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1.
Nanoscale ; 14(18): 6990-7002, 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35470842

RESUMO

Lipid membranes are highly mobile systems with hierarchical, time and length scale dependent, collective motions including thickness fluctuations, undulations, and topological membrane changes, which play an important role in membrane interactions. In this work we have characterised the effect of encapsulating two industrially important enzymes, ß-galactosidase and aspartic protease, in lipid sponge phase nanoparticles on the dynamics of the lipid membrane using neutron spin echo (NSE) spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. From NSE, reduced membrane dynamics were observed upon enzyme encapsulation, which were dependent on the enzyme concentration and type. By fitting the intermediate scattering functions (ISFs) with a modified Zilman and Granek model including nanoparticle diffusion, an increase in membrane bending rigidity was observed, with a larger effect for ß-galactosidase than aspartic protease at the same concentration. MD simulations for the system with and without aspartic protease showed that the lipids relax more slowly in the system with protein due to the replacement of the lipid carbonyl-water hydrogen bonds with lipid-protein hydrogen bonds. This indicates that the most likely cause of the increase in membrane rigidity observed in the NSE measurements was dehydration of the lipid head groups. The dynamics of the protein itself were also studied, which showed a stable secondary structure of protein over the simulation, indicating no unfolding events occurred.

2.
J Phys Chem B ; 126(4): 789-801, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35044776

RESUMO

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are proteins that, in comparison with globular/structured proteins, lack a distinct tertiary structure. Here, we use the model IDP, Histatin 5, for studying its dynamical properties under self-crowding conditions with quasi-elastic neutron scattering in combination with full atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The aim is to determine the effects of crowding on the center-of-mass diffusion as well as the internal diffusive behavior. The diffusion was found to decrease significantly, which we hypothesize can be attributed to some degree of aggregation at higher protein concentrations, (≥100 mg/mL), as indicated by recent small-angle X-ray scattering studies. Temperature effects are also considered and found to, largely, follow Stokes-Einstein behavior. Simple geometric considerations fail to accurately predict the rates of diffusion, while simulations show semiquantitative agreement with experiments, dependent on assumptions of the ratio between translational and rotational diffusion. A scaling law that previously was found to successfully describe the behavior of globular proteins was found to be inadequate for the IDP, Histatin 5. Analysis of the MD simulations show that the width of the distribution with respect to diffusion is not a simplistic mirroring of the distribution of radius of gyration, hence, displaying the particular features of IDPs that need to be accounted for.


Assuntos
Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas , Histatinas , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Nêutrons , Conformação Proteica , Análise Espectral
3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 24(5): 2762-2776, 2022 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647947

RESUMO

The bioactivity, biological fate and cytotoxicity of nanomaterials when they come into contact with living organisms are determined by their interaction with biomacromolecules and biological barriers. In this context, the role of symmetry/shape anisotropy of both the nanomaterials and biological interfaces in their mutual interaction, is a relatively unaddressed issue. Here, we study the interaction of gold nanoparticles (NPs) of different shapes (nanospheres and nanorods) with biomimetic membranes of different morphology, i.e. flat membranes (2D symmetry, representative of the most common plasma membrane geometry), and cubic membranes (3D symmetry, representative of non-lamellar membranes, found in Nature under certain biological conditions). For this purpose we used an ensemble of complementary structural techniques, including Neutron Reflectometry, Grazing Incidence Small-Angle Neutron Scattering, on a nanometer lengthscale and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy on a micrometer length scale. We found that the structural stability of the membrane towards NPs is dependent on the topological characteristic of the lipid assembly and of the NPs, where a higher symmetry gave higher stability. In addition, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy analyses highlighted that NPs interact with cubic and lamellar phases according to two distinct mechanisms, related to the different structures of the lipid assemblies. This study for the first time systematically addresses the role of NPs shape in the interaction with lipid assemblies with different symmetry. The results will contribute to improve the fundamental knowledge on lipid interfaces and will provide new insights on the biological function of phase transitions as a response strategy to the exposure of NPs.


