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1.
J Dairy Sci ; 97(9): 5566-79, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25022687

RESUMO

Studies in young animals have shown an association between vitamin deficiencies and increased risk of infectious disease; however, there is a paucity of information regarding the effect of acute infection on the vitamin status of the vitamin-replete neonate. To characterize the effects of acute infection on vitamin D and E status of the neonate, 6 vitamin-replete preruminant Holstein bull calves were experimentally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV; strain BVDV2-1373). Six mock-inoculated calves served as controls. Sustained pyrexia, leukopenia, and asynchronous increases in serum haptoglobin and serum amyloid A characterized the response of calves to infection with BVDV. Infection was also associated with increased serum IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-6 concentrations. During the last 8 d of the 14-d postinoculation period, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and α-tocopherol concentrations in infected calves decreased by 51 and 82%, respectively. The observed inverse association between vitamin D and E status and serum amyloid A in infected calves suggests that the infection-induced acute phase response contributed to the reduced vitamin status of these animals. Additional studies are necessary to determine if the negative effect of infection on status are unique to this specific infection model or is representative of preruminant calf's response to acute infection. Studies are also needed to characterize mechanisms underlying infection-related changes in vitamin D and E status and to determine whether additional vitamin D or E supplementation during an acute infection diminishes disease severity and duration in the young animal.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/virologia , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/veterinária , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina E/veterinária , alfa-Tocoferol/sangue , Reação de Fase Aguda/sangue , Animais , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/complicações , Bovinos , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 2/isolamento & purificação , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-2/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina E/sangue
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 97(6): 3715-27, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24704235

RESUMO

To observe the effects of supplemental dietary d-α-tocopherol in relation to dietary energy on growth and immune status in dairy calves, 32 newborn Holstein bull calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments for 5 wk in a 2 × 2 factorial, randomized complete block, split-plot design. Calves received moderate growth (MG) or low growth (LG) all-milk dietary treatments, formulated to support daily gains of 0.5 or 0.25 kg/d, respectively, per the dietary energy recommendation for milk-fed calves according to the National Research Council's Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. Calves in both groups were either injected i.m. with Vital E-A+D (injectable solution of vitamins E, A, and D) on d 1 and supplemented with Emcelle Tocopherol (micellized vitamin E) via milk daily (MG-S and LG-S), or were not supplemented (MG-C and LG-C) during the study period. Total weight gain of MG calves was greater than that of LG calves and tended to be greater in MG-S calves than in MG-C calves. Calves receiving vitamin supplementation demonstrated greater concentrations of plasma α-tocopherol, retinol, and 25-(OH)-vitamin D than did control calves, whereas MG calves demonstrated a lower concentration of plasma α-tocopherol than did LG calves. The apparent increased utilization of α-tocopherol by MG calves was accompanied by a rise in serum haptoglobin, a positive acute-phase protein and indicator of inflammation, especially in MG-C calves. Serum amyloid A, also a positive acute-phase protein, was not different among groups, but was elevated from baseline in all groups during wk 1 through 3. Plasma IgG1 concentrations were higher in MG-S and LG-S calves than in their nonsupplemented dietary counterparts, whereas plasma IgG2, IgA, and IgM concentrations were not different among groups. In summary, dietary supplementation of d-α-tocopherol improved plasma α-tocopherol status and tended to increase growth in calves fed for 0.5 kg of average daily gain. Vitamin supplementation ameliorated the rise of serum haptoglobin associated with acute inflammation in MG calves, and may have improved passive transfer of maternal antibody. These results indicate a role for α-tocopherol in prevention of proinflammatory state associated with greater dietary energy and onset of infectious disease.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem
3.
Clin Vaccine Immunol ; 20(12): 1827-35, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24132602

RESUMO

Currently, the Bovigam assay is used as an official supplemental test within bovine tuberculosis control programs. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate two Mycobacterium bovis-specific peptide cocktails and purified protein derivatives (PPDs) from two sources, liquid and lyophilized antigen preparations. PPDs and peptide cocktails were also used for comparison of a second-generation gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay kit with the currently licensed first-generation kit (Bovigam; Prionics AG). Three strains of M. bovis were used for experimental challenge: M. bovis 95-1315, M. bovis Ravenel, and M. bovis 10-7428. Additionally, samples from a tuberculosis-affected herd (i.e., naturally infected) were evaluated. Robust responses to both peptide cocktails, HP (PC-HP) and ESAT-6/CFP10 (PC-EC), and the PPDs were elicited as early as 3 weeks after challenge. Only minor differences in responses to Commonwealth Serum Laboratories (CSL) and Lelystad PPDs were detected with samples from experimentally infected animals. For instance, responses to Lelystad M. avium-derived PPD (PPDa) exceeded the respective responses to the CSL PPDa in M. bovis Ravenel-infected and control animals. However, a 1:4 dilution of stimulated plasma demonstrated greater separation of PPDb from PPDa responses (i.e., PPDb minus PPDa) with the use of Lelystad PPDs, suggesting that Lelystad PPDs provide greater diagnostic sensitivity than CSL PPDs. The responses to lyophilized and liquid antigen preparations did not differ. Responses detected with first- and second-generation IFN-γ release assay kits (Bovigam) did not differ throughout the study. In conclusion, antigens may be stored in a lyophilized state without loss in potency, PC-HP and PC-EC are dependable biomarkers for aiding in the detection of bovine tuberculosis, and second-generation Bovigam kits are comparable to currently used kits.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Interferon gama/sangue , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Bovinos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Masculino , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose Bovina/imunologia
4.
Clin Vaccine Immunol ; 19(3): 346-51, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22237891

