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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239219, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153471

RESUMO

Abstract Salmo trutta fario is the most important fish species of family Salmonidae inhibited in cool waters all over the world including the nortern parts of Pakistan. This study was aimed to find out the prey selection and feeding habits of the species. One hundred and eighty five Salmo trutta fario were captured from March 2016 to April 2017. Feeding intensity as represented by a fullness index (FI), changing with various length groups and season. Out of 185 Brown trout 24 fish stomaches were found empty. The most important and common food items of brown trout were Brachycentridae, Blepharocera, Hydropsychidae, ephemerella spp. Kruskal Wallis H-test were applied on feeding intensity groups consisting of three month group. The test statistic for K.W-H-test were (H=8.13 with df =3) had a p-value of 0.043 < (alpha=0.05 indicates favor of the alternative hypothesis of at least one difference among the feeding intensity groups. The linear relationship of N with index of relative importance and %IRI denoted by least square regression line (N = 35.2 + 22.1%IRI), shows that for 22 prey there is 1% change in IRI. The relationship between total length (mm) and fish body weight (gm) is expressed by Pearson correlation coefficient (r = 0.976), showed that total length (mm) and fish body weight (gm.) is highly correlated. Descriptive statistics are used for the stomach fullness, which shows that feeding intensity was recorded higher from March to May. A total of 2289 preys was recorded including the most common were; Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae, Brachycentridae, diptera, blepharocera, ephemerala, chironomida, honey bees, grass hopper, locust, trout egg, trochanter, plant tissue, stones were retrieved from the gut contents of brown trout. According to index of relative importance IRI% four preys represents major components of the diet. The highest IRI% was recorded in Brachycentridae (39.38%), followed by blepharocera (13.23%), Hydropsychidae (10.76%) and ephemerella spp (8.28%). The relationship between IRI and FO is (r =0.556) is moderately correlated with coefficient of determination (r2=0.31). This study will help in the development of an artificial diet for the species for better growth performance in captivity.


Resumo Salmo trutta fario é a espécie de peixe mais importante da família dos salmonídeos, inibida em águas frias em todo o mundo, incluindo as partes do noroeste do Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a seleção de presas e os hábitos alimentares da espécie. Cento e oitenta e cinco Salmo trutta fario foram capturados de março de 2016 a abril de 2017. Intensidade de alimentação representada por um índice de plenitude (FI), mudando com vários grupos de comprimento e estação. De 185 trutas, 24 estômagos de peixes foram encontrados vazios. Os itens alimentares mais importantes e comuns da truta marrom foram brachycentridae, blepharocera, hydropsychidae, ephemerellaspp. O teste H de Kruskal Wallis foi aplicado em grupos de intensidade de alimentação consistindo de um grupo de três meses. A estatística de teste para o teste KW-H foi (H = 8,13 com df = 3) teve um valor de p de 0,043 <(alfa = 0,05 indica favor da hipótese alternativa de pelo menos uma diferença entre os grupos de intensidade de alimentação. relação de N com o índice de importância relativa e% IRI denotado pela linha de regressão do mínimo quadrado (N = 35,2 + 22,1% IRI), mostra que para 22 presas há 1% de mudança no IRI. A relação entre comprimento total (mm) e peixes o peso corporal (gm) é expresso pelo coeficiente de correlação de Pearson (r = 0,976), mostrou que o comprimento total (mm) e o peso corporal dos peixes (gm.) são altamente correlacionados. Estatísticas descritivas são usadas para a plenitude do estômago, o que mostra que a intensidade da alimentação foi registrado mais alto de março a maio. Um total de 2.289 presas foi registrado, incluindo os mais comuns foram; trichoptera, hydropsychidae, brachycentridae, diptera, blepharocera, efemérala, chironomida, abelhas, funil de grama, gafanhoto, ovo de truta, trocânter, tecido vegetal, pedras foram retiradas do intestino conteúdo de truta marrom. De acordo com o índice de importância relativa IRI%, quatro presas representam os principais componentes da dieta. O maior IRI% foi registrado em brachycentridae (39,38%), seguido por blepharocera (13,23%), hydropsychidae (10,76%) e ephemerellaspp (8,28%). A relação entre IRI e FO é (r = 0,556) está moderadamente correlacionada com o coeficiente de determinação (r2 = 0,31). Este estudo auxiliará no desenvolvimento de uma dieta artificial para a espécie para melhor desempenho de crescimento em cativeiro.