Assuntos
Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Anisotropia , Lipídeos , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo
4.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 210: 112231, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838417

RESUMO

The mechanical response of lipid membranes to nanoscale deformations is of fundamental importance for understanding how these interfaces behave in multiple biological processes; in particular, the nanoscale mechanics of non-lamellar membranes represents a largely unexplored research field. Among these mesophases, inverse bicontinuous cubic phase QII membranes have been found to spontaneously occur in stressed or virally infected cells and to play a role in fundamental processes, such as cell fusion and food digestion. We herein report on the fabrication of thin ( Ì´150 nm) supported QII cubic phase lipid films (SQIIFs) and on their characterization via multiple techniques including Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS), Ellipsometry and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Moreover, we present the first nanomechanical characterization of a cubic phase lipid membrane, through AFM-based Force Spectroscopy (AFM-FS). Our analysis reveals that the mechanical response of these architectures is strictly related to their topology and structure. The observed properties are strikingly similar to those of macroscopic 3D printed cubic structures when subjected to compression tests in material science; suggesting that this behaviour depends on the 3D organisation, rather than on the length-scale of the architecture. We also show for the first time that AFM-FS can be used for characterizing the structure of non-lamellar mesophases, obtaining lattice parameters in agreement with SAXS data. In contrast to classical rheological studies, which can only probe bulk cubic phase solutions, our AFM-FS analysis allows probing the response of cubic membranes to deformations occurring at length and force scales similar to those found in biological interactions.


Assuntos
Lipídeos , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X
5.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 606(Pt 1): 328-336, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392029

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: The self-assembly of long tail sugar-based surfactants into worm-like micelles has recently been demonstrated, and the rheological properties of such systems have been shown to be tuneable through subtle modifications of the molecular characteristics of the surfactant monomer. In particular, the anomeric configuration of the hexadecylmaltoside headgroup was shown to induce profound changes in the nanostructure and rheology of the system. The origin of such changes is hypothesised to arise from differences in the structure and relaxation of the micellar networks in the semi-dilute regime. EXPERIMENTS: Here we explore the molecular background to the flow properties of the two anomers of hexadecylmaltoside (α- and ß-C16G2) by directly connecting their rheological behaviour to the micelle morphology. For this purpose, 1-3 plane rheo-small-angle neutron scattering measurements, using a Couette cell geometry, probed the structural changes in the micellar phase under shear. The effect of surfactant anomeric configuration, surfactant concentration, temperature and mixing ratio of the two anomers were investigated. The static micelle structure in the semi-dilute regime was determined using the polymer reference interaction site model. FINDINGS: The segmental alignment of the micellar phase was studied under several flow conditions, showing that the shear-thinning behaviour relates to the re-arrangement of ß-C16G2 worm-like micelles, whilst shorter α-C16G2 micelles are considerably less affected by the flow. The results are rationalised in terms of micelle alignment and disruption of the entangled network, providing a detailed mechanism by which sugar-based surfactants control the rheology of the fluid. To further enable future studies, we provide the complete code for modelling micelle structure in the semi-dilute regime using the polymer reference interaction site model.


Assuntos
Micelas , Nanoestruturas , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Açúcares , Tensoativos
6.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 675140, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195192

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the variety of previously unknown morphologies that brain lipids form in aqueous solutions. We study how these structures are dependent on cholesterol content, salt solution composition, and temperature. For this purpose, dispersions of porcine sphingomyelin with varying amounts of cholesterol as well as dispersions of porcine brain lipid extracts were investigated. We used cryo-TEM to investigate the dispersions at high-salt solution content together with small-angle (SAXD) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for dispersions in the corresponding salt solution at high lipid content. Sphingomyelin forms multilamellar vesicles in large excess of aqueous salt solution. These vesicles appear as double rippled bilayers in the images and as split Bragg peaks in SAXD together with a very distinct lamellar phase pattern. These features disappear with increasing temperature, and addition of cholesterol as the WAXD data shows that the peak corresponding to the chain crystallinity disappears. The dispersions of sphingomyelin at high cholesterol content form large vesicular type of structures with smooth bilayers. The repeat distance of the lamellar phase depends on temperature, salt solution composition, and slightly with cholesterol content. The brain lipid extracts form large multilamellar vesicles often attached to assemblies of higher electron density. We think that this is probably an example of supra self-assembly with a multiple-layered vesicle surrounding an interior cubic microphase. This is challenging to resolve. DSC shows the presence of different kinds of water bound to the lipid aggregates as a function of the lipid content. Comparison with the effect of lithium, sodium, and calcium salts on the structural parameters of the sphingomyelin and the morphologies of brain lipid extract morphologies demonstrate that lithium has remarkable effects also at low content.

