resistência da fibra e razão de uniformidade da fibra da cultivar CIM 573 cultivada sob espaçamento convencional entre linhas. Os resultados sugeriram que a aplicação do MLE é uma abordagem possível para aumentar a produtividade do algodão e o uso de MC para aprimorar os atributos de qualidade da fibra no espaçamento convencional entre linhas.(AU)


Assuntos
Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas
14.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 82: 1-9, 2022. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-33135

RESUMO

Water stress is one of the major factor restricting the growth and development of chickpea plants by inducing various morphological and physiological changes. Therefore, the present research activity was designed to improve the chickpea productivity under water stress conditions by modulating antioxidant enzyme system. Experimental treatments comprised of two chickpea genotypes i.e. Bhakhar 2011 (drought tolerant) and DUSHT (drought sensitive), two water stress levels i.e. water stress at flowering stage and water stress at flowering + pod formation + grain filling stage including well watered (control) and three exogenous application of nutrients i.e. KCl 200 ppm, MgCl2, 50 ppm and CaCl2, 10 mM including distilled water (control). Results indicated that water stress at various growth stages adversely affects the growth, yield and quality attributes of both chickpea cultivars. Exogenous application of nutrients improved the growth, yield and antioxidant enzyme activities of both chickpea genotypes even under water stress conditions. However, superior results were obtained with foliar spray of potassium chloride on Bhakhar 2011 under well-watered conditions. Similarly, foliar spray of potassium chloride on chickpea cultivar Bhakhar 2011 cultivated under stress at flowering + pod formation + grain filling stage produced significantly higher contents of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase. These results suggests that the application of potassium chloride mitigates the adverse effects of water stress and enhanced tolerance in chickpea mainly due to higher antioxidant enzymes activity, demonstrating the protective measures of plant cells in stress conditions.(AU)


O estresse hídrico é um dos principais fatores que restringem o crescimento e o desenvolvimento das plantas de grão-de-bico, induzindo várias alterações morfológicas e fisiológicas. Portanto, a presente atividade de pesquisa foi projetada para melhorar a produtividade do grão-de-bico em condições de estresse hídrico, por meio da modulação do sistema de enzimas antioxidantes. Tratamentos experimentais compostos de dois genótipos de grão-de-bico, ou seja, Bhakhar 2011 (tolerante à seca) e DUSHT (sensível à seca), dois níveis de estresse hídrico, ou seja, estresse hídrico na fase de floração e estresse hídrico na floração + formação de vagens + estágio de enchimento de grãos incluindo bem irrigado (controle) e três aplicações exógenas de nutrientes, ou seja, KCl 200 ppm, MgCl2 50 ppm e CaCl2 10 mM, incluindo água destilada (controle). Os resultados indicaram que o estresse hídrico em vários estágios de crescimento afeta negativamente os atributos de crescimento, rendimento e qualidade de ambas as cultivares de grão-de-bico. A aplicação exógena de nutrientes melhorou o crescimento, o rendimento e as atividades das enzimas antioxidantes de ambos os genótipos de grão-de-bico, mesmo em condições de estresse hídrico. No entanto, resultados superiores foram obtidos com pulverização foliar de cloreto de potássio em Bhakhar 2011, em condições bem irrigadas. Da mesma forma, a pulverização foliar de cloreto de potássio na cultivar de grão-de-bico Bhakhar 2011 cultivada sob estresse na fase de floração + formação de vagens + enchimento de grãos produziu teores significativamente maiores de superóxido dismutase, peroxidase e catalase. Esses resultados sugerem que a aplicação de cloreto de potássio atenua os efeitos adversos do estresse hídrico e aumenta a tolerância no grão-de-bico, principalmente em razão de mais atividade de enzimas antioxidantes, demonstrando as medidas protetoras das células vegetais em condições de estresse.(AU)


Assuntos
Cicer/enzimologia , Cicer/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cicer/anatomia & histologia , Cicer/fisiologia , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Potássio/administração & dosagem , Desidratação
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238812, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278475