RESUMO

Gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-induced protein 10 (IP-10) has recently shown promise as a diagnostic biomarker of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of humans. The aim of the current study was to compare IP-10 and IFN-γ responses upon Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle by using archived samples from two aerosol inoculation studies. In the first study (10(4) CFU M. bovis by aerosol, n = 7), M. bovis purified protein derivative (PPDb)-specific IP-10 and IFN-γ gene expression was detected as early as 29 days after challenge. PPDb-specific IP-10 and IFN-γ mRNA responses followed a similar pattern of expression over the course of this study and were highly correlated (r = 0.87). In the second study (10(5) CFU M. bovis by aerosol, n = 5), IP-10 and IFN-γ (protein) responses to mycobacterial antigens were compared following challenge. IFN-γ responses to mycobacterial antigens were detected at 29 days after challenge and were sustained during the remainder of the study. IFN-γ responses to mycobacterial antigens exceeded corresponding responses in nonstimulated cultures. IP-10 responses to mycobacterial antigens exceeded preinfection responses at 7, 29, and 63 days after challenge. In contrast to IFN-γ responses, IP-10 responses to mycobacterial antigens generally did not exceed the respective responses in nonstimulated cultures. IP-10 responses to medium alone and to mycobacterial antigens followed a similar pattern of response. Correlations between IP-10 and IFN-γ (protein) responses were modest (r ≈ 0.50 to 0.65). Taken together, these findings do not support the use of IP-10 protein as a biomarker for bovine tuberculosis using the current testing protocol and reagents; however, mRNA-based assays may be considered for further analysis.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL10/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Bovina/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Quimiocina CXCL10/biossíntese , Quimiocina CXCL10/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Interferon gama/imunologia , Masculino , Estatística como Assunto
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 95(1): 221-39, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22192201

RESUMO

Responses of the newborn calf to vaccination are frequently characterized by marginal antibody (Ab) responses. The present study evaluated effects of colostrum ingestion on the adaptive immune response of the preruminant calf to early vaccination. Colostrum-fed (CF) and colostrum-deprived (CD) calves were vaccinated at 2 d of age with Mycobacterium bovis, Pasteur strain of bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG), and ovalbumin (OVA) to track development of the adaptive immune response during the first 8 wk of life. Dams were also vaccinated with BCG prepartum. At wk 0, serum IgG(1), IgG(2), IgA, and IgM were elevated in CF calves, with IgG(1) predominating. In these calves, IgG(2), IgA, and IgM concentrations decreased with age. The CD calves, in contrast, had very low or undetectable serum immunoglobulin concentrations at wk 0 followed by an age-related increase in IgG(1), IgG(2), and IgM concentrations, suggesting endogenous production of these immunoglobulin classes. Immunoblot and ELISA analyses of Ab response to BCG vaccination indicated that colostrum ingestion was associated with measurable serum anti-mycobacterial Ab in CF calves during the first month postpartum, with substantially lower levels at 7 wk of age. Although mycobacteria-specific Ab was undetectable in CD calves at wk 0, it was present at 4 and 7 wk of age, suggesting that these calves, unlike CF calves, were capable of generating an Ab response to BCG vaccination. Antibody responses of CF and CD calves to vaccination with OVA, an antigen not present in the natural environment of dairy cattle, were of comparable magnitude and characterized by a progressive increase in Ab levels from birth (wk 0) to 7 wk of age. The disparate Ab responses of CF calves to BCG and OVA suggest that maternal antigenic experience or exposure influences Ab responses of the colostrum-fed preruminant calf to early vaccination. Ex vivo, antigen [OVA and M. bovis-derived purified protein derivative (PPDb)]-induced IFN-γ and nitric oxide responses of blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from CF and CD calves were comparable at wk 0 and wk 7. As expected, responses were very low or nonexistent at wk 0. Responses for all calves were greater at wk 7 than at wk 0, suggesting a colostrum-independent maturation of the cell-mediated immune response capacity of the preruminant calf. The consistently greater proliferative responses of antigen-stimulated T-cell subsets at wk 7 versus wk 0 indicate the development of antigen-specific lymphocyte responses to early vaccination. Total numbers of blood leukocytes as well as numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes were unaffected by colostrum feeding; however, granulocyte numbers were higher in CD than in CF calves at wk 0. Granulocyte numbers decreased and monocyte numbers increased with age in all calves. Within the lymphocyte population, only natural killer (NK(+)) cell percentages were affected by colostrum ingestion, with higher percentages of NK(+) cells in CD calves at wk 0 and wk 7. Antigen-induced proliferation of lymphocyte subsets including IgM(+) cells was unaffected by colostrum ingestion. In conclusion, ingestion of colostrum within hours after birth inhibited the capacity of the calf to produce antigen-specific immunoglobulin (i.e., antibody) in response to vaccination, with little or no effect on cell-mediated immune responses. Although colostrum appeared to block endogenous antibody production, certain B-cell functions were retained. These findings will aid in development of new vaccination strategies for improving health of the preruminant calf.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Bovinos/imunologia , Colostro/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Animais , Vacina BCG/farmacologia , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Interferon gama/sangue , Leucócitos/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/sangue , Ovalbumina/farmacologia , Vacinação/veterinária
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 93(6): 2684-90, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20494177