7.
ACS Appl Nano Mater ; 4(5): 5141-5151, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308267

RESUMO

Sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) into poly(styrene)-block-maltoheptaose (PS-b-MH) block copolymer using vapors of trimethyl aluminum and water was used to prepare nanostructured surface layers. Prior to the infiltration, the PS-b-MH had been self-assembled into 12 nm pattern periodicity. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that horizontal alumina-like cylinders of 4.9 nm diameter were formed after eight infiltration cycles, while vertical cylinders were 1.3 nm larger. Using homopolymer hydroxyl-terminated poly(styrene) (PS-OH) and MH films, specular neutron reflectometry revealed a preferential reaction of precursors in the MH compared to PS-OH. The infiltration depth into the maltoheptaose homopolymer film was found to be 2.0 nm after the first couple of cycles. It reached 2.5 nm after eight infiltration cycles, and the alumina incorporation within this infiltrated layer corresponded to 23 vol % Al2O3. The alumina-like material, resulting from PS-b-MH infiltration, was used as an etch mask to transfer the sub-10 nm pattern into the underlying silicon substrate, to an aspect ratio of approximately 2:1. These results demonstrate the potential of exploiting SIS into carbohydrate-based polymers for nanofabrication and high pattern density applications, such as transistor devices.

8.
Biomacromolecules ; 22(6): 2338-2351, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961400

RESUMO

We present here a series of thermoresponsive glycopolymers in the form of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-(2-[ß-manno[oligo]syloxy] ethyl methacrylate)s. These copolymers were prepared from oligo-ß-mannosyl ethyl methacrylates that were synthesized through enzymatic catalysis, and were subsequently investigated with respect to their aggregation and phase behavior in aqueous solution using a combination of 1H NMR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The thermoresponsive glycopolymers were prepared by conventional free radical copolymerization of different mixtures of 2-(ß-manno[oligo]syloxy)ethyl methacrylates (with either one or two saccharide units) and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm). The results showed that below the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of poly(NIPAm), the glycopolymers readily aggregate into nanoscale structures, partly due to the presence of the saccharide moieties. Above the LCST of poly(NIPAm), the glycopolymers rearrange into a heterogeneous mixture of fractal and disc/globular aggregates. Cryo-TEM and SAXS data demonstrated that the presence of the pendant ß-mannosyl moieties in the glycopolymers induces a gradual conformational change over a wide temperature range. Even though the onset of this transition is not different from the LCST of poly(NIPAm), the gradual conformational change offers a variation of the temperature-dependent properties in comparison to poly(NIPAm), which displays a sharp coil-to-globule transition. Importantly, the compacted form of the glycopolymers shows a larger colloidal stability compared to the unmodified poly(NIPAm). In addition, the thermoresponsiveness can be conveniently tuned by varying the sugar unit-length and the oligo-ß-mannosyl ethyl methacrylate content.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas , Metacrilatos , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Temperatura , Difração de Raios X
9.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 203: 111753, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845421

RESUMO

The colloidal stability of lipid based cubosomes, aqueous dispersion of inverse bicontinuous cubic phase, can be significantly increased by a stabilizer. The most commonly used stabilizers are non-ionic tri-block copolymers, poloxamers, which adsorb at the lipid-water interface and hence sterically stabilize the dispersion. One of the challenges with these synthetic polymers is the effect on the internal structure of the cubosomes and the potential toxicity when these nanoparticles are applied as nanomedicine platforms. The natural polysaccharide, softwood hemicellulose, has been proved to be an excellent stabilizer for oil-in-water emulsions, partially due to the presence of hydrophobic lignin in the extract which to some extent is associated to hemicellulose. Herein, we reported for the first time cubosomes stabilized by two types of softwood hemicelluloses, where one is extracted through thermomechanical pulping (TMP, low lignin content) and the other obtained from sodium-based sulfite liquor (SSL, high lignin content). The effect of the two hemicellulose samples on the colloidal stability and structure of monoolein-based cubosomes have been investigated via DLS, SAXS, AFM and cryo-TEM. The data obtained suggest that both types of the hemicelluloses stabilize monoolein (GMO) based cubosomes in water without significantly affecting their size, morphology and inner structure. SSL-extracted hemicellulose yields the most stable cubosomes, likely due to the higher content of lignin in comparison to TMP-stabilized ones. In addition, the stability of these particles was tested under physiological conditions relevant to possible application as drug carriers.


