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1.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028784

RESUMO

The heterogeneity and contribution of collagen and elastin to residual stresses have been thoroughly studied, but more recently, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) also emerged as potential regulators. In this study, the opening angle of aortic rings (an indicator of circumferential residual stresses) and the mural distributions of sulfated GAGs (sGAG), collagen, and elastin were quantified in the ascending, aortic arch and descending thoracic regions of 5- to 6-month-old pigs. The opening angle correlated positively with the aortic ring's mean radius and thickness, with good and moderate correlations respectively. The correlations between the sGAG, collagen, elastin, and collagen:sGAG ratio and the opening angle were evaluated to identify aortic compositional factors that could play roles in regulating circumferential residual stresses. The total collagen:sGAG ratio displayed the strongest correlation with the opening angle (r = - 0.715, p < 0.001), followed by the total sGAG content which demonstrated a good correlation (r = 0.623, p < 0.001). Additionally, the intramural gradients of collagen, sGAG and collagen:sGAG correlated moderately with the opening angle. We propose that, in addition to the individual role sGAG play through their content and intramural gradient, the interaction between collagen and sGAG should be considered when evaluating circumferential residual stresses in the aorta.

2.
J Neural Eng ; 18(5)2021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598173

RESUMO

Objective.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different electrode configurations on the accuracy of determining the rotational orientation of the directional deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode with our previously published magnetoencephalography (MEG)-based method.Approach.A directional DBS electrode, along with its implantable pulse generator, was integrated into a head phantom and placed within the MEG sensor array. Predefined bipolar electrode configurations, based on activation of different directional and omnidirectional contacts of the electrode, were set to generate a defined magnetic field during stimulation. This magnetic field was then measured with MEG. Finite element modeling and model fitting approach were used to calculate electrode orientation.Main results.The accuracy of electrode orientation detection depended on the electrode configuration: the vertical configuration (activation of two directional contacts arranged one above the other) achieved an average accuracy of only about 41 ∘. The diagonal configuration (activation of the electrode tip and a single directional contact at the next higher level of the electrode) achieved an accuracy of 13∘, while the horizontal electrode configuration (activation of two adjacent directional contacts at the same electrode level) achieved the best accuracy of 6∘. The accuracy of orientation detection of the DBS electrode depends on the change in spatial distribution of the magnetic field with the rotation of the electrode along its own axis. In the vertical configuration, rotation of the electrode has a small effect on the magnetic field distribution, while in the diagonal or horizontal configuration, electrode rotation has a significant effect on the magnetic field distribution.Significance.Our work suggests that in order to determine rotational orientation of a DBS electrode using MEG, horizontal configuration should be used as it provides the most accurate results compared to other possible configurations.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Magnetoencefalografia , Eletrodos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Rotação
3.
Clin Ophthalmol ; 15: 4259-4267, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707345

RESUMO

Purpose: To study the current practices in Jordan regarding cataract surgical procedures and anesthesia trends for cataract surgery. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of members of the Jordanian Ophthalmology Society was conducted in October 2020. The questionnaire included questions about participants' demographics, the preferred surgical techniques for cataracts, the preferred anesthesia technique for cataract surgery, the factors which affect the choice of anesthesia technique, the use of sedation, who gives the anesthesia, if there is an anesthesia-trained person who observes the patient during cataract surgery, and the changing trends towards anesthesia between the surgeons. Results: More than half of the respondents (59.1%) had been in practice for more than 5 years. The preferred method for routine cataract was phacoemulsification for most participants (98.4%). For mature cataract, phacoemulsification was the preferred method for 61.4% of participants. More than half (55.1%) used topical with intracameral anesthesia for phacoemulsification. Two thirds of the participants (66.3%) performed retrobulbar anesthesia for extracapsular cataract surgery. In the majority of cases (86.6%), the respondent themself is the one who administers the anesthesia. No sedation was used before surgery in 62.6% of cases. Two thirds of the respondents (70.1%) reported that they had an anesthesia-trained person monitoring the patient during surgery. Patient cooperation was the most important factor (70.9%) affecting the surgeon's choice of anesthesia technique followed by surgeon skill and experience (57.5%). Conclusion: Presently, phacoemulsification is the preferred surgical technique for cataract in Jordan. Topical with intracameral anesthesia is the most common anesthesia for phacoemulsification while retrobulbar anesthesia is the most common for extracapsular cataract extraction.

