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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239219, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153471

RESUMO

Abstract Salmo trutta fario is the most important fish species of family Salmonidae inhibited in cool waters all over the world including the nortern parts of Pakistan. This study was aimed to find out the prey selection and feeding habits of the species. One hundred and eighty five Salmo trutta fario were captured from March 2016 to April 2017. Feeding intensity as represented by a fullness index (FI), changing with various length groups and season. Out of 185 Brown trout 24 fish stomaches were found empty. The most important and common food items of brown trout were Brachycentridae, Blepharocera, Hydropsychidae, ephemerella spp. Kruskal Wallis H-test were applied on feeding intensity groups consisting of three month group. The test statistic for K.W-H-test were (H=8.13 with df =3) had a p-value of 0.043 < (alpha=0.05 indicates favor of the alternative hypothesis of at least one difference among the feeding intensity groups. The linear relationship of N with index of relative importance and %IRI denoted by least square regression line (N = 35.2 + 22.1%IRI), shows that for 22 prey there is 1% change in IRI. The relationship between total length (mm) and fish body weight (gm) is expressed by Pearson correlation coefficient (r = 0.976), showed that total length (mm) and fish body weight (gm.) is highly correlated. Descriptive statistics are used for the stomach fullness, which shows that feeding intensity was recorded higher from March to May. A total of 2289 preys was recorded including the most common were; Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae, Brachycentridae, diptera, blepharocera, ephemerala, chironomida, honey bees, grass hopper, locust, trout egg, trochanter, plant tissue, stones were retrieved from the gut contents of brown trout. According to index of relative importance IRI% four preys represents major components of the diet. The highest IRI% was recorded in Brachycentridae (39.38%), followed by blepharocera (13.23%), Hydropsychidae (10.76%) and ephemerella spp (8.28%). The relationship between IRI and FO is (r =0.556) is moderately correlated with coefficient of determination (r2=0.31). This study will help in the development of an artificial diet for the species for better growth performance in captivity.


Resumo Salmo trutta fario é a espécie de peixe mais importante da família dos salmonídeos, inibida em águas frias em todo o mundo, incluindo as partes do noroeste do Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a seleção de presas e os hábitos alimentares da espécie. Cento e oitenta e cinco Salmo trutta fario foram capturados de março de 2016 a abril de 2017. Intensidade de alimentação representada por um índice de plenitude (FI), mudando com vários grupos de comprimento e estação. De 185 trutas, 24 estômagos de peixes foram encontrados vazios. Os itens alimentares mais importantes e comuns da truta marrom foram brachycentridae, blepharocera, hydropsychidae, ephemerellaspp. O teste H de Kruskal Wallis foi aplicado em grupos de intensidade de alimentação consistindo de um grupo de três meses. A estatística de teste para o teste KW-H foi (H = 8,13 com df = 3) teve um valor de p de 0,043 <(alfa = 0,05 indica favor da hipótese alternativa de pelo menos uma diferença entre os grupos de intensidade de alimentação. relação de N com o índice de importância relativa e% IRI denotado pela linha de regressão do mínimo quadrado (N = 35,2 + 22,1% IRI), mostra que para 22 presas há 1% de mudança no IRI. A relação entre comprimento total (mm) e peixes o peso corporal (gm) é expresso pelo coeficiente de correlação de Pearson (r = 0,976), mostrou que o comprimento total (mm) e o peso corporal dos peixes (gm.) são altamente correlacionados. Estatísticas descritivas são usadas para a plenitude do estômago, o que mostra que a intensidade da alimentação foi registrado mais alto de março a maio. Um total de 2.289 presas foi registrado, incluindo os mais comuns foram; trichoptera, hydropsychidae, brachycentridae, diptera, blepharocera, efemérala, chironomida, abelhas, funil de grama, gafanhoto, ovo de truta, trocânter, tecido vegetal, pedras foram retiradas do intestino conteúdo de truta marrom. De acordo com o índice de importância relativa IRI%, quatro presas representam os principais componentes da dieta. O maior IRI% foi registrado em brachycentridae (39,38%), seguido por blepharocera (13,23%), hydropsychidae (10,76%) e ephemerellaspp (8,28%). A relação entre IRI e FO é (r = 0,556) está moderadamente correlacionada com o coeficiente de determinação (r2 = 0,31). Este estudo auxiliará no desenvolvimento de uma dieta artificial para a espécie para melhor desempenho de crescimento em cativeiro.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238874, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249231