RESUMO

Effects of growth rate on fat-soluble vitamin and macro- and micromineral concentrations in the circulation of preruminant dairy calves were evaluated. Dietary treatments were designed to achieve 3 targeted rates of gain [no growth (NG)=0.0 kg/d; low growth (LG)=0.55 kg/d; or high growth (HG)=1.2 kg/d] over a 7-wk period. Milk replacer (MR) intakes necessary to achieve these growth rates were estimated using the National Research Council's Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle calf model computer program. All of the calves were fed a 30% crude protein, 20% fat MR reconstituted to 14% dry matter. The diets were formulated to ensure that protein was not a limiting nutrient. No-growth and LG calves were supplemented additionally with vitamins A, D, and E to compensate for treatment differences in dry matter intake relative to the HG calves; however, no attempt was made to adjust mineral intake based on MR consumption. Growth rates for NG (0.11 kg/d), LG (0.58 kg/d), and HG (1.16 kg/d) calves differed during the study. Health was minimally affected by growth rate and this was reflected by comparable and relatively low serum haptoglobin concentrations in all calves during the 7-wk period. Concentrations of serum retinol, 25-(OH)-vitamin D(3), and zinc were unaffected by growth rate. The HG calves had lower RRR-alpha-tocopherol concentrations than NG and LG calves at wk 7, suggesting that the increased growth rate of HG calves was associated with increased utilization of vitamin E. Serum concentrations of all vitamins increased with age. Copper, calcium, and phosphorous concentrations in HG calves exceeded those in LG and NG calves during the latter weeks of the study, likely because of increased MR intake by HG calves. Fat-soluble vitamin and mineral concentrations for all treatment groups remained within ranges considered normal for preruminant calves.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Minerais/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue , Ração Animal , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/sangue , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cálcio/sangue , Bovinos/sangue , Cobre/sangue , Feminino , Haptoglobinas/análise , Magnésio/sangue , Masculino , Fósforo/sangue , Vitamina A/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Zinco/sangue , alfa-Tocoferol/sangue
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 92(12): 6134-43, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19923616

RESUMO

The physiological response of the preruminant calf to sustained exposure to moderate cold has not been studied extensively. Effects of cold on growth performance and health of preruminant calves as well as functional measures of energy metabolism, fat-soluble vitamin, and immune responsiveness were evaluated in the present study. Calves, 3 to 10 d of age, were assigned randomly to cold (n = 14) or warm (n = 15) indoor environments. Temperatures in the cold environment averaged 4.7 degrees C during the study. Frequent wetting of the environment and the calves was used to augment effects of the cold environment. Temperatures in the warm environment averaged 15.5 degrees C during the study. There was no attempt to increase the humidity in the warm environment. Preventative medications or vaccinations that might influence disease resistance were not administered. Nonmedicated milk replacer (20% crude protein and 20% fat fed at 0.45 kg/d) and a nonmedicated starter grain fed ad libitum were fed to all calves. Relative humidity was, on average, almost 10% higher in the cold environment. Warm-environment calves were moderately healthier (i.e., lower respiratory scores) and required less antibiotics. Scour scores, days scouring, and electrolyte costs, however, were unaffected by environmental temperature. Growth rates were comparable in warm and cold environments, although cold-environment calves consumed more starter grain and had lower blood glucose and higher blood nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. The nonesterified fatty acid and glucose values for cold-stressed calves, however, did not differ sufficiently from normal values to categorize these calves as being in a state of negative-energy balance. Levels of fat-soluble vitamin, antibody, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and haptoglobin were unaffected by sustained exposure to moderate cold. These results support the contention that successful adaptation of the dairy calf to cold is dependent upon the availability of adequate nutrition.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Meio Ambiente , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/imunologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 92(11): 5692-6, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19841228