4.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-15, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cultural tailoring methods used in type 2 diabetes (T2D), prevention and management interventions for populations of Black African ancestry and to examine their effectiveness on measures of glycaemia. DESIGN: Three databases were searched in October 2020; eligible studies used a randomised controlled trial (RCT) design to evaluate the effectiveness of culturally tailored lifestyle interventions compared with usual care for the prevention or management of T2D in adults of Black African ancestry. Cultural tailoring methods were evaluated using the Facilitator-Location-Language-Messaging (FiLLM) framework, whereby facilitator refers to delivery by individuals from the target community, language focuses on using native language or language appropriate to literacy levels, location refers to delivery in meaningful settings, and messaging is tailoring with relevant content and modes of delivery. RESULTS: Sixteen RCT were identified, all from USA. The mean age of participants was 55 years, majority female. Six of fifteen RCT reported significant improvements in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at 6 and 8 months; one, in prediabetes, reported significantly improved fasting plasma glucose. Diabetes knowledge improvement (5/7 studies) was associated with HbA1c improvement. The majority tailored to location (12/16), facilitators (11/16), messaging (9/16) and language (6/16) domains of FiLLM. Those with ethnically matched facilitators and those which tailored to more than one domain showed the greatest HbA1C benefits. CONCLUSION: This evidence supports the effectiveness of culturally tailored lifestyle interventions for T2D management in populations of Black African ancestry, with further RCT needed to evaluate interventions for T2D prevention and for communities outside of the USA.

5.
Curr Res Struct Biol ; 3: 72-84, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235487

RESUMO

Epoxide hydrolases catalyze the conversion of epoxides to vicinal diols in a range of cellular processes such as signaling, detoxification, and virulence. These enzymes typically utilize a pair of tyrosine residues to orient the substrate epoxide ring in the active site and stabilize the hydrolysis intermediate. A new subclass of epoxide hydrolases that utilize a histidine in place of one of the tyrosines was established with the discovery of the CFTR Inhibitory Factor (Cif) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although the presence of such Cif-like epoxide hydrolases was predicted in other opportunistic pathogens based on sequence analyses, only Cif and its homolog aCif from Acinetobacter nosocomialis have been characterized. Here we report the biochemical and structural characteristics of Cfl1 and Cfl2, two Cif-like epoxide hydrolases from Burkholderia cenocepacia. Cfl1 is able to hydrolyze xenobiotic as well as biological epoxides that might be encountered in the environment or during infection. In contrast, Cfl2 shows very low activity against a diverse set of epoxides. The crystal structures of the two proteins reveal quaternary structures that build on the well-known dimeric assembly of the α/ß hydrolase domain, but broaden our understanding of the structural diversity encoded in novel oligomer interfaces. Analysis of the interfaces reveals both similarities and key differences in sequence conservation between the two assemblies, and between the canonical dimer and the novel oligomer interfaces of each assembly. Finally, we discuss the effects of these higher-order assemblies on the intra-monomer flexibility of Cfl1 and Cfl2 and their possible roles in regulating enzymatic activity.