2.
Biosci Rep ; 42(1)2022 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904631

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anticancer drug, which can have unwanted side-effects such as cardiac and kidney toxicity. A detailed investigation was undertaken of the acute cytotoxic mechanisms of DOX on kidney cells, using Cos-7 cells as kidney cell model. Cos-7 cells were exposed to DOX for a period of 24 h over a range of concentrations, and the LC50 was determined to be 7 µM. Further investigations showed that cell death was mainly via apoptosis involving Ca2+ and caspase 9, in addition to autophagy. Regucalcin (RGN), a cytoprotective protein found mainly in liver and kidney tissues, was overexpressed in Cos-7 cells and shown to protect against DOX-induced cell death. Subcellular localization studies in Cos-7 cells showed RGN to be strongly correlated with the nucleus. However, upon treatment with DOX for 4 h, which induced membrane blebbing in some cells, the localization appeared to be correlated more with the mitochondria in these cells. It is yet to be determined whether this translocation is part of the cytoprotective mechanism or a consequence of chemically induced cell stress.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238874, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249231

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This research was aimed to explore the helminth parasitic diseases in Schizothorax plagiostomus (the snow trout) from river Swat and river Panjkora, Pakistan. Collection of 360 fish specimens have done from the lower, middle and upper reaches of both the rivers through gill nets, cast nets, dragon nets and hooks. All the samples were examined in the University of Malakand, Zoology Department for helminth parasites during the months from January 2015 to December 2016. Of the total examined fish samples 21.9% (n=79) were infected with Rhabdochona spp including 17.7% (n=32/180) in river Swat and 26.6% (n=47/180) in river Panjkora. Highest month-wise prevalence (p=0.09878,p<0.05) was reported in May (30%), then by February and October each (26.6%) while the lowest during August (13.3%). Highest prevalence (p=0.9723, p<0.05) was reported in summer season (26.6%), while lowest in the winter season (20%). Adults were highly infected (p=< 0.0001) in prevalence (63.7%) followed by sub-adults (13.2%) while no infection was found in juvenile specimens. Females fish samples had higher (p=0.0277, p>0.05) prevalence (28.8%) than males (16.6%). Fishes of the lower reaches had highest (p=0.0029, P>0.05) prevalence (31.7%) followed by middle reaches (16.5%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in samples of fish collected from upper reaches (9.87%). Present study address that Rhabdochona spp in the intestine of snow trout has a long term relationship and call as a natural infection in cyprinids and zoonotic risk to human.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo explorar as doenças parasitárias por helmintos em Schizothorax plagiostomus (a truta das neves) do rio Swat e do rio Panjkora, Paquistão. A coleta de 360 ​​espécimes de peixes foi feita nos trechos inferior, médio e superior de ambos os rios por meio de redes de emalhar, de lançamento, de dragão e anzóis. Todas as amostras foram examinadas na Universidade de Malakand, Departamento de Zoologia, para helmintos parasitas durante os meses de janeiro de 2015 a dezembro de 2016. Do total de amostras de peixes examinadas, 21,9% (n = 79) estavam infectados com Rhabdochona spp, incluindo 17,7% (n = 32/180) no rio Swat e 26,6% (n = 47/180) no rio Panjkora. A maior prevalência no mês (p = 0,09878, p <0,05) foi relatada em maio (30%), depois em fevereiro e outubro cada (26,6%), enquanto a menor em agosto (13,3%). A maior prevalência (p = 0,9723, p <0,05) foi relatada no verão (26,6%), enquanto a menor no inverno (20%). Os adultos foram altamente infectados (p = <0,0001) na prevalência (63,7%), seguidos por subadultos (13,2%), enquanto nenhuma infecção foi encontrada em espécimes juvenis. As amostras de peixes do sexo feminino tiveram maior (p = 0,0277, p> 0,05) prevalência (28,8%) do que o masculino (16,6%). Os peixes do curso inferior tiveram maior (p = 0,0029, P> 0,05) prevalência (31,7%) seguida do curso médio (16,5%), enquanto a menor prevalência foi observada em amostras de peixes coletados do curso superior (9,87%). O presente estudo aborda que Rhabdochona spp no ​​intestino da truta das neves tem uma relação de longo prazo e pode ser considerada uma infecção natural em ciprinídeos e risco zoonótico para humanos.