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using the preruminant dairy calf as a model for evaluating effects of vitamin D status in the neonate. Because the newborn calf can be sustained during the first weeks of life solely on a fluid diet having a defined composition, has documented nutritional requirements, and is minimally affected by repeated samplings of peripheral blood, it has the potential to serve as a model for characterizing nutrient-specific effects on the growth and health of the neonate. Colostrum-fed Holstein bull calves (n = 13) entered the trial at approximately 4 d of age. All calves were fed a custom-formulated milk replacer devoid of vitamin D. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) concentrations in all calves were determined on a regular basis beginning at d 0. Using this information, low- and high-status groups of calves were established by subcutaneous administration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3). To maintain targeted plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) concentrations in low (<30 ng/mL) and high (>60 ng/mL) vitamin D-status calves, low-status calves (n = 6) received a total of 8,600 IU (2,225 IU/wk) of vitamin D during the experimental period and high-status calves (n = 7) received 54,000 IU (13,500 IU/wk). Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) in low-status calves averaged 27 ng/mL, compared with 78 ng/mL in high-status calves, and were less at all sampling times from d 7 to d 28. Concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) were not correlated. Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous concentrations were unaffected by 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) administration; however, plasma calcium and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) concentrations were correlated. Calcium and magnesium concentrations decreased with age but remained within normal ranges for dairy cattle. These results indicate that it is possible to predictably control vitamin D status over a 28-d period and suggest that the preruminant calf might be useful as a model for studying effects of vitamin D on growth, development, and immune function in the neonate.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Modelos Animais , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Cálcio/sangue , Magnésio/sangue , Masculino , Fósforo/sangue , Análise de Regressão , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/sangue
9.
Clin Vaccine Immunol ; 16(3): 323-9, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19129468

RESUMO

Monitoring of the kinetics of production of serum antibodies to multiple mycobacterial antigens can be useful as a diagnostic tool for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection as well as for the characterization of disease progression and the efficacy of intervention strategies in several species. The humoral immune responses to multiple M. bovis antigens by white-tailed deer vaccinated with BCG orally via a lipid-formulated bait (n=5), orally in liquid form (n=5), and subcutaneously (n=6) were evaluated over time after vaccination and after experimental challenge with virulent M. bovis and were compared to the responses by unvaccinated deer (n=6). Antibody responses were evaluated by using a rapid test (RT), a multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA), a lipoarabinomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LAM-ELISA), and immunoblotting to whole-cell sonicate and recombinant antigen MPB83. MAPIA and RT detected minimal to no antibody responses over those at the baseline to multiple M. bovis antigens in vaccinated white-tailed deer after challenge. This was in contrast to the presence of more readily detectable antibody responses in nonvaccinated deer with more advanced disease. The LAM-ELISA results indicated an overall decrease in the level of production of detectable antibodies against lipoarabinomannan-enriched mycobacterial antigen in vaccinated animals compared to that in nonvaccinated animals after challenge. Immunoblot data were inconsistent but did suggest the occurrence of unique antibody responses by certain vaccinated groups to Ag85 and HSP70. These findings support further research toward the improvement and potential use of antibody-based assays, such as MAPIA, RT, and LAM-ELISA, as tools for the antemortem assessment of disease progression in white-tailed deer in both experimental and field vaccine trials.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Cervos/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Imunoensaio/métodos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Pulmão/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/administração & dosagem
10.
Vet Rec ; 162(7): 203-8, 2008 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18281626

RESUMO

Mitogen- and antigen-induced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) responses of peripheral blood leucocytes from cervids were evaluated by a commercial whole-blood assay. The assay was applied to Mycobacterium bovis-infected white-tailed deer and reindeer, M bovis BCG-vaccinated white-tailed deer and elk, and unvaccinated, uninfected white-tailed deer, fallow deer, elk and reindeer. The responses of the M bovis-infected white-tailed deer to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) varied with time and between individuals. The responses of the M bovis-infected reindeer to PWM and M bovis purified protein derivative (PPD) were positively associated. Samples from tuberculosis-free captive herds in various parts of the USA were also evaluated. Four per cent of fallow deer, 20 per cent of elk, 44 per cent of white-tailed deer, and 91 per cent of reindeer had responses to PWM exceeding 0.25 Delta optical density, that is, PWM stimulation minus no stimulation. The specificity of the responses to M bovis PPD and a Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex-specific antigen rESAT-6:CFP-10, excluding animals not responding to PWM, ranged from 78 per cent to 100 per cent and was dependent upon the species and the positive response cut-off value. The results show that the commercial assay is valid for the detection of TB in reindeer; however, further development of the assay will be required before it is used in surveillance programmes for white-tailed deer, fallow deer, and elk.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Cervos , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Tuberculose/veterinária , Animais , Concanavalina A/farmacologia , Cervos/imunologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Feminino , Leucócitos , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Fito-Hemaglutininas/farmacologia , Mitógenos de Phytolacca americana/farmacologia , Rena/imunologia , Rena/microbiologia , Tuberculose/sangue , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/imunologia , Vacinação/veterinária
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 90(11): 5208-17, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17954761