6.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(6): 1321-1329, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Two major advances in clinical deep brain stimulation (DBS) technology have been the introduction of local field potential (LFP) recording capabilities, and the deployment of directional DBS electrodes. However, these two technologies are not operationally integrated within current clinical DBS devices. Therefore, we evaluated the theoretical advantages of using directional DBS electrodes for LFP recordings, with a focus on measuring beta-band activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). METHODS: We used a computational model of human STN neural activity to simulate LFP recordings. The model consisted of 235,280 anatomically and electrically detailed STN neurons surrounding the DBS electrode, which was previously optimized to mimic beta-band synchrony in the dorsolateral STN. We then used that model system to compare LFP recordings from cylindrical and directional DBS contacts, and evaluate how the selection of different contacts for bipolar recording affected the LFP measurements. RESULTS: The model predicted two advantages of directional DBS electrodes over cylindrical DBS electrodes for STN LFP recording. First, recording from directional contacts could provide additional insight on the location of a synchronous volume of neurons within the STN. Second, directional contacts could detect a smaller volume of synchronous neurons than cylindrical contacts, which our simulations predicted to be a ~0.5 mm minimum radius. CONCLUSIONS: STN LFP recordings from 8-contact directional DBS electrodes (28 possible bipolar pairs) can provide more information than 4-contact cylindrical DBS electrodes (6 possible bipolar pairs), but they also introduce additional complexity in analyzing the signals. SIGNIFICANCE: Integration of directional electrodes with DBS systems that are capable of LFP recordings could improve localization of targeted volumes of synchronous neurons in PD patients.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Subtalâmico/fisiopatologia , Eletrodos Implantados , Humanos , Modelos Neurológicos , Doença de Parkinson/terapia
7.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; 68(12): 3491-3500, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872141

RESUMO

While elastin and collagen have received a lot of attention as major contributors to aortic biomechanics, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) recently emerged as additional key players whose roles must be better elucidated if one hopes to predict aortic ruptures caused by aneurysms and dissections more reliably. GAGs are highly negatively charged polysaccharide molecules that exist in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the arterial wall. In this critical review, we summarize the current understanding of the contributions of GAGs/PGs to the biomechanics of the normal aortic wall, as well as in the case of aortic diseases such as aneurysms and dissections. Specifically, we describe the fundamental swelling behavior of GAGs/PGs and discuss their contributions to residual stresses and aortic stiffness, thereby highlighting the importance of taking these polyanionic molecules into account in mathematical and numerical models of the aorta. We suggest specific lines of investigation to further the acquisition of experimental data to complement simulations and solidify our current understanding. We underscore different potential roles of GAGs/PGs in thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAAD) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Namely, we report findings according to which the accumulation of GAGs/PGs in TAAD causes stress concentrations which may be sufficient to initiate and propagate delamination. On the other hand, there seems to be no clear indication of a relationship between the marked reduction in GAG/PG content and the stiffening and weakening of the aortic wall in AAA.

8.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 22(9): 813-821, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of the Pediatric Index of Mortality 3 as mortality risk assessment model. DESIGN: This prospective study included all admissions 30 days to 18 years old for 12 months during 2016 and 2017. Data gathered included the following: age and gender, diagnosis and reason for PICU admission, data specific for the Pediatric Index of Mortality 3 calculation, PICU outcomes (death or survival), and length of PICU stay. SETTING: Nine units that care for children within tertiary or quaternary academic hospitals in South Africa. PATIENTS: All admissions 30 days to 18 years old, excluding premature infants, children who died within 2 hours of admission, or children transferred to other PICUs, and those older than 18 years old. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There were 3,681 admissions of which 2,253 (61.3%) were male. The median age was 18 months (interquartile range, 6-59.5 mo). There were 354 deaths (9.6%). The Pediatric Index of Mortality 3 predicted 277.47 deaths (7.5%). The overall standardized mortality ratio was 1.28. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.81 (95% CI 0.79-0.83). The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test statistic was 174.4 (p < 0.001). Standardized mortality ratio for all age groups was greater than 1. Standardized mortality ratio for diagnostic subgroups was mostly greater than 1 except for those whose reason for PICU admission was classified as accident, toxin and envenomation, and metabolic which had an standardized mortality ratio less than 1. There were similar proportions of respiratory patients, but significantly greater proportions of neurologic and cardiac (including postoperative) patients in the Pediatric Index of Mortality 3 derivation cohort than the South African cohort. In contrast, the South African cohort contained a significantly greater proportion of miscellaneous (including injury/accident victims) and postoperative noncardiac patients. CONCLUSIONS: The Pediatric Index of Mortality 3 discrimination between death and survival among South African units was good. Case-mix differences between these units and the Pediatric Index of Mortality 3 derivation cohort may partly explain the poor calibration. We need to recalibrate Pediatric Index of Mortality 3 to the local setting.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Adolescente , Criança , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , África do Sul/epidemiologia
9.
Cureus ; 13(1): e12837, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628695