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This research was aimed to explore the helminth parasitic diseases in Schizothorax plagiostomus (the snow trout) from river Swat and river Panjkora, Pakistan. Collection of 360 fish specimens have done from the lower, middle and upper reaches of both the rivers through gill nets, cast nets, dragon nets and hooks. All the samples were examined in the University of Malakand, Zoology Department for helminth parasites during the months from January 2015 to December 2016. Of the total examined fish samples 21.9% (n=79) were infected with Rhabdochona spp including 17.7% (n=32/180) in river Swat and 26.6% (n=47/180) in river Panjkora. Highest month-wise prevalence (p=0.09878,p<0.05) was reported in May (30%), then by February and October each (26.6%) while the lowest during August (13.3%). Highest prevalence (p=0.9723, p<0.05) was reported in summer season (26.6%), while lowest in the winter season (20%). Adults were highly infected (p=< 0.0001) in prevalence (63.7%) followed by sub-adults (13.2%) while no infection was found in juvenile specimens. Females fish samples had higher (p=0.0277, p>0.05) prevalence (28.8%) than males (16.6%). Fishes of the lower reaches had highest (p=0.0029, P>0.05) prevalence (31.7%) followed by middle reaches (16.5%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in samples of fish collected from upper reaches (9.87%). Present study address that Rhabdochona spp in the intestine of snow trout has a long term relationship and call as a natural infection in cyprinids and zoonotic risk to human.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo explorar as doenças parasitárias por helmintos em Schizothorax plagiostomus (a truta das neves) do rio Swat e do rio Panjkora, Paquistão. A coleta de 360 ​​espécimes de peixes foi feita nos trechos inferior, médio e superior de ambos os rios por meio de redes de emalhar, de lançamento, de dragão e anzóis. Todas as amostras foram examinadas na Universidade de Malakand, Departamento de Zoologia, para helmintos parasitas durante os meses de janeiro de 2015 a dezembro de 2016. Do total de amostras de peixes examinadas, 21,9% (n = 79) estavam infectados com Rhabdochona spp, incluindo 17,7% (n = 32/180) no rio Swat e 26,6% (n = 47/180) no rio Panjkora. A maior prevalência no mês (p = 0,09878, p <0,05) foi relatada em maio (30%), depois em fevereiro e outubro cada (26,6%), enquanto a menor em agosto (13,3%). A maior prevalência (p = 0,9723, p <0,05) foi relatada no verão (26,6%), enquanto a menor no inverno (20%). Os adultos foram altamente infectados (p = <0,0001) na prevalência (63,7%), seguidos por subadultos (13,2%), enquanto nenhuma infecção foi encontrada em espécimes juvenis. As amostras de peixes do sexo feminino tiveram maior (p = 0,0277, p> 0,05) prevalência (28,8%) do que o masculino (16,6%). Os peixes do curso inferior tiveram maior (p = 0,0029, P> 0,05) prevalência (31,7%) seguida do curso médio (16,5%), enquanto a menor prevalência foi observada em amostras de peixes coletados do curso superior (9,87%). O presente estudo aborda que Rhabdochona spp no ​​intestino da truta das neves tem uma relação de longo prazo e pode ser considerada uma infecção natural em ciprinídeos e risco zoonótico para humanos.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762574