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of early vaccination on the phenotype (i.e., activation marker expression) and functional capacity of B cell populations in neonatal calves. In the first of 2 experiments, 6 calves were vaccinated with ovalbumin at 3 and 5 wk of age. Three of the 6 calves also were vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis, strain bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) at 3 wk of age. Mycobacterium bovis lipoarabinomannan-reactive IgG1 and IgG2 were detected in calf sera prior to vaccination, indicative of colostral transfer of maternal Ig cross-specific to BCG. Ovalbumin-specific IgG1 and IgG2 were not detected before vaccination. Vaccination of 3-wk-old calves with ovalbumin elicited antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2 anti-body responses that were amplified by secondary vaccination. Vaccination with BCG did not elicit a measurable antibody response. In the second experiment, 6 calves were vaccinated with ovalbumin at 3 and 5 wk of age in addition to BCG at 3 wk of age. Lymph node cell populations stimulated with ovalbumin had decreased CD5, CD21, and CD40 expression and increased B-B2, CD25, and CD80 expression on IgM+ cells. Stimulation of the same population with purified-protein derivative increased CD25 and CD80 expression on IgM+ cells. Expression of activation molecules on ovalbumin- and purified protein derivative-stimulated CD5+ IgM+ cells was similar to expression on the larger IgM+ cell population. An increased expression of major histocompatibility class II on CD5+ IgM+ cells after stimulation was the only exception. Interestingly, IgM+ cells isolated from the superficial cervical lymph node draining the vaccination site, but not from the opposing cervical lymph node, responded to antigen stimulation in vitro. In conclusion, calves generated B cell responses to ovalbumin and BCG after vaccination. Additional studies are necessary to determine whether maternal immunologic experience transferred via colostral immunoglobulin inhibits production of mycobacteria-specific immunoglobulin production in the calf.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Bovinos/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Antígenos CD5/imunologia , Citometria de Fluxo/veterinária , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Linfonodos/citologia , Masculino , Ovalbumina/administração & dosagem , Ovalbumina/imunologia
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 90 Suppl 1: E39-54, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17517751

RESUMO

A high proportion of intramammary coliform infections present at parturition develop disease characterized by severe inflammatory signs and sepsis during the first 60 to 70 d of lactation. In the lactating bovine mammary gland, the innate immune system plays a critical role in determining the outcome of these infections. Since the beginning of the 1990s, research has increased significantly on bovine mammary innate defense mechanisms in connection with the pathogenesis of coliform mastitis. Neutrophils are key effector cells of the innate immune response to intramammary infection, and their function is influenced by many physiological events that occur during the transition period. Opportunistic infections occur when the integrity of the host immune system is compromised by physical and physiological conditions that make the host more susceptible. The innate immune system of many periparturient cows is immunocompromised. It is unlikely that periparturient immunosuppression is the result of a single physiological factor; more likely, several entities act in concert, with profound effects on the function of many organ systems of the periparturient dairy cow. Their defense system is unable to modulate the complex network of innate immune responses, leading to incomplete resolution of the pathogen and the inflammatory reaction. During the last 30 yr, most efforts have been focused on neutrophil diapedesis, phagocytosis, and bacterial killing. How these functions modulate the clinical outcome of coliform mastitis, and how they can be influenced by hormones and metabolism has been the subject of intensive research and is the focus of this review. The afferent (sensing) arm of innate immunity, which enables host recognition of a diverse array of pathogens, is the subject of intense research interest and may contribute to the variable inflammatory response to intramammary infections during different stages of lactation. The development of novel interventions that modulate the inflammatory response or contribute to the elimination of the pathogen or both may offer therapeutic promise in the treatment of mastitis in periparturient cows.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli , Imunidade Inata , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/imunologia , Mastite Bovina/prevenção & controle , Neutrófilos/fisiologia , Paridade , Fagocitose , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 90(1): 404-17, 2007 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17183108