4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 115: 350-362, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969462

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent organic pollutants of concern because of their ubiquitous presence in surface and ground water; analytical methods that can be used for rapid comprehensive exposure assessment and fingerprinting of PFAS are needed. Following the fires at the Intercontinental Terminals Company (ITC) in Deer Park, TX in 2019, large quantities of PFAS-containing firefighting foams were deployed. The release of these substances into the Houston Ship Channel/Galveston Bay (HSC/GB) prompted concerns over the extent and level of PFAS contamination. A targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based study of temporal and spatial patterns of PFAS associated with this incident revealed presence of 7 species; their levels gradually decreased over a 6-month period. Because the targeted LC-MS/MS analysis was focused on about 30 PFAS molecules, it may have missed other PFAS compounds present in firefighting foams. Therefore, we utilized untargeted LC-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS)-based analytical approach for a more comprehensive characterization of PFAS in these water samples. We analyzed 31 samples from 9 sites in the HSC/GB that were collected over 5 months after the incident. Our data showed that additional 19 PFAS were detected in surface water of HSC/GB, most of them decreased gradually after the incident. PFAS features detected by LC-MS/MS correlated well in abundance with LC-IMS-MS data; however, LC-IMS-MS identified a number of additional PFAS, many known to be components of firefighting foams. These findings therefore illustrate that untargeted LC-IMS-MS improved our understanding of PFAS presence in complex environmental samples.


Assuntos
Cervos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Baías , Cromatografia Líquida , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 940-953, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153447

RESUMO

Abstract Nowadays food borne illness is most common in people due to their epidemic nature. These diseases affect the human digestive system through bacteria, viruses and parasites. The agents of illness are transmitted in our body through various types of food items, water and uncooked. Pathogens show drastic changes in immunosuppressant people. This review gives general insights to harmful microbial life. Pakistan is a developed country and because of its improper food management, a lot of gastrointestinal problems are noted in many patients. Bacteria are most common agents to spread diarrhoea, villi infection, constipation and dysenteric disease in human and induce the rejection of organ transplant. Enhancement of their lifestyle, properly cooked food should be used and to overcome the outbreak of the diseases.


Resumo Hoje em dia, as doenças transmitidas por alimentos são mais comuns em pessoas devido à sua natureza epidêmica. Essas doenças afetam o sistema digestivo humano por meio de bactérias, vírus e parasitas. Os agentes das doenças são transmitidos em nosso corpo por meio de diversos tipos de alimentos, água e crus. Os patógenos mostram mudanças drásticas em pessoas imunossupressoras. Esta revisão fornece uma visão geral da vida microbiana prejudicial. O Paquistão é um país desenvolvido e, devido ao seu manejo alimentar inadequado, muitos problemas gastrointestinais são observados em muitos pacientes. As bactérias são os agentes mais comuns para espalhar diarreia, infecção de vilosidades, obstipação e doença disentérica em humanos e induzem a rejeição de transplantes de órgãos. Melhoria de seu estilo de vida, alimentos devidamente cozidos devem ser utilizados e para superar o aparecimento de doenças.