RESUMO

Background and objective The incidence of post-surgical complications (PSCs) after curative resection of non-metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) is very widespread and evident. Some studies suggest that PSCs often predict poor long-term oncological outcomes. However, the available data on the topic is often controversial. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to study the effect of postoperative complications (POCs) on long-term oncological outcomes following curative resection of non-metastatic (stage I-III) CRC. Methods A comprehensive search of MEDLINE® and Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE) databases was performed via the Ovid platform, by using controlled vocabulary as well as natural language terms for POCs, outcomes, and CRC. Two authors independently screened the studies and extracted data. Conflicts were resolved by discussion among authors and also independently with the help of a third author. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model (REM) to calculate pooled estimates for overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall recurrence. Results Overall, 3,836 studies were initially screened, and 16 studies involving 37,192 patients were ultimately selected for final inclusion in the analysis. Meta-analysis of these studies showed that PSCs following non-metastatic CRC surgery predicted worse OS rates [hazard ratio (HR): 1.36; 95% CI: 1.15-1.61; p<0.00001], DFS (HR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.11-1.80; p<0.00001), and overall recurrence (HR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.04-1.37; p=0.01). Conclusion Based on our findings, PSCs predict poor OS rates, DFS, and overall recurrence following curative resection of non-metastatic CRC.

10.
Saudi Med J ; 42(2): 213-218, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563742

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical features and possible etiologies of cerebral vein thrombosis (CVT) in a Saudi Arabian cohort. METHODS: A retrospective, observational design was implemented. Data pertaining to 36 patients (19 female and 17 male) with confirmed CVT diagnosis admitted to a hospital in Saudi Arabia between 2008 and 2019 were obtained and analyzed. RESULTS: The age of patients ranged between 19 to 82 years, and the mean/median age was 33/29 years. Most commonly reported symptoms were headache ( 72%), unilateral lower limb weakness (39%), and seizures (17%). Papilledema was found in 8% of patients. Thrombotic disorders were identified in 14% and infections were identified in 8% of the patients. Two patients had ulcerative colitis, 2 were diagnosed with Behcet's disease, and 2 women were using oral contraceptive pills. Single sinus thrombosis was detected in only 22% of patients. One patient with diabetic ketoacidosis died. Thrombotic disorder was the most common risk factor, followed by that iron deficiency anemia. CONCLUSION: The transverse sinus was the most frequently thrombosed sinus. Iron deficiency anemia emerged as a predisposing preventable condition for CVT, while genetic factors were found to be less important in this cohort.


Assuntos
Trombose Venosa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Pharm Stat ; 20(2): 390-412, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283959

RESUMO

In recent years, seamless phase I/II clinical trials have drawn much attention, as they consider both toxicity and efficacy endpoints in finding an optimal dose (OD). Engaging an appropriate number of patients in a trial is a challenging task. This paper attempts a dynamic stopping rule to save resources in phase I/II trials. That is, the stopping rule aims to save patients from unnecessary toxic or subtherapeutic doses. We allow a trial to stop early when widths of the confidence intervals for the dose-response parameters become narrower or when the sample size is equal to a predefined size, whichever comes first. The simulation study of dose-response scenarios in various settings demonstrates that the proposed stopping rule can engage an appropriate number of patients. Therefore, we suggest its use in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Tamanho da Amostra , Simulação por Computador , Humanos
12.
Int Med Case Rep J ; 13: 493-501, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116940