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This research was aimed to explore the helminth parasitic diseases in Schizothorax plagiostomus (the snow trout) from river Swat and river Panjkora, Pakistan. Collection of 360 fish specimens have done from the lower, middle and upper reaches of both the rivers through gill nets, cast nets, dragon nets and hooks. All the samples were examined in the University of Malakand, Zoology Department for helminth parasites during the months from January 2015 to December 2016. Of the total examined fish samples 21.9% (n=79) were infected with Rhabdochona spp including 17.7% (n=32/180) in river Swat and 26.6% (n=47/180) in river Panjkora. Highest month-wise prevalence (p=0.09878,p 0.05) was reported in May (30%), then by February and October each (26.6%) while the lowest during August (13.3%). Highest prevalence (p=0.9723, p 0.05) was reported in summer season (26.6%), while lowest in the winter season (20%). Adults were highly infected (p= 0.0001) in prevalence (63.7%) followed by sub-adults (13.2%) while no infection was found in juvenile specimens. Females fish samples had higher (p=0.0277, p>0.05) prevalence (28.8%) than males (16.6%). Fishes of the lower reaches had highest (p=0.0029, P>0.05) prevalence (31.7%) followed by middle reaches (16.5%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in samples of fish collected from upper reaches (9.87%). Present study address that Rhabdochona spp in the intestine of snow trout has a long term relationship and call as a natural infection in cyprinids and zoonotic risk to human.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo explorar as doenças parasitárias por helmintos em Schizothorax plagiostomus (a truta das neves) do rio Swat e do rio Panjkora, Paquistão. A coleta de 360 espécimes de peixes foi feita nos trechos inferior, médio e superior de ambos os rios por meio de redes de emalhar, de lançamento, de dragão e anzóis. Todas as amostras foram examinadas na Universidade de Malakand, Departamento de Zoologia, para helmintos parasitas durante os meses de janeiro de 2015 a dezembro de 2016. Do total de amostras de peixes examinadas, 21,9% (n = 79) estavam infectados com Rhabdochona spp, incluindo 17,7% (n = 32/180) no rio Swat e 26,6% (n = 47/180) no rio Panjkora. A maior prevalência no mês (p = 0,09878, p 0,05) foi relatada em maio (30%), depois em fevereiro e outubro cada (26,6%), enquanto a menor em agosto (13,3%). A maior prevalência (p = 0,9723, p 0,05) foi relatada no verão (26,6%), enquanto a menor no inverno (20%). Os adultos foram altamente infectados (p = 0,0001) na prevalência (63,7%), seguidos por subadultos (13,2%), enquanto nenhuma infecção foi encontrada em espécimes juvenis. As amostras de peixes do sexo feminino tiveram maior (p = 0,0277, p> 0,05) prevalência (28,8%) do que o masculino (16,6%). Os peixes do curso inferior tiveram maior (p = 0,0029, P> 0,05) prevalência (31,7%) seguida do curso médio (16,5%), enquanto a menor prevalência foi observada em amostras de peixes coletados do curso superior (9,87%). O presente estudo aborda que Rhabdochona spp no intestino da truta das neves tem uma relação de longo prazo e pode ser considerada uma infecção natural em ciprinídeos e risco zoonótico para humanos.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762057

RESUMO

Abstract Salmo trutta fario is the most important fish species of family Salmonidae inhibited in cool waters all over the world including the nortern parts of Pakistan. This study was aimed to find out the prey selection and feeding habits of the species. One hundred and eighty five Salmo trutta fario were captured from March 2016 to April 2017. Feeding intensity as represented by a fullness index (FI), changing with various length groups and season. Out of 185 Brown trout 24 fish stomaches were found empty. The most important and common food items of brown trout were Brachycentridae, Blepharocera, Hydropsychidae, ephemerella spp. Kruskal Wallis H-test were applied on feeding intensity groups consisting of three month group. The test statistic for K.W-H-test were (H=8.13 with df =3) had a p-value of 0.043 (alpha=0.05 indicates favor of the alternative hypothesis of at least one difference among the feeding intensity groups. The linear relationship of N with index of relative importance and %IRI denoted by least square regression line (N = 35.2 + 22.1%IRI), shows that for 22 prey there is 1% change in IRI. The relationship between total length (mm) and fish body weight (gm) is expressed by Pearson correlation coefficient (r = 0.976), showed that total length (mm) and fish body weight (gm.) is highly correlated. Descriptive statistics are used for the stomach fullness, which shows that feeding intensity was recorded higher from March to May. A total of 2289 preys was recorded including the most common were; Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae, Brachycentridae, diptera, blepharocera, ephemerala, chironomida, honey bees, grass hopper, locust, trout egg, trochanter, plant tissue, stones were retrieved from the gut contents of brown trout. According to index of relative importance IRI% four preys represents major components of the diet. The highest IRI% was recorded in Brachycentridae (39.38%), followed by blepharocera (13.23%), Hydropsychidae (10.76%) and ephemerella spp (8.28%). The relationship between IRI and FO is (r =0.556) is moderately correlated with coefficient of determination (r2=0.31). This study will help in the development of an artificial diet for the species for better growth performance in captivity.