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of 3 targeted growth rates on adaptive (i.e., antigen-specific) immune responses of preruminant, milk replacer-fed calves. Calves (9.1 +/- 2.4 d of age) were assigned randomly to one of 3 dietary treatments to achieve 3 targeted daily rates of gain [no growth (maintenance) = 0.0 kg/d, low growth = 0.55 kg/d, or high growth = 1.2 kg/d] over an 8-wk period. The NRC Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle calf model computer program was used to estimate the milk replacer intakes needed to achieve target growth rates. All calves were fed a 30% crude protein, 20% fat, all-milk protein milk replacer reconstituted to 14% dry matter. Diets were formulated to ensure that protein would not be limiting. All calves were vaccinated 3 wk after initiation of dietary treatments with Mycobacterium bovis, strain bacillus Calmette-Guerin and ovalbumin. Growth rates for no-growth (0.11 kg/d), low-growth (0.58 kg/d), and high-growth (1.16 kg/d) calves differed throughout the experimental period. Blood glucose concentrations in high-growth calves increased with time and were higher than in low- and no-growth calves. Mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocyte percentages in peripheral blood were unaffected by growth rate but did change with advancing age. Percentages of CD4(+) T cells increased with age in no-growth and low-growth calves, a characteristic of maturation, but failed to increase in high-growth calves. Growth rate did not affect the percentages of CD45RO(+) (memory) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, antigen (i.e., ovalbumin)-specific serum IgG concentrations, or antigen (i.e., purified protein derivative)-induced IFN-gamma and nitric oxide secretion by mononuclear cell cultures. Antigen-elicited cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity responses of no-growth calves exceeded responses of low-growth, but not high-growth, calves. In resting- and antigen-stimulated cell cultures, viabilities of CD4(+), CD8(+), and gammadeltaTCR(+) T cells from high-growth calves were lower than those of the same T cell subsets from no-growth and low-growth calves. Alternatively, resting cultures of mononuclear leukocytes from high-growth calves produced more nitric oxide than those from no-growth and low-growth calves. In conclusion, adaptive immune responses were affected minimally by growth rate. The results suggest that protein-energy malnutrition in the absence of weight loss is not detrimental to antigen-specific responses of neonatal vaccinated calves and that a high growth rate does not enhance these responses. The negative effect of a high growth rate on the viability of circulating T cell populations may influence infectious disease resistance of the calf.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/imunologia , Leucócitos/citologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Análise de Variância , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal/imunologia , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/veterinária , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Vacinação/veterinária
14.
Vet Microbiol ; 119(2-4): 277-82, 2007 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16973310

RESUMO

The Bovigam assay is approved for use within the United States as a complementary tuberculosis test. Prior to whole blood culture and the ensuing ELISA to detect interferon-(IFN)-gamma, samples are subjected to various holding time/temperature combinations due, in part, to practical constraints associated with shipment of samples to approved laboratories. To evaluate these effects, 5-month-old Holstein calves (n = 7) received 10(3) cfu Mycobacterium bovis by aerosol. Heparinized blood was collected 2 months after challenge and held at 4 or 22 degrees C for 0, 8 or 24 h prior to culture with mycobacterial antigens or pokeweed mitogen (PWM). Responses of samples held for 8 or 24 h were comparable and lower than responses of cultures prepared immediately after collection, regardless of holding temperature. Differences in responses of samples held at 4 degrees C versus 22 degrees C were also minimal. A subset of samples was held for 2 h at 37 degrees C at the beginning of the holding period. This subset of samples had diminished responses to all stimulants and increased holding times (i.e., 24 h versus 8 h) negatively impacted the response. Pre-processing conditions, particularly delays in set-up and initial high sample temperatures, reduces IFN-gamma responses of cells from infected cattle increasing the risk of false negatives in this assay of regulatory importance.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/análise , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Animais , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes/normas , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Teste Tuberculínico/métodos , Teste Tuberculínico/veterinária , Tuberculose Bovina/sangue
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 88(8): 2718-29, 2005 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16027185

RESUMO

Effects of the plane of nutrition and age on the proliferation and activation of lymphocyte subsets from milk replacer-fed calves were investigated in vitro. Holstein calves were fed a standard (0.45 kg/d of a 20% crude protein, 20% fat milk replacer, n = 4) or intensified (1.14 kg/d of a 28% crude protein, 20% fat milk replacer, n = 4) diet from 1 to 8 wk of age. Average daily weight gain of intensified-diet (0.66 kg/d) calves was greater than that of standard-diet (0.27 kg/d) calves. Relative to the pokeweed mitogen-induced responses of CD4(+) cells from steers (5 to 6 mo of age), CD4(+) cells from 1-wk-old calves showed decreased proliferative activity, delayed increase in CD25 expression, and no demonstrable increase in CD44 expression or decrease in CD62L expression. Calf CD8(+) and gammadeltaT-cell receptor(+) cells, unlike T-cells from the older animals, did not demonstrate decreased expression of CD62L after stimulation with mitogen. The increased expression of CD44 by mitogen-stimulated gammadeltaT-cell receptor(+) cells from older animals was not seen in gammadeltaT-cell receptor(+) cells from 1-wk-old calves. At wk 8 of age, mitogen-induced proliferation and expression of activation antigens by T-cells from standard-fed calves were similar to responses of T-cells from steers indicating rapid maturation of T-cell function during the neonatal period. Feeding calves an intensified milk replacer was associated with decreased proliferation of mitogen-stimulated CD4(+), CD8(+), and gammadeltaT-cell receptor(+) cells; decreased CD25 expression by mitogen-stimulated CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells; and decreased CD44 expression by mitogen-stimulated CD8(+) cells. These results indicate that the functional capacity of the calf's T-cell population becomes more adult-like during the first weeks of life and suggest that nutrition modulates T-cell function during this period of immune maturation.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Bovinos/imunologia , Receptores de Hialuronatos/análise , Selectina L/análise , Receptores de Interleucina-2/análise , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Citometria de Fluxo , Corantes Fluorescentes , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/análise , Ganho de Peso
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 88(1): 195-210, 2005 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15591383