6.
Cureus ; 13(11): e19418, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909333

RESUMO

Musculoskeletal disorders represent a major public health problem and they are frequently managed in primary care centers. Shoulder pain is a frequent musculoskeletal complaint and it can result from intrinsic disorders of the shoulder or referred pain. We present the case of a 24-year-old woman who presented to the family medicine clinic complaining of left shoulder pain for three months duration. The pain was not associated with numbness or weakness. There was no history of preceding trauma. The initial diagnosis was supraspinatus tendinosis. The patient was prescribed oral analgesics and was advised to undergo multiple physiotherapy sessions. Later, the patient presented to the clinic again and reported she did not have any improvement in her symptoms. The patient was referred to the orthopedic clinic for further evaluation and management. The patient underwent a frontal radiograph of the chest which demonstrated a well-defined opacity located in the apex of the left lung. A computed tomography scan of the chest demonstrated the presence of erosion to the vertebral body raising the suspicion for a neurogenic tumor as was later supported by magnetic resonance imaging. The patient underwent video-assisted thoracotomy with brachial plexus exploration. Complete resection of the tumor was achieved with no complications. The present case highlights those common musculoskeletal complaints, such as shoulder pain, which could indicate underlying non-orthopedic pathology.

7.
J Nutr ; 2021 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggests lycopene and tomato intake are inversely associated with human prostate cancer incidence. Genetically-driven murine prostate carcinogenesis (TRAMP model) is inhibited by lycopene- or tomato-feeding, and these effects are modulated by beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (Bco2) genotype. OBJECTIVES: We seek insight into this interaction through evaluation of prostate gene expression patterns during early TRAMP carcinogenesis. METHODS: Three-week-old TRAMP/+ or TRAMP/- x Bco2+/+ or Bco2-/- mice were fed a control, lycopene beadlet, or 10% tomato powder-containing semi-purified diet (providing 0, 384 and 462 mg lycopene/kg diet, respectively) for 5 weeks. Gene expression patterns were evaluated by prostate cancer- and cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism-focused arrays at 8 weeks-of-age. RESULTS: TRAMP genotype profoundly alters gene expression patterns, specifically inducing pathways associated with cell survival (z-score = 2.09, -log(P-value) = 29.2), p53 signaling (z-score 1.13, -log(P-value) = 13.5), and PI3K/AKT signaling (z-score = 0.302, -log(P-value) = 12.1), while repressing PTEN signaling (z-score = -0.905, -log(P-value) = 12.3), cholesterol synthesis (z-score = -1.941, -log(P-value) = 26.2), and LXR/RXR pathway activation (z-score = -1.941, -log(P-value) = 23.1). In comparison, lycopene- and tomato-feeding modestly modulate strong procarcinogenic TRAMP signaling. Lycopene decreased gene expression related to carcinogenesis (Nkx3-1), tomato feeding increased expression of a gene involved in circadian regulation (Arntl), and tomato and/or lycopene increased expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism (Fasn, Acaca, Srebf1, Hmgcr, and Ptgs1) (all P < 0.05). The impact of Bco2 genotype was limited to a subset of lycopene-impacted genes (Apc, Mto1, Nfkb1, and Rbm39). CONCLUSIONS: The TRAMP genotype strongly impacts procarcinogenic gene expression prior to emergence of histopathologic disease. Dietary tomato and lycopene modestly temper these processes, while Bco2 genotype has a limited impact at this early stage. These observed patterns provide insight into the complex interactions between a dietary variable, here tomatoes and lycopene, genes impacting nutrient metabolism, and their modulating influences on oncogene-driven prostate carcinogenesis. These findings provide further mechanistic support, consistent with cancer outcomes in rodents experiments and human epidemiologic studies.