RESUMO

Novel coronavirus or COVID-19 is a viral illness that can cause severe respiratory symptoms. It spreads between people through direct, indirect (through contaminated objects or surfaces), or close contact with infected people via mouth and nose secretions. COVID-19 has caused a worldwide pandemic that necessitated many countries to perform a national lockdown. In Jordan, a complete lockdown was imposed by the government on March 17th, 2020 and continued for more than two months. The lockdown included every single sector in the country. Hospitals were only dealing with outpatient emergency cases, urgent referrals from primary or secondary health institutions and with inpatients whose medical conditions required keeping them admitted. Elective clinics and surgeries were canceled. At the King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH), which is the only tertiary center in northern Jordan, we dealt with four cases of traumatic eye injury that resulted in a ruptured globe. The four cases were for eyes that had a history of penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and were visually compromised in the involved eye compared to the other eye. The percentage of open globe injuries to the total number of emergency cases presented during the lockdown was significantly higher than the percentage of open globe injuries to the total number of emergency cases presented during the corresponding period in the previous year (p=0.0005). We believe the lockdown inside homes has resulted in higher risk of trauma and rupture globe in this group of patients.

13.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 59: 44-47, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934810

RESUMO

Background: Electronic-learning (e-Learning) is a form of education that utilizes information and communications technology to access online teaching and learning. This study aims to evaluate the e-Learning experience among Jordanian academic ophthalmologists during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Material and methods: A cross-sectional survey was applied by using a questionnaire that was distributed among 23 academic ophthalmologists working at 6 medical schools in Jordan during the lockdown. The questionnaire included questions about the ophthalmologists' experience with e-Learning, advantages and disadvantages of e-Learning, interactions of medical students for the e-Learning and the expectations of e-Learning for the future. Results: A total of 22 out of 23 academic ophthalmologists responded. Flexibility of e-Learning to time and place was a major advantage (95.5%), whereas lack of skills was the main obstacle for e-Learning (77.3%). Nineteen participants (86.4%) were not satisfied with e-Learning as the sole method for undergraduate teaching. To improve the original on-campus two-week ophthalmology course, 12 (54.5%) suggested integrating e-Learning into the curriculum, 3 (13.6%) preferred extending the period of training, and 7 (31.8%) reported that their tight schedule does not allow for more tasks. Conclusion: The experience of e-Learning was positive. Most believed that e-Learning would have a prominent role in the future of medical education and proposed blended learning programs.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 747: 141189, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799020

RESUMO

The importance of grass pollen to the global burden of allergic respiratory disease is well established but exposure to subtropical and temperate pollens is difficult to discern. Current monitoring of airborne pollen relies on light microscopy, limiting identification of taxa to family level. This informs seasonal fluctuations in pollen aerobiology but restricts analysis of aerobiological composition. We aimed to test the utility of DNA metabarcoding to identify specific taxa contributing to the aerobiome of environmental air samples, using routine pollen and spore monitoring equipment, as well as assess temporal variation of Poaceae pollen across an entire season. Airborne pollen concentrations were determined by light microscopy over two pollen seasons in the subtropical city of Brisbane (27°32'S, 153°00E), Australia. Thirty daily pollen samples were subjected to high throughput sequencing of the plastid rbcL amplicon. Amplicons corresponded to plants observed in the local biogeographical region with up to 3238 different operational taxonomic units (OTU) detected. The aerobiome sequencing data frequently identified pollen to genus levels with significant quantitative differences in aerobiome diversity between the months and seasons detected. Moreover, multiple peaks of Chloridoideae and Panicoideae pollen were evident over the collection period confirming these grasses as the dominant Poaceae pollen source across the season. Targeted high throughput sequencing of routinely collected airborne pollen samples appears to offer utility to track temporal changes in the aerobiome and shifts in pollen exposure. Precise identification of the composition and temporal distributions of airborne pollen is important for tracking biodiversity and for management of allergic respiratory disease.