RESUMO

Effects of neonatal vaccination on antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses of dairy calves have not been well described. The purpose of this study was to characterize the ontogeny of the adaptive immune response in calves sensitized to the attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, bacillus Calmette-Guerín. Holstein bull calves were nonvaccinated (n = 6, vaccination controls) or vaccinated subcutaneously (n = 6) with bacillus Calmette-Guerín at 1 and 7 wk of age. Composition and functional capacities of blood mononuclear cell populations from calves were evaluated at 1 (prevaccination), 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 12 wk of age. Young adults (nulliparous heifers, n = 4) vaccinated in an identical manner were sampled concurrently to evaluate effects of animal maturity on the development of the adaptive immune response. Responses of nonvaccinated calves to recall antigen (Mycobacterium bovis purified protein derivative) ex vivo and in vivo (i.e., cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity) were minimal or nonexistent. Responses of cells from vaccinated calves and young adults to recall antigen, however, were evident as early as wk 2 after primary vaccination. Antigen-induced T cell subset proliferation, and secretion of interferon-gamma, nitric oxide, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by cells from vaccinated calves were comparable to or greater than responses of vaccinated adults during the 11-wk study. Eleven weeks after primary vaccination, cutaneous responses of vaccinated calves and young adults to intradermal administration of antigen were pronounced and comparable, demonstrating the capacity of the bovine neonate to develop a vigorous cell-mediated immune response in vivo. Antibody responses (i.e., antibody concentrations in sera and in supernatants from antigen-stimulated cultures of blood mononuclear cells) of vaccinated calves, in contrast, were markedly lower than parallel responses of vaccinated adults. In conclusion, these results suggest that the bovine neonate can mount a vigorous, adult-like cell-mediated immune response when vaccinated at an early age.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/imunologia , Bovinos/imunologia , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Envelhecimento , Animais , Anticorpos/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Divisão Celular , DNA/biossíntese , Hipersensibilidade Tardia , Imunoglobulinas/biossíntese , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Contagem de Leucócitos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Mitógenos/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Testes Cutâneos/veterinária , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
Clin Diagn Lab Immunol ; 11(4): 729-35, 2004 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15242948

RESUMO

Immunological diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle is often confounded by cross-reactive responses resulting from exposure to other mycobacterial species, especially Mycobacterium avium. Early secretory antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) are dominant gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-inducing antigens of tuberculous mycobacteria, and they are absent from many environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria. Because M. avium exposure is the primary confounding factor in the diagnosis of M. bovis-infected animals, in vitro responses to a recombinant ESAT-6:CFP-10 (rESAT-6:CFP-10) fusion protein by blood leukocytes from cattle naturally exposed to M. avium or experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium or Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were compared to responses by M. bovis-infected cattle. Responses to heterogeneous mycobacterial antigens (i.e., purified protein derivatives [PPDs] and whole-cell sonicates [WCSs]) were also evaluated. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), IFN-gamma, and nitric oxide responses by M. bovis-infected cattle to rESAT-6:CFP-10 exceeded (P < 0.05) the corresponding responses by cattle naturally sensitized to M. avium. Experimental infection with M. bovis, M. avium, or M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis induced significant (P < 0.05) IFN-gamma and nitric oxide production to WCS and PPD antigens, regardless of the mycobacterial species used for the preparation of the antigen. Responses to homologous crude antigens generally exceeded responses to heterologous antigens. Nitric oxide and IFN-gamma responses to rESAT-6:CFP-10 by blood leukocytes from M. bovis-infected calves exceeded (P < 0.05) the corresponding responses of noninfected, M. avium-infected, and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected calves. Despite the reported potential for secretion of immunogenic ESAT-6 and CFP-10 proteins by M. avium and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, it appears that use of the rESAT-6:CFP-10 fusion protein will be useful for the detection of tuberculous cattle in herds with pre-existing sensitization to M. avium and/or M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium avium/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Interferon gama/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Bovina/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
18.
Microb Pathog ; 36(1): 11-7, 2004 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14643635