Resumo Salmo trutta fario é a espécie de peixe mais importante da família dos salmonídeos, inibida em águas frias em todo o mundo, incluindo as partes do noroeste do Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a seleção de presas e os hábitos alimentares da espécie. Cento e oitenta e cinco Salmo trutta fario foram capturados de março de 2016 a abril de 2017. Intensidade de alimentação representada por um índice de plenitude (FI), mudando com vários grupos de comprimento e estação. De 185 trutas, 24 estômagos de peixes foram encontrados vazios. Os itens alimentares mais importantes e comuns da truta marrom foram brachycentridae, blepharocera, hydropsychidae, ephemerellaspp. O teste H de Kruskal Wallis foi aplicado em grupos de intensidade de alimentação consistindo de um grupo de três meses. A estatística de teste para o teste KW-H foi (H = 8,13 com df = 3) teve um valor de p de 0,043 (alfa = 0,05 indica favor da hipótese alternativa de pelo menos uma diferença entre os grupos de intensidade de alimentação. relação de N com o índice de importância relativa e% IRI denotado pela linha de regressão do mínimo quadrado (N = 35,2 + 22,1% IRI), mostra que para 22 presas há 1% de mudança no IRI. A relação entre comprimento total (mm) e peixes o peso corporal (gm) é expresso pelo coeficiente de correlação de Pearson (r = 0,976), mostrou que o comprimento total (mm) e o peso corporal dos peixes (gm.) são altamente correlacionados. Estatísticas descritivas são usadas para a plenitude do estômago, o que mostra que a intensidade da alimentação foi registrado mais alto de março a maio. Um total de 2.289 presas foi registrado, incluindo os mais comuns foram; trichoptera, hydropsychidae, brachycentridae, diptera, blepharocera, efemérala, chironomida, abelhas, funil de grama, gafanhoto, ovo de truta, trocânter, tecido vegetal, pedras foram retiradas do intestino conteúdo de truta marrom. De acordo com o índice de importância relativa IRI%, quatro presas representam os principais componentes da dieta. O maior IRI% foi registrado em brachycentridae (39,38%), seguido por blepharocera (13,23%), hydropsychidae (10,76%) e ephemerellaspp (8,28%). A relação entre IRI e FO é (r = 0,556) está moderadamente correlacionada com o coeficiente de determinação (r2 = 0,31). Este estudo auxiliará no desenvolvimento de uma dieta artificial para a espécie para melhor desempenho de crescimento em cativeiro.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 940-953, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153447

RESUMO

Abstract Nowadays food borne illness is most common in people due to their epidemic nature. These diseases affect the human digestive system through bacteria, viruses and parasites. The agents of illness are transmitted in our body through various types of food items, water and uncooked. Pathogens show drastic changes in immunosuppressant people. This review gives general insights to harmful microbial life. Pakistan is a developed country and because of its improper food management, a lot of gastrointestinal problems are noted in many patients. Bacteria are most common agents to spread diarrhoea, villi infection, constipation and dysenteric disease in human and induce the rejection of organ transplant. Enhancement of their lifestyle, properly cooked food should be used and to overcome the outbreak of the diseases.


Resumo Hoje em dia, as doenças transmitidas por alimentos são mais comuns em pessoas devido à sua natureza epidêmica. Essas doenças afetam o sistema digestivo humano por meio de bactérias, vírus e parasitas. Os agentes das doenças são transmitidos em nosso corpo por meio de diversos tipos de alimentos, água e crus. Os patógenos mostram mudanças drásticas em pessoas imunossupressoras. Esta revisão fornece uma visão geral da vida microbiana prejudicial. O Paquistão é um país desenvolvido e, devido ao seu manejo alimentar inadequado, muitos problemas gastrointestinais são observados em muitos pacientes. As bactérias são os agentes mais comuns para espalhar diarreia, infecção de vilosidades, obstipação e doença disentérica em humanos e induzem a rejeição de transplantes de órgãos. Melhoria de seu estilo de vida, alimentos devidamente cozidos devem ser utilizados e para superar o aparecimento de doenças.

6.
Korean J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743489

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and the factors associated with retinopathy among type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in Brunei Darussalam. Method: Cross-sectional study of all T2DM patients who attended diabetic eye screening over a three-month period at one of four government hospitals. We assessed association between DR with the following variables: age, gender, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), duration of DM, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and microalbuminuria. Results: There were 341 patients (female 58.9%; mean age 55.3 ± 11.9 yrs.) with a mean duration of DM of 9.4 ± 7.4 yrs. and mean serum HbA1c of 8.4 ± 1.9%. The overall prevalence of any DR was 22.6% (95% CI: 18.8-27.1) with prevalence rates of 4.1% (95% CI: 2.1- 6.4) for proliferative DR (PDR) and 9.7% (95% CI: 6.8-13.2) for vision threatening DR (VTDR). Multivariate analysis showed that DR was significantly associated with certain age groups (reduced in older age groups), longer duration of DM (11yrs or more), poor control (HbA1c > 9.0%) and presence of any microalbuminuria. Conclusion: DR affects one in five patients with DM in Brunei Darussalam, comparable to rates reported for other Asian populations. It is especially worrying that one in ten patients with DM had VTDR. DR was significantly associated with longer duration of DM, poor control and presence of microalbuminuria but reduced in older age groups. It is important to advocate good control right from the time of diagnosis of DM and institute timely and effective management of retinopathy.