8.
Saudi Dent J ; 33(8): 923-928, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916765

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Tooth extraction is critical for dental treatment complications. One of the most discussed topics is socket healing after extraction. The Benex system allows extraction without causing unnecessary socket expansion by removing the tooth vertically, preserving both bone and soft tissue. Aim: To assess postoperative healing signs, symptoms, and complications using the Benex extraction system and compare it with conventional extraction among patients at Umm Al-Qura University. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with hopeless single-rooted teeth were included. They were divided into two equal groups: one in which teeth were extracted using the conventional method and one in which extractions were performed by Benex. The Benex system for tooth extraction was performed by drilling into the root canal, followed by screw insertion. Once the extractor was properly positioned, extraction was accomplished by turning the hand screw clockwise. At baseline, the wound size was evaluated. On days 1, 3, and 7 after extraction, telephone interviews were conducted to evaluate pain and post-extraction complications using a pain scale and questionnaire. Socket healing and wound size were evaluated after 2 and 4 weeks of extraction using the healing index and H2O2 epithelization test. Results: The Benex extraction system accelerated early soft-tissue healing and decreased pain and wound size compared with the control group. Conclusion. The Benex system is relatively safe and easy to use, but this does not eliminate the need for a degree of education and training. Proper selection of the case, knowledge of using the device, and implementation of that knowledge in the treatment planning are important factors in ensuring success with this system.

9.
Int J Pediatr ; 2021: 3327277, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899923

RESUMO

Background: Hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is a recessively inherited inborn error of metabolism affecting the final step of tyrosine catabolism. The accumulation of tyrosine toxic metabolites leads to progressive hepatic, renal, and neurological manifestations. Treatment of HT1 consists of tyrosine-restricted diets and nitisinone. The untreated disease progresses into life-threatening liver failure with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: From April 2010 to March 2021, eighteen patients were diagnosed with HT1 in the metabolic department at Queen Rania Al Abdullah Hospital for Children in Jordan. Patients were reviewed retrospectively regarding their clinical features, laboratory data, and sociodemographic history. Results: The mean age of nine boys and nine girls was 6.03 years (SD ± 3.85). The mean age for symptom onset was 5.61 months (SD ± 6.02). However, the diagnosis was belated from the onset by 10.50 months (±10.42). Nitisinone treatment was delayed from diagnosis around 12.28 months (SD ± 25.36). Most of the patients (66.7%) had acute onset of the disease. Two children (11.1%) died due to hepatic complications. Positive family history was identified in 61.1% of patients, and a similar percentage were born to parents with consanguineous marriage. The most common presentation was abdominal pain, vomiting, and fever. Hepatomegaly and abdominal distention were the most common findings. Six patients' (42.9%) first presentation was rickets. Conclusion: HT1 diagnosis is usually delayed because it is not part of newborn screening and nonfamiliarity with the clinical features of the disease. Therefore, nationwide newborn screening should be expanded to include HT1.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261040, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914761

RESUMO

Corrosion in carbon-steel pipelines leads to failure, which is a major cause of breakdown maintenance in the oil and gas industries. The acoustic emission (AE) signal is a reliable method for corrosion detection and classification in the modern Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system. The efficiency of this system in detection and classification mainly depends on the suitable AE features. Therefore, many feature extraction and classification methods have been developed for corrosion detection and severity assessment. However, the extraction of appropriate AE features and classification of various levels of corrosion utilizing these extracted features are still challenging issues. To overcome these issues, this article proposes a hybrid machine learning approach that combines Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) integrated with Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) for multiresolution feature extraction and Linear Support Vector Classifier (L-SVC) for predicting corrosion severity levels. A Laboratory-based Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) test was performed on carbon-steel samples for AE data acquisition over a different time span. AE signals were collected at a high sampling rate with a sound well AE sensor using AEWin software. Simulation results show a linear relationship between the proposed approach-based extracted AE features and the corrosion process. For multi-class problems, three corrosion severity stages have been made based on the corrosion rate over time and AE activity. The ANOVA test results indicate the significance within and between the feature-groups where F-values (F-value>1) rejects the null hypothesis and P-values (P-value<0.05) are less than the significance level. The utilized L-SVC classifier achieves higher prediction accuracy of 99.0% than the accuracy of other benchmarked classifiers. Findings of our proposed machine learning approach confirm that it can be effectively utilized for corrosion detection and severity assessment in SHM applications.