Assuntos
Poaceae , Pólen , Alérgenos , Austrália , Cidades , Estações do Ano
15.
Clin Ophthalmol ; 14: 2195-2202, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801630

RESUMO

Purpose: COVID-19 pandemic is a serious public health concern, and the role of health care workers is essential in preventing spread. The study objective is to investigate awareness, perception, and attitude towards COVID-19 and infection control measures among ophthalmologists in Jordan. Methods: The design of the study was a cross-sectional survey among Jordanian ophthalmologists. An online survey was sent to 197 ophthalmologists on March 23, 2020. Information on participants' socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of clinical features of COVID-19, risk assessment and infection control measures for preventing disease transmission, and attitude towards treating patients with COVID-19 were collected. Results: A total of 132 ophthalmologists (mean age 40.5 years) responded, 23 (17.6%) had received training on infection control in ophthalmology. Most ophthalmologists were aware of COVID-19 symptoms and ways to identify patients at risk of having the disease, correctly reported modes of transmission and were aware of measures for preventing COVID-19 transmission in the ophthalmic setup. Social media was the commonest source of information on COVID-19 (75%), and 38.2% were not provided with instructions on infection control plan to reduce transmission of COVID-19. Most ophthalmologists (79.5%) thought that the virus could be detected in tears, and 72.2% thought that red eye as a symptom of COVID-19. Conclusion: Ophthalmologists in Jordan were aware of the epidemiology of COVID-19 and related infection preventive measures. Knowledge was lacking regarding ocular aspects of the disease. Training on infection prevention needs to be improved. Access to guidelines from international ophthalmological organizations should be promoted and seeking updated literature from peer-reviewed journals needs to be encouraged.

16.
Saudi Med J ; 41(8): 828-833, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789423

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify epilepsy triggers prevalent in Saudi Arabia with a view to seizure prevention or achieving a reduction in their frequency. METHODS: This is part of a cross-sectional study carried out in 2020 in a Saudi population in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). We used an online questionnaire to evaluate the most common seizure trigger factors. RESULTS: A total of 546 Saudi patients with epilepsy participated in the study, of which 289 (53%) were women. Of them, 263 (48.1%) had no seizure in the previous 3 months. One hundred and thirty-six (25%) had a family member with epilepsy. The most-reported trigger factor was sleep deprivation reported by 285 (52%), followed by stress 225 (41%), missed medication 210 (38.5%), anxiety 209 (38.3%), and fatigue 184 (33.7%). Conclusions: Sleep deprivation is the most reported trigger factor for seizures in the KSA, followed by stress, followed by missed medication.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/etiologia , Convulsões/etiologia , Privação do Sono/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Erros de Medicação/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Convulsões/prevenção & controle , Privação do Sono/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(35): 21690-21700, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817515

RESUMO

The retinal ganglion cell (RGC) competence factor ATOH7 is dynamically expressed during retinal histogenesis. ATOH7 transcription is controlled by a promoter-adjacent primary enhancer and a remote shadow enhancer (SE). Deletion of the ATOH7 human SE causes nonsyndromic congenital retinal nonattachment (NCRNA) disease, characterized by optic nerve aplasia and total blindness. We used genome editing to model NCRNA in mice. Deletion of the murine SE reduces Atoh7 messenger RNA (mRNA) fivefold but does not recapitulate optic nerve loss; however, SEdel/knockout (KO) trans heterozygotes have thin optic nerves. By analyzing Atoh7 mRNA and protein levels, RGC development and survival, and chromatin landscape effects, we show that the SE ensures robust Atoh7 transcriptional output. Combining SE deletion and KO and wild-type alleles in a genotypic series, we determined the amount of Atoh7 needed to produce a normal complement of adult RGCs, and the secondary consequences of graded reductions in Atoh7 dosage. Together, these data reveal the workings of an evolutionary fail-safe, a duplicate enhancer mechanism that is hard-wired in the machinery of vertebrate retinal ganglion cell genesis.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Nervo Óptico/metabolismo , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Retina/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
Emerg Radiol ; 27(5): 487-494, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458143