7.
Wiad Lek ; 74(9 cz 2): 2301-2304, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: This study was designed to investigate the potential role of miRNA-155 in the pathogenesis of HPV-induced cervical cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: A total of 42 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cervical cancer tissue samples and 38 FFPE normal cervical tissue samples were used (they were collected at the Department of Pathology, Baghdad teaching hospital, Baghdad, Iraq, between January 2019 to January 2021). Following HPV testing and genotyping, the expression of miRNA-155 were evaluated by real-time PCR (qPCR). RESULTS: Results: A statistically significant up-regulation of miRNA-155 expression was observed in cervical cancer tissues compared to results in control group, regardless of HPV status and clinical grading. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: These data suggest that overexpression of miRNA-155 can delineate cervical cancer tissues from normal and may be a useful diagnostic biomarker for early detection of cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , MicroRNAs , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico
8.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242614, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816974

RESUMO

Vegetables eating raw are a leading source of transmission of infective forms of pathogenic internal parasites among human beings. This research was conducted from April to October, 2017 to assess the parasitic contamination of vegetables sold at main vegetable markets in districts Lower Dir and Peshawar, Pakistan. Eight hundred specimens of different vegetables were purchased and soaked in physiological saline solution, shaken with a mechanical shaker for 20 minutes and processed by sedimentation concentration method. Results revealed that only 19.7% (n=158/800) of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with single or multiple parasite species. Ascaris lumbricoides (the large round worm) 12.3% (n=99/800) was the most commonly detected pathogen and Taenia saginata (the beef tapeworm) 1.62% (n=13/800) was the least frequently detected one. Interestingly, significant p value (p>0.05 at 95%CI) between the number of examined and contaminated for all the variables studied including education status of the vendors, markets location, type of vegetables, means of display, washed before display, washing source of water and market type. The findings of this study evidenced that consumption of raw vegetables possesses great risk of getting parasitic infections in Lower Dir and Peshawar districts, Pakistan. Instructing the sellers and the public about parasitic disease transfer and their hygiene can reduce the infection rate of parasites of human origin.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Parasitos , Animais , Bovinos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Verduras
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639185

RESUMO

Local activation of an anti-cancer drug when and where needed can improve selectivity and reduce undesirable side effects. Photoswitchable drugs can be selectively switched between active and inactive states by illumination with light; however, the clinical development of these drugs has been restricted by the difficulty in delivering light deep into tissue where needed. Optical fibres have great potential for light delivery in vivo, but their use in facilitating photoswitching in anti-cancer compounds has not yet been explored. In this paper, a photoswitchable chemotherapeutic is switched using an optical fibre, and the cytotoxicity of each state is measured against HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells. The performance of optical-fibre-enabled photoswitching is characterised through its dose response. The UV-Vis spectra confirm light delivered by an optical fibre effectively enables photoswitching. The activated drug is shown to be twice as effective as the inactive drug in causing cancer cell death, characterised using an MTT assay and fluorescent microscopy. This is the first study in which a photoswitchable anti-cancer compound is switched using an optical fibre and demonstrates the feasibility of using optical fibres to activate photoswitchable drugs for potential future clinical applications.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Dimetil Sulfóxido/química , Fibras Ópticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Antineoplásicos/química , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
10.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246904, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706025

RESUMO

Hyperhydricity is a serious physiological disorder and affects In vitro propagation of many plants and as well of Salvia santolinifolia. The donor material to initiate the in vitro culture was the callus taken from the in vitro shoots produced on Murashig and Skoogs (MS) medium at 4.0 mg/l BA. This callus formed numerous hyperhydric shoots on culturing upon the medium of the same composition. The aim was to systematically evaluate the effect of cytokinins (Benzyladnine (BA) and N6-(-2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP), culture vessels magnitude, medium solidification, source of nitrogen and calcium chloride for the alleviation of hyperhydricity. In the tissue cultures of S. santolinifolia BA and 2iP induced severe hyperhydricity, when other factors i.e. culture vessels magnitude and a suitable concentration of agar, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), potassium nitrate (KNO3) & calcium chloride (CaCl2.2H2O) were not optimized. After 30 days' culture, we observed 83.82% hyperhydric shoots at increased level (1.5 mg/l 2iP) and 81.59% at decreased levels (1.0 mg/l 2iP). On the other hand, hyperhydricity percentage at decreased (0.4%) and at increased (0.8%) levels of agar were 72.37% and 39.08%, respectively. MS medium modification with NH4NO3 (412 mg/l), KNO3 (475 mg/l) and CaCl2.2H2O (880 mg/l) was found the best medium to reduced hyperhydricity (23.6%).