RESUMO

Abstract Optimum planting arrangement is an important attribute for efficient utilization of available resources and to obtain high yield of cotton. Application of plant growth promoter and retardant on cotton in improved planting density are the innovative techniques in the establishment of more productive cotton crop. Therefore, we planned a field study to assess the role of bio-stimulant and growth retardant in the resource utilization efficiency of cotton cultivars planted under variable row spacing at Agronomic Research Area Bahauddin Zakariya University and Usmania Agricultural Farm Shujabad during Kharif 2012. Experimental treatments consisted of cotton genotypes viz. CIM-573 and CIM-598, cultivated under conventional (75 cm), medium (50 cm) and ultra-narrow row spacing (25 cm) with foliar spray of bio-stimulant (moringa leaf extract) and growth retardant (mepiquate chloride), either sole or in combination, keeping distilled water as a control. Exogenously applied MLE alone and MLE + MC significantly enhanced the number of squares, flowers and green bolls per plant leading to higher cotton seed and lint yield of CIM 598 cultivar cultivated under conventional row spacing. While application of MC alone and MLE + MC produced maximum micronaire value, fiber strength and fiber uniformity ratio of CIM 573 cultivar cultivated under conventional row spacing. The results suggested that application of MLE is a possible approach to enhance the cotton productivity and the use of MC to enhance the fiber quality attributes under conventional row spacing.


Resumo A configuração ideal de plantio é um atributo importante para a utilização eficiente dos recursos disponíveis e para obter alto rendimento de algodão. A aplicação de promotores de crescimento de plantas e reguladores de crescimento no algodão em uma densidade de plantio adequada são técnicas inovadoras na obtenção de safras de algodão mais produtivas. Portanto, foi planejado um estudo de campo para avaliar o papel de um bioestimulante e um regulador de crescimento na eficiência da utilização de recursos de cultivares de algodão plantadas com espaçamento variável entre linhas na Área de Pesquisa Agronômica Universidade Bahauddin Zakariya e Usmania Agricultural Farm Shujabad durante Kharif 2012. Os tratamentos experimentais consistiram em genótipos de algodão viz. CIM-573 e CIM-598, cultivadas sob espaçamento convencional (75 cm), médio (50 cm) e ultraestreito (25 cm) e pulverização foliar de bioestimulante (extrato de folha de moringa) e regulador de crescimento (cloreto de mepiquato)), sozinho ou combinado, mantendo a água destilada como controle. O MLE aplicado exogenamente sozinho e o MLE + MC aumentaram significativamente o número de quadrados, flores e cápsulas verdes por planta, levando a um maior rendimento de sementes e fibra de algodão da cultivar CIM 598 cultivada sob espaçamento convencional entre fileiras. Enquanto a aplicação de MC sozinho e MLE + MC produziu valor máximo de micronaire, resistência da fibra e razão de uniformidade da fibra da cultivar CIM 573 cultivada sob espaçamento convencional entre linhas. Os resultados sugeriram que a aplicação do MLE é uma abordagem possível para aumentar a produtividade do algodão e o uso de MC para aprimorar os atributos de qualidade da fibra no espaçamento convencional entre linhas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Água , Agricultura , Flores
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236251, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249267

RESUMO

Abstract Water stress is one of the major factor restricting the growth and development of chickpea plants by inducing various morphological and physiological changes. Therefore, the present research activity was designed to improve the chickpea productivity under water stress conditions by modulating antioxidant enzyme system. Experimental treatments comprised of two chickpea genotypes i.e. Bhakhar 2011 (drought tolerant) and DUSHT (drought sensitive), two water stress levels i.e. water stress at flowering stage and water stress at flowering + pod formation + grain filling stage including well watered (control) and three exogenous application of nutrients i.e. KCl 200 ppm, MgCl2, 50 ppm and CaCl2, 10 mM including distilled water (control). Results indicated that water stress at various growth stages adversely affects the growth, yield and quality attributes of both chickpea cultivars. Exogenous application of nutrients improved the growth, yield and antioxidant enzyme activities of both chickpea genotypes even under water stress conditions. However, superior results were obtained with foliar spray of potassium chloride on Bhakhar 2011 under well-watered conditions. Similarly, foliar spray of potassium chloride on chickpea cultivar Bhakhar 2011 cultivated under stress at flowering + pod formation + grain filling stage produced significantly higher contents of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase. These results suggests that the application of potassium chloride mitigates the adverse effects of water stress and enhanced tolerance in chickpea mainly due to higher antioxidant enzymes activity, demonstrating the protective measures of plant cells in stress conditions.