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Multiple intracranial aneurysms (MIA) occur in one-third of patients with intracranial aneurysms (IA), and have been previously associated with an overall worse prognosis. Risk factors for IA formation and rupture in patients with a single IA are well-known. However, risk factors associated with rupture in patients with MIA have been less studied. METHODS: We performed a retrospective search of patients with MIA identified by computed tomography angiography (CTA) within a 10-year period. Patients with > 1 saccular aneurysm with size ≥ 2.0 mm were included. The location, size, number, and rupture status of the aneurysms were recorded. Patient demographics and cerebrovascular risk factors were obtained from electronic medical records. The primary endpoint of this study was to determine the association of these factors with aneurysmal rupture. The case-fatality rate was evaluated as a secondary outcome. RESULTS: Of the 2957 patients with IA in our CTA database, 425 patients were diagnosed with MIA and were therefore included in our study. A total of 1082 aneurysms were identified. Predictors of increased risk of aneurysmal rupture were age (OR 0.98, 95% CI, 0.96-0.99), size ≥ 5 mm (OR 4.4, 95% CI 2.76-7.0); and location in the anterior communicating artery complex (AcomC) (OR 2.62, 95% CI, 1.46-4.72) or posterior communicating artery (PCOM) (OR 2.66, 95% CI, 1.45-4.87). CONCLUSIONS: Younger age, aneurysm size ≥ 5 mm, and location in the AcomC and PCOM were independently associated with aneurysmal rupture in patients with MIA. Identifying these features could help recognize patients who might benefit from early intervention.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Cerebral , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Brain Stimul ; 13(3): 916-927, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for movement disorders, yet its mechanisms of action remain unclear. One method used to study its circuit-wide neuromodulatory effects is functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) which measures hemodynamics as a proxy of neural activity. To interpret functional imaging data, we must understand the relationship between neural and vascular responses, which has never been studied with the high frequencies used for DBS. OBJECTIVE: To measure neurovascular coupling in the rat motor cortex during thalamic DBS. METHOD: Simultaneous intrinsic optical imaging and extracellular electrophysiology was performed in the motor cortex of urethane-anesthetized rats during thalamic DBS at 7 different frequencies. We related Maximum Change in Reflectance (MCR) from the imaging data to Integrated Evoked Potential (IEP) and change in broadband power of multi-unit (MU) activity, computing Spearman's correlation to determine the strength of these relationships. To determine the source of these effects, we studied the contributions of antidromic versus orthodromic activation in motor cortex perfusion using synaptic blockers. RESULTS: MCR, IEP and change in MU power increased linearly to 60 Hz and saturated at higher frequencies of stimulation. Blocking orthodromic transmission only reduced the DBS-induced change in optical signal by ∼25%, suggesting that activation of corticofugal fibers have a major contribution in thalamic-induced cortical activation. CONCLUSION: DBS-evoked vascular response is related to both evoked field potentials as well as multi-unit activity.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Acoplamento Neurovascular/fisiologia , Tálamo/fisiologia , Animais , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Córtex Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Saudi Med J ; 41(3): 290-295, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine relationship between fatigue, depression with the registration in multiple sclerosis (MS) society activity, and stress with the risk developing a new attack in patients with Relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS: This was a cohort retrospective study conducted in the KSA between July 2018 and July 2019 which included a total of 465 RRMS patients. Data were collected during interviews using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Modified Fatigue Impacts Scale (MFIS). Demographic and clinical data were also collected. RESULTS: Of 465 participants, 317 expressed psychological stress before the last attack, 67 of whom developed an attack within 4 weeks, and 250 of whom developed an attack after 4 weeks. Significantly lower BDI scores were associated with registration in MS associations (p=0.003, df = 5). Significantly lower MFIS scores were associated with registration in MS associations (p=0.001, df = 5). CONCLUSION: The majority of RRMS patients have a significant fatigue and depression, and there are significant relationships between registration in the MS society and MFIS and BDI scores where patients who officially registered in MS society have lower score in MFIS and BDI. we recommend regular follow-ups with a psychologist and/or registration with MS societies.


Assuntos
Depressão , Fadiga , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/epidemiologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
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