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk for tuberculosis infection. Studies using in vitro systems indicate that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [i.e. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], the most active form of the vitamin, enhances mycobacterial killing by increasing nitric oxide (NO) production. To evaluate concurrently the role of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and NO on the host response to tuberculosis infection, mice deficient in NO synthase 2 (NOS2(-/-)) and/or vitamin D were aerosol-challenged with Mycobacterium bovis and subsequently evaluated for mycobacterial colonization and lesion formation. Infected NOS2(-/-) mice developed severe necrotizing pyogranulomatous inflammation of the lungs with heavy M. bovis colonization and systemic dissemination of the bacillus. Colonization and lung lesion area of NOS2(-/-) mice exceeded that of NOS2(+/+) mice. Additionally, disease progression was more rapid in NOS2(-/-) mice than in NOS2(+/+) mice. Lung colonization and lesion area of vitamin D deficient mice exceeded that of vitamin D replete mice, regardless of NOS2 phenotype. However, effects of vitamin D on colonization, but not lesion area, were more pronounced in NOS2(+/+) mice than in NOS2(-/-) mice. These findings are consistent with the current hypothesis that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) enhances mycobacterial killing through a NO-dependent mechanism. As responses of NOS2(-/-) mice were affected by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) deficiency, albeit to a lesser extent than were those of NOS2(+/+) mice, NO-independent actions of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) also likely exist.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium bovis , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/deficiência , Tuberculose/etiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Animais , Calcitriol/metabolismo , Fígado/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II , Baço/microbiologia , Tuberculose/metabolismo , Tuberculose/microbiologia
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 86(11): 3440-6, 2003 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14672173

RESUMO

Four multiparous lactating cows (175 to 220 d in milk) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to assess the effects of four doses (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 microg/kg of body weight) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Escherichia coli 0111:B4) on circulating concentrations of macrominerals and vitamin D metabolites. Treatments were dissolved in 100 ml of sterile saline and infused intravenously over a period of 100 min. Blood was sampled immediately before infusion (0 h), at 60-min intervals for 8 h, and at 24 and 48 h postinfusion. Vitamin D metabolites were analyzed in samples collected at 0, 2, 6, 24, and 48 h only. Serum Ca and P concentrations decreased after LPS infusion, but there was no effect on serum magnesium concentration. Plasma 25-OH vitamin D3 and 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 were not affected by LPS infusion; however, when analyzed as 0 vs. all other doses of LPS combined, there was a tendency for plasma 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 concentration to decrease when cows were infused with LPS. The inflammatory response elicited by LPS altered plasma macromineral concentrations, a result that may have important implications for calcium homeostasis and metabolic health of lactating dairy cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Lactação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Minerais/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Animais , Calcitriol/sangue , Cálcio/sangue , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Infusões Intravenosas/veterinária , Cinética , Lactação/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Magnésio/sangue , Fósforo/sangue , Distribuição Aleatória , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 86(11): 3447-59, 2003 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14672174

RESUMO

Four multiparous lactating cows (175 to 220 d in milk [DIM]) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to assess the effects of four doses (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 microg/kg of body weight) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Escherichia coli 0111:B4) on performance and plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations. In addition, effects of immune activation on in vitro hepatic metabolic capacity were evaluated in 12 multiparous lactating cows (150 to 220 DIM) infused with 0 (n = 6), 1.0 (n = 4) or 2.0 (n = 2) microg of LPS/kg. Milk production and DMI decreased linearly with LPS dose for 24 h after LPS infusion. Overall mean plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha, insulin, glucagon, and cortisol concentrations increased linearly with LPS dose, and plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate decreased linearly by dose after LPS infusion. Infusion of LPS decreased the insulin:glucagon molar ratio, but did not affect plasma concentrations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, or L-(+)-lactate. Plasma concentrations of glucose tended to increase initially and subsequently decrease, and there was a quadratic tendency for increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations after LPS administration. In vitro hepatic capacity for conversion of [1-(14)C]L-(+)-lactate and [1-(14)C]palmitate, but not [1-(14)C]propionate or [1-(14)C]L-alanine, to CO2 increased after LPS administration. Hepatic capacity to convert [1-(14)C]propionate to glucose tended to increase, but neither esterification nor the conversion of palmitate to acid soluble products was altered by LPS. The LPS infusion resulted in significant changes of endocrine mediators responsible for regulation of energy metabolism of lactating cows and tended to alter subsequent in vitro hepatic metabolic capacity.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Glucagon/sangue , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Infusões Intravenosas/veterinária , Insulina/sangue , Cinética , Lactação/sangue , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Longitudinais , Leite/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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