Assuntos
Salvia , Meios de Cultura , Brotos de Planta
11.
Cancer Med ; 10(22): 8020-8028, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626088

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is the third most common cancer in Malaysia with the lifetime risk of 1 in 117 men. Here, we initiated a longitudinal Malaysia Prostate Cancer (M-CaP) Study to investigate the clinical and tumour characteristics, treatment patterns as well as disease outcomes of multi-ethnic Asian men at real-world setting. The M-CaP database consisted of 1839 new patients with prostate cancer diagnosed between 2016 and 2018 from nine public urology referral centres across Malaysia. Basic demographic and clinical parameters, tumour characteristics, primary treatment, follow-up and vital status data were retrieved prospectively from the hospital-based patients' case notes or electronic medical records. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS). The median age at diagnosis of M-CaP patients was 70 years (interquartile range, IQR 65-75). Majority of patients were Chinese (831, 45.2%), followed by Malays (704, 38.3%), Indians (124, 6.7%) and other races (181, 9.8%). The median follow-up for all patients was 23.5 months (IQR 15.9-33.6). Although 58.1% presented with late-stage cancer, we observed ethnic and geographic disparities in late-stage prostate cancer diagnosis. Curative radiotherapy and primary androgen deprivation therapy were the most common treatment for stage III and stage IV diseases, respectively. The median OS and bPFS of stage IV patients were 40.1 months and 19.2 months (95% CI 17.6-20.8), respectively. Late stage at presentation remains a challenge in multi-ethnic Asian men. Early detection is imperative to improve treatment outcome and survival of patients with prostate cancer.

12.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668045

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are xenobiotic chemicals of global concern due to their long-range transport capabilities, persistence, ability to bioaccumulate, and potential to have negative effects on human health and the environment. Identifying POPs in both the environment and human body is therefore essential for assessing potential health risks, but their diverse range of chemical classes challenge analytical techniques. Currently, platforms coupling chromatography approaches with mass spectrometry (MS) are the most common analytical methods employed to evaluate both parent POPs and their respective metabolites and/or degradants in samples ranging from d rinking water to biofluids. Unfortunately, different types of analyses are commonly needed to assess both the parent and metabolite/degradant POPs from the various chemical classes. The multiple time-consuming analyses necessary thus present a number of technical and logistical challenges when rapid evaluations are needed and sample volumes are limited. To address these challenges, we characterized 64 compounds including parent per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), in addition to their metabolites and/or degradants, using ion mobility spectrometry coupled with MS (IMS-MS) as a potential rapid screening technique. Different ionization sources including electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) were employed to determine optimal ionization for each chemical. Collectively, this study advances the field of exposure assessment by structurally characterizing the 64 important environmental pollutants, assessing their best ionization sources, and evaluating their rapid screening potential with IMS-MS.

13.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis is known to be common among children, but there are few studies examining the epidemiology across the life course. In particular, there is a paucity of data on atopic dermatitis among older adults. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate participant characteristics, patterns of disease activity and severity, and calendar trends in older adult atopic dermatitis in comparison to other age groups in a large population-based cohort. METHODS: This was a cohort study of 9,154,936 individuals aged 0-99 years registered in The Health Improvement Network, a database comprised of electronic health records from general practices in the United Kingdom between 1994 and 2013. Atopic dermatitis was defined by a previously validated algorithm using a combination of at least one recorded atopic dermatitis diagnostic code in primary care and two atopic dermatitis therapies recorded on separate days. Cross-sectional analyses of disease prevalence were conducted at each age. Logistic mixed effect regression models were used to identify predictors of prevalent disease over time among children (0-17 years), adults (18-74 years), and older adults (75-99 years). RESULTS: Physician-diagnosed atopic dermatitis was identified in 894,454 individuals with the following proportions in each age group: 18.3% of children, 7.7% of adults, and 11.6% of older adults. Additionally, atopic dermatitis prevalence increased across the 2-decade period (beta from linear regression test for trend in the change in proportion per year = 0.005, p = 0.044). In older adults, atopic dermatitis was 27% less common among females (adjusted OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.70-0.76) and was more likely to be active (59.7%, 95% CI 59.5-59.9%) and of higher severity (mean annual percentage with moderate and severe disease: 31.8% and 3.0%, respectively) than in other age groups. CONCLUSION: In a large population-based cohort, the prevalence of physician-diagnosed atopic dermatitis has increased throughout adulthood and was most common among males age 75 years and above. Compared to children ages 0-17 and adults ages 18-74, older adult atopic dermatitis was more active and severe. Because the prevalence of atopic dermatitis among older adults has increased over time, additional characterization of disease triggers and mechanisms and targeted treatment recommendations are needed for this population.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Energy Fuels ; 35(13): 10529-10539, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366560