Resumo O estresse hídrico é um dos principais fatores que restringem o crescimento e o desenvolvimento das plantas de grão-de-bico, induzindo várias alterações morfológicas e fisiológicas. Portanto, a presente atividade de pesquisa foi projetada para melhorar a produtividade do grão-de-bico em condições de estresse hídrico, por meio da modulação do sistema de enzimas antioxidantes. Tratamentos experimentais compostos de dois genótipos de grão-de-bico, ou seja, Bhakhar 2011 (tolerante à seca) e DUSHT (sensível à seca), dois níveis de estresse hídrico, ou seja, estresse hídrico na fase de floração e estresse hídrico na floração + formação de vagens + estágio de enchimento de grãos incluindo bem irrigado (controle) e três aplicações exógenas de nutrientes, ou seja, KCl 200 ppm, MgCl2 50 ppm e CaCl2 10 mM, incluindo água destilada (controle). Os resultados indicaram que o estresse hídrico em vários estágios de crescimento afeta negativamente os atributos de crescimento, rendimento e qualidade de ambas as cultivares de grão-de-bico. A aplicação exógena de nutrientes melhorou o crescimento, o rendimento e as atividades das enzimas antioxidantes de ambos os genótipos de grão- de-bico, mesmo em condições de estresse hídrico. No entanto, resultados superiores foram obtidos com pulverização foliar de cloreto de potássio em Bhakhar 2011, em condições bem irrigadas. Da mesma forma, a pulverização foliar de cloreto de potássio na cultivar de grão-de-bico Bhakhar 2011 cultivada sob estresse na fase de floração + formação de vagens + enchimento de grãos produziu teores significativamente maiores de superóxido dismutase, peroxidase e catalase. Esses resultados sugerem que a aplicação de cloreto de potássio atenua os efeitos adversos do estresse hídrico e aumenta a tolerância no grão-de-bico, principalmente em razão de mais atividade de enzimas antioxidantes, demonstrando as medidas protetoras das células vegetais em condições de estresse.


Assuntos
Cicer , Água , Nutrientes , Desidratação , Secas , Antioxidantes
17.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245585, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495157

RESUMO

Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais , RNA Ribossômico 16S
18.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248420, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495163

RESUMO

Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Ecossistema , Animais , Humanos , Paquistão , Caramujos
19.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247284, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468527

RESUMO

A ninety days nutritional trial was directed to explore the effects of dietary chromium on body composition, gut enzyme activity and physiological status of Cirrhinus mrigala by using G & NG corn. Six experimental diets were prepared by using different levels of chromium chloride hexahydrate (0, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg, each with G & NG corn). For this experimental trial, 480 fingerlings, irrespective of sex were distributed in six aquariums each with replicate. Results revealed that gelatinized corn along with increasing level of Cr2Cl3.6H2O have a positive impact upon body composition of fish. Hematology was positively correlated with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation in gelatinized corn. Amylase gut enzyme also showed significant (P<0.05) increase in group fed with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplemented diet (G corn). However, corn with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation did not revealed any significant impact on gut protease enzyme activity. From these results it can be concluded that both chromium chloride hexahydrate and gelatinized corn in fish feed are very beneficial to improve body composition, enzymes activity and physiological health status of fish.


Assuntos
Cromo , Cyprinidae , Carboidratos da Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Composição Corporal , Dieta
20.
Balkan J Med Genet ; 24(1): 21-26, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447655

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathy (CM) is a condition of cardiac dysfunction. It is one of the leading causes of mortality in which both genetic and environmental factors are involved. Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) level in plasma is associated with CM. It affects the cardiomyocyte differentiation. To evaluate the expression of CT-1 in cardiomyopathy, this study was done on CM subjects attending the Fatima Memorial Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, between January and June, 2016. A total of 40 subjects were enrolled who were divided into two groups; CM group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 20). A self-designed questionnaire was filled in by each subject to collect data regarding age, body mass index (BMI) and CM history. RNA was isolated from blood after its quantification, cDNA was prepared and reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed for expression of CT-1. The mean age in CM subjects was 40.1±6.03 years, while it was 35.0±3.7 years in the control group. The mean expression of CT-1 in the CM subjects was 5.2±0.66, while it was 1.00±0.001 in the control group. A highly significant difference was observed in CT-1 expression in the CM group, and expression was significantly correlated with age and BMI in CM subjects.

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