Assuntos
Acústica/instrumentação , Algoritmos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos Estatísticos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Análise de Ondaletas , Corrosão , Análise de Fourier
11.
Wiad Lek ; 74(9 cz 2): 2301-2304, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: This study was designed to investigate the potential role of miRNA-155 in the pathogenesis of HPV-induced cervical cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: A total of 42 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cervical cancer tissue samples and 38 FFPE normal cervical tissue samples were used (they were collected at the Department of Pathology, Baghdad teaching hospital, Baghdad, Iraq, between January 2019 to January 2021). Following HPV testing and genotyping, the expression of miRNA-155 were evaluated by real-time PCR (qPCR). RESULTS: Results: A statistically significant up-regulation of miRNA-155 expression was observed in cervical cancer tissues compared to results in control group, regardless of HPV status and clinical grading. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: These data suggest that overexpression of miRNA-155 can delineate cervical cancer tissues from normal and may be a useful diagnostic biomarker for early detection of cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , MicroRNAs , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico
12.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242614, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816974

RESUMO

Vegetables eating raw are a leading source of transmission of infective forms of pathogenic internal parasites among human beings. This research was conducted from April to October, 2017 to assess the parasitic contamination of vegetables sold at main vegetable markets in districts Lower Dir and Peshawar, Pakistan. Eight hundred specimens of different vegetables were purchased and soaked in physiological saline solution, shaken with a mechanical shaker for 20 minutes and processed by sedimentation concentration method. Results revealed that only 19.7% (n=158/800) of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with single or multiple parasite species. Ascaris lumbricoides (the large round worm) 12.3% (n=99/800) was the most commonly detected pathogen and Taenia saginata (the beef tapeworm) 1.62% (n=13/800) was the least frequently detected one. Interestingly, significant p value (p>0.05 at 95%CI) between the number of examined and contaminated for all the variables studied including education status of the vendors, markets location, type of vegetables, means of display, washed before display, washing source of water and market type. The findings of this study evidenced that consumption of raw vegetables possesses great risk of getting parasitic infections in Lower Dir and Peshawar districts, Pakistan. Instructing the sellers and the public about parasitic disease transfer and their hygiene can reduce the infection rate of parasites of human origin.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Parasitos , Animais , Bovinos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Verduras
13.
Korean J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743489

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and the factors associated with retinopathy among type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in Brunei Darussalam. Method: Cross-sectional study of all T2DM patients who attended diabetic eye screening over a three-month period at one of four government hospitals. We assessed association between DR with the following variables: age, gender, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), duration of DM, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and microalbuminuria. Results: There were 341 patients (female 58.9%; mean age 55.3 ± 11.9 yrs.) with a mean duration of DM of 9.4 ± 7.4 yrs. and mean serum HbA1c of 8.4 ± 1.9%. The overall prevalence of any DR was 22.6% (95% CI: 18.8-27.1) with prevalence rates of 4.1% (95% CI: 2.1- 6.4) for proliferative DR (PDR) and 9.7% (95% CI: 6.8-13.2) for vision threatening DR (VTDR). Multivariate analysis showed that DR was significantly associated with certain age groups (reduced in older age groups), longer duration of DM (11yrs or more), poor control (HbA1c > 9.0%) and presence of any microalbuminuria. Conclusion: DR affects one in five patients with DM in Brunei Darussalam, comparable to rates reported for other Asian populations. It is especially worrying that one in ten patients with DM had VTDR. DR was significantly associated with longer duration of DM, poor control and presence of microalbuminuria but reduced in older age groups. It is important to advocate good control right from the time of diagnosis of DM and institute timely and effective management of retinopathy.