RESUMO

Ion mobility spectrometry coupled with mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) is a post-ionization separation technique that can be used for rapid multidimensional analyses of complex samples. IMS-MS offers untargeted analysis, including ion-specific conformational data derived as collisional cross section (CCS) values. Here, we combine nitrogen gas drift tube CCS (DTCCSN2) and Kendrick mass defect (KMD) analyses based on CH2 and H functional units to enable compositional analyses of petroleum substances. First, polycyclic aromatic compound standards were analyzed by IMS-MS to demonstrate how CCS assists the identification of isomeric species in homologous series. Next, we used case studies of a gasoline standard previously characterized for paraffin, isoparaffin, aromatic, naphthene, and olefinic (PIANO) compounds, and a crude oil sample to demonstrate the application of the KMD analyses and CCS filtering. Finally, we propose a workflow that enables confident molecular formula assignment to the IMS-MS-derived features in petroleum samples. Collectively, this work demonstrates how rapid untargeted IMS-MS analysis and the proposed data processing workflow can be used to provide confident compositional characterization of hydrocarbon-containing substances.

16.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 14(1): 159, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281615

RESUMO

Population increase and industrialization has resulted in high energy demand and consumptions, and presently, fossil fuels are the major source of staple energy, supplying 80% of the entire consumption. This has contributed immensely to the greenhouse gas emission and leading to global warming, and as a result of this, there is a tremendous urgency to investigate and improve fresh and renewable energy sources worldwide. One of such renewable energy sources is biogas that is generated by anaerobic fermentation that uses different wastes such as agricultural residues, animal manure, and other organic wastes. During anaerobic digestion, hydrolysis of substrates is regarded as the most crucial stage in the process of biogas generation. However, this process is not always efficient because of the domineering stableness of substrates to enzymatic or bacteria assaults, but substrates' pretreatment before biogas production will enhance biogas production. The principal objective of pretreatments is to ease the accessibility of the enzymes to the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose which leads to degradation of the substrates. Hence, the use of pretreatment for catalysis of lignocellulose substrates is beneficial for the production of cost-efficient and eco-friendly process. In this review, we discussed different pretreatment technologies of hydrolysis and their restrictions. The review has shown that different pretreatments have varying effects on lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose degradation and biogas yield of different substrate and the choice of pretreatment technique will devolve on the intending final products of the process.

17.
Drug Resist Updat ; 57: 100769, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217999

RESUMO

Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major obstacle towards curative treatment of cancer. Despite considerable progress in delineating the basis of intrinsic and acquired MDR, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Emerging evidences suggest that dysregulation in endolysosomal compartments is involved in mediating MDR through multiple mechanisms, such as alterations in endosomes, lysosomes and autophagosomes, that traffic and biodegrade the molecular cargo through macropinocytosis, autophagy and endocytosis. For example, altered lysosomal pH, in combination with transcription factor EB (TFEB)-mediated lysosomal biogenesis, increases the sequestration of hydrophobic anti-cancer drugs that are weak bases, thereby producing an insufficient and off-target accumulation of anti-cancer drugs in MDR cancer cells. Thus, the use of well-tolerated, alkalinizing compounds that selectively block Vacuolar H⁺-ATPase (V-ATPase) may be an important strategy to overcome MDR in cancer cells and increase chemotherapeutic efficacy. Other mechanisms of endolysosomal-mediated drug resistance include increases in the expression of lysosomal proteases and cathepsins that are involved in mediating carcinogenesis and chemoresistance. Therefore, blocking the trafficking and maturation of lysosomal proteases or direct inhibition of cathepsin activity in the cytosol may represent novel therapeutic modalities to overcome MDR. Furthermore, endolysosomal compartments involved in catabolic pathways, such as macropinocytosis and autophagy, are also shown to be involved in the development of MDR. Here, we review the role of endolysosomal trafficking in MDR development and discuss how targeting endolysosomal pathways could emerge as a new therapeutic strategy to overcome chemoresistance in cancer.