14.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis is known to be common among children, but there are few studies examining the epidemiology across the life course. In particular, there is a paucity of data on atopic dermatitis among older adults. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate participant characteristics, patterns of disease activity and severity, and calendar trends in older adult atopic dermatitis in comparison to other age groups in a large population-based cohort. METHODS: This was a cohort study of 9,154,936 individuals aged 0-99 years registered in The Health Improvement Network, a database comprised of electronic health records from general practices in the United Kingdom between 1994 and 2013. Atopic dermatitis was defined by a previously validated algorithm using a combination of at least one recorded atopic dermatitis diagnostic code in primary care and two atopic dermatitis therapies recorded on separate days. Cross-sectional analyses of disease prevalence were conducted at each age. Logistic mixed effect regression models were used to identify predictors of prevalent disease over time among children (0-17 years), adults (18-74 years), and older adults (75-99 years). RESULTS: Physician-diagnosed atopic dermatitis was identified in 894,454 individuals with the following proportions in each age group: 18.3% of children, 7.7% of adults, and 11.6% of older adults. Additionally, atopic dermatitis prevalence increased across the 2-decade period (beta from linear regression test for trend in the change in proportion per year = 0.005, p = 0.044). In older adults, atopic dermatitis was 27% less common among females (adjusted OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.70-0.76) and was more likely to be active (59.7%, 95% CI 59.5-59.9%) and of higher severity (mean annual percentage with moderate and severe disease: 31.8% and 3.0%, respectively) than in other age groups. CONCLUSION: In a large population-based cohort, the prevalence of physician-diagnosed atopic dermatitis has increased throughout adulthood and was most common among males age 75 years and above. Compared to children ages 0-17 and adults ages 18-74, older adult atopic dermatitis was more active and severe. Because the prevalence of atopic dermatitis among older adults has increased over time, additional characterization of disease triggers and mechanisms and targeted treatment recommendations are needed for this population.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cancer Med ; 10(22): 8020-8028, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626088

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is the third most common cancer in Malaysia with the lifetime risk of 1 in 117 men. Here, we initiated a longitudinal Malaysia Prostate Cancer (M-CaP) Study to investigate the clinical and tumour characteristics, treatment patterns as well as disease outcomes of multi-ethnic Asian men at real-world setting. The M-CaP database consisted of 1839 new patients with prostate cancer diagnosed between 2016 and 2018 from nine public urology referral centres across Malaysia. Basic demographic and clinical parameters, tumour characteristics, primary treatment, follow-up and vital status data were retrieved prospectively from the hospital-based patients' case notes or electronic medical records. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS). The median age at diagnosis of M-CaP patients was 70 years (interquartile range, IQR 65-75). Majority of patients were Chinese (831, 45.2%), followed by Malays (704, 38.3%), Indians (124, 6.7%) and other races (181, 9.8%). The median follow-up for all patients was 23.5 months (IQR 15.9-33.6). Although 58.1% presented with late-stage cancer, we observed ethnic and geographic disparities in late-stage prostate cancer diagnosis. Curative radiotherapy and primary androgen deprivation therapy were the most common treatment for stage III and stage IV diseases, respectively. The median OS and bPFS of stage IV patients were 40.1 months and 19.2 months (95% CI 17.6-20.8), respectively. Late stage at presentation remains a challenge in multi-ethnic Asian men. Early detection is imperative to improve treatment outcome and survival of patients with prostate cancer.

16.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668045

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are xenobiotic chemicals of global concern due to their long-range transport capabilities, persistence, ability to bioaccumulate, and potential to have negative effects on human health and the environment. Identifying POPs in both the environment and human body is therefore essential for assessing potential health risks, but their diverse range of chemical classes challenge analytical techniques. Currently, platforms coupling chromatography approaches with mass spectrometry (MS) are the most common analytical methods employed to evaluate both parent POPs and their respective metabolites and/or degradants in samples ranging from d rinking water to biofluids. Unfortunately, different types of analyses are commonly needed to assess both the parent and metabolite/degradant POPs from the various chemical classes. The multiple time-consuming analyses necessary thus present a number of technical and logistical challenges when rapid evaluations are needed and sample volumes are limited. To address these challenges, we characterized 64 compounds including parent per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), in addition to their metabolites and/or degradants, using ion mobility spectrometry coupled with MS (IMS-MS) as a potential rapid screening technique. Different ionization sources including electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) were employed to determine optimal ionization for each chemical. Collectively, this study advances the field of exposure assessment by structurally characterizing the 64 important environmental pollutants, assessing their best ionization sources, and evaluating their rapid screening potential with IMS-MS.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639185