18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 694668, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249980

RESUMO

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), a well-known lipid disease caused by inherited genetic defects in cholesterol uptake and metabolism is underdiagnosed in many countries including Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to identify the molecular basis of severe clinical manifestations of FH patients from unrelated Saudi consanguineous families. Two Saudi families with multiple FH patients fulfilling the combined FH diagnostic criteria of Simon Broome Register, and the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network (DLCN) were recruited. LipidSeq, a targeted resequencing panel for monogenic dyslipidemias, was used to identify causative pathogenic mutation in these two families and in 92 unrelated FH cases. Twelve FH patients from two unrelated families were sharing a very rare, pathogenic and founder LDLR stop gain mutation i.e., c.2027delG (p.Gly676Alafs*33) in both the homozygous or heterozygous states, but not in unrelated patients. Based on the variant zygosity, a marked phenotypic heterogeneity in terms of LDL-C levels, clinical presentations and resistance to anti-lipid treatment regimen (ACE inhibitors, ß-blockers, ezetimibe, statins) of the FH patients was observed. This loss-of-function mutation is predicted to alter the free energy dynamics of the transcribed RNA, leading to its instability. Protein structural mapping has predicted that this non-sense mutation eliminates key functional domains in LDLR, which are essential for the receptor recycling and LDL particle binding. In conclusion, by combining genetics and structural bioinformatics approaches, this study identified and characterized a very rare FH causative LDLR pathogenic variant determining both clinical presentation and resistance to anti-lipid drug treatment.

19.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(28): 5621-5627, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184014

RESUMO

Long-term tracking of nanoparticles to resolve intracellular structures and motions is essential to elucidate fundamental parameters as well as transport processes within living cells. Fluorescent nanodiamond (ND) emitters provide cell compatibility and very high photostability. However, high stability, biocompatibility, and cellular uptake of these fluorescent NDs under physiological conditions are required for intracellular applications. Herein, highly stable NDs encapsulated with Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid proteins (ND-CP) are prepared. A thin capsid protein layer is obtained around the NDs, which imparts reactive groups and high colloidal stability, while retaining the opto-magnetic properties of the coated NDs as well as the secondary structure of CPs adsorbed on the surface of NDs. In addition, the ND-CP shows excellent biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo. Long-term 3D trajectories of the ND-CP with fine spatiotemporal resolutions are recorded; their intracellular motions are analyzed by different models, and the diffusion coefficients are calculated. The ND-CP with its brilliant optical properties and stability under physiological conditions provides us with a new tool to advance the understanding of cell biology, e.g., endocytosis, exocytosis, and active transport processes in living cells as well as intracellular dynamic parameters.

20.
Comput Biol Med ; 135: 104570, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The spread of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected both the public health and the global economy. The current study was aimed at analysing the genetic sequence of this highly contagious corona virus from an evolutionary perspective, comparing the genetic variation features of different geographic strains, and identifying the key miRNAs as well as their gene targets from the transcriptome data of infected lung tissues. METHODS: A multilevel robust computational analysis was undertaken for viral genetic sequence alignment, phylogram construction, genome-wide transcriptome data interpretation of virus-infected lung tissues, miRNA mapping, and functional biology networking. RESULTS: Our findings show both genetic similarities as well as notable differences in the S protein length among SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS viruses. All SARS-CoV-2 strains showed a high genetic similarity with the parent Wuhan strain, but Saudi Arabian, South African, USA, Russia and New Zealand strains carry 3 additional genetic variations like P333L (RNA -dependant RNA polymerase), D614G (spike), and P4715L (ORF1ab). The infected lung tissues demonstrated the upregulation of 282 (56.51%) antiviral defensive response pathway genes and downregulation of 217 (43.48%) genes involved in autophagy and lung repair pathways. By miRNA mapping, 4 key miRNAs (hsa-miR-342-5p, hsa-miR-432-5p, hsa-miR-98-5p and hsa-miR-17-5p), targeting multiple host genes (MYC, IL6, ICAM1 and VEGFA) as well as SARS-CoV2 gene (ORF1ab) were identified. CONCLUSION: Systems biology methods offer a new perspective in understanding the molecular basis for the faster spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The antiviral miRNAs identified in this study may aid in the ongoing search for novel personalized therapeutic avenues for COVID patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Transcriptoma , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Pulmão , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita , Biologia de Sistemas
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