RESUMO

Local activation of an anti-cancer drug when and where needed can improve selectivity and reduce undesirable side effects. Photoswitchable drugs can be selectively switched between active and inactive states by illumination with light; however, the clinical development of these drugs has been restricted by the difficulty in delivering light deep into tissue where needed. Optical fibres have great potential for light delivery in vivo, but their use in facilitating photoswitching in anti-cancer compounds has not yet been explored. In this paper, a photoswitchable chemotherapeutic is switched using an optical fibre, and the cytotoxicity of each state is measured against HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells. The performance of optical-fibre-enabled photoswitching is characterised through its dose response. The UV-Vis spectra confirm light delivered by an optical fibre effectively enables photoswitching. The activated drug is shown to be twice as effective as the inactive drug in causing cancer cell death, characterised using an MTT assay and fluorescent microscopy. This is the first study in which a photoswitchable anti-cancer compound is switched using an optical fibre and demonstrates the feasibility of using optical fibres to activate photoswitchable drugs for potential future clinical applications.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Dimetil Sulfóxido/química , Fibras Ópticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Antineoplásicos/química , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
18.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246904, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706025

RESUMO

Hyperhydricity is a serious physiological disorder and affects In vitro propagation of many plants and as well of Salvia santolinifolia. The donor material to initiate the in vitro culture was the callus taken from the in vitro shoots produced on Murashig and Skoogs (MS) medium at 4.0 mg/l BA. This callus formed numerous hyperhydric shoots on culturing upon the medium of the same composition. The aim was to systematically evaluate the effect of cytokinins (Benzyladnine (BA) and N6-(-2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP), culture vessels magnitude, medium solidification, source of nitrogen and calcium chloride for the alleviation of hyperhydricity. In the tissue cultures of S. santolinifolia BA and 2iP induced severe hyperhydricity, when other factors i.e. culture vessels magnitude and a suitable concentration of agar, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), potassium nitrate (KNO3) & calcium chloride (CaCl2.2H2O) were not optimized. After 30 days' culture, we observed 83.82% hyperhydric shoots at increased level (1.5 mg/l 2iP) and 81.59% at decreased levels (1.0 mg/l 2iP). On the other hand, hyperhydricity percentage at decreased (0.4%) and at increased (0.8%) levels of agar were 72.37% and 39.08%, respectively. MS medium modification with NH4NO3 (412 mg/l), KNO3 (475 mg/l) and CaCl2.2H2O (880 mg/l) was found the best medium to reduced hyperhydricity (23.6%).


Assuntos
Salvia , Meios de Cultura , Brotos de Planta
20.
Energy Fuels ; 35(13): 10529-10539, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366560

RESUMO

Ion mobility spectrometry coupled with mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) is a post-ionization separation technique that can be used for rapid multidimensional analyses of complex samples. IMS-MS offers untargeted analysis, including ion-specific conformational data derived as collisional cross section (CCS) values. Here, we combine nitrogen gas drift tube CCS (DTCCSN2) and Kendrick mass defect (KMD) analyses based on CH2 and H functional units to enable compositional analyses of petroleum substances. First, polycyclic aromatic compound standards were analyzed by IMS-MS to demonstrate how CCS assists the identification of isomeric species in homologous series. Next, we used case studies of a gasoline standard previously characterized for paraffin, isoparaffin, aromatic, naphthene, and olefinic (PIANO) compounds, and a crude oil sample to demonstrate the application of the KMD analyses and CCS filtering. Finally, we propose a workflow that enables confident molecular formula assignment to the IMS-MS-derived features in petroleum samples. Collectively, this work demonstrates how rapid untargeted IMS-MS analysis and the proposed data processing workflow can be used to provide confident compositional characterization of hydrocarbon-containing substances.

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