Assuntos
Cristais Líquidos , Nanopartículas , Tamanho da Partícula , Polissacarídeos , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X
10.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 199: 111564, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445076

RESUMO

The delivery of bio-active molecules through the skin is challenging given the complex structure of its outer layer, the stratum corneum. Here we explore the possibility to encapsulate natural compounds into nanocarriers containing permeation enhancers that can affect the fluidity of the stratum corneum lipids. This approach is expected to facilitate dermal or transdermal release. For this purpose, the application of bile salts, which are natural surfactants involved in vivo in lipid digestion, was exploited. Bile salts were added to lipid liquid crystalline nanoparticles (NPs) made of monoolein for antioxidant topical delivery. Monoolein self-assembly behaviour in water was affected by the presence of bile salts molecules, giving a transition from a bicontinuous cubic to unilamellar vesicles dispersion. By adding oleic acid (OA), the change of curvature in the system led to a reverse hexagonal phase. The morphology, structure and size of the nanocarriers was investigated before the nanoparticles were loaded with catechin, a natural antioxidant occurring in plants and food. The encapsulation did not affect significantly the formulation phase behaviour. The formulation loaded with bile salts and catechin was thereafter tested in vitro on the skin from new-born pig. The results for two different lipid formulations without bile salts were compared under the same experimental conditions and with the same antioxidant. The formulation with bile salts showed the best performance, allowing a superior permeation of catechin in the different skin layers in comparison with formulations without bile salt.


Assuntos
Catequina , Administração Cutânea , Administração Tópica , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Absorção Cutânea , Suínos
11.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 581(Pt B): 895-904, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950938

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: The anomeric configuration (α or ß) of n-hexadecyl-d-maltopyranoside (C16G2) has been shown to affect the morphology of the micelle, from elongated for α-C16G2 to worm-like micelles for ß-C16G2. The entanglement of worm-like micelles often leads to strong modifications of the rheological behavior of the system and, as such, the anomeric configuration of C16G2 could also provide the possibility of controlling this. Furthermore, mixing these surfactants are hypothesized to result in mixed micelles allowing to finely tune the rheology of a system containing these sustainable surfactants. EXPERIMENTS: The rheology of α- and ß-C16G2, and mixtures of those, was determined by rotational and oscillatory rheology at different temperatures and surfactant concentrations. Micelle structure and composition for these systems were characterized using contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering. The results from these were connected in order to elaborate a molecular understanding of the rheological response of the system. FINDINGS: The self-assembly of these surfactants have been found to result in different rheological properties. ß-C16G2 show a high viscosity with a non-Newtonian viscoelastic behavior, which was linked to the formation of worm-like micelles. In contrast, α-C16G2 self-assembled into short cylindrical micelles, resulting in a Newtonian fluid with low viscosity. Furthermore, mixtures of these two surfactants lead to systems with intermediate rheological properties as a result of the formation of micelles with intermediate morphology to those of the pure anomers. These results also show that the rheological properties of the system can be tuned to change the micelle morphology, which in turn depends on the anomeric configuration of the surfactant. Also, surfactant concentration, temperature of the system, and micelle composition for surfactant mixtures provide control over the rheological properties of the system in a wide temperature range. Therefore, these results open new possibilities in the development of sustainable excipients for formulation technology, where the characteristics of the system can be easily tailored through geometric variations in the monomer structure whilst maintaining the chemical composition of the system.

12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 585: 178-183, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279700

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: The self-assembly of long-tail surfactants results in the formation of nanoscale structures, e.g. worm-like micelles, with the ability to modify the rheology of the system. However, micelle formation, and thus the alteration of the rheology, is subject to the high Krafft temperature of saturated long-tail surfactants. Hexadecylmaltosides are sustainable surfactants that, in solution, form tailorable viscoelastic fluids. The preparation of monounsaturated sugar-based surfactants is hypothesised to reduce the Krafft point compared to the saturated analogues, therefore increasing the temperature range where the surfactant remains in the micellar form. EXPERIMENTS: Here we report the synthesis and characterisation of a novel sugar-based surfactant with an unsaturated C16-tail, namely palmitoleyl-ß-d-maltoside (ß-C16-1G2). Differential scanning calorimetry was used to probe the temperature stability of the system. The rheology of ß-C16-1G2 solutions was investigated by means of rotational and oscillatory rheology, and these results were connected to the mesoscopic structure of the system as shown by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering, and dynamic light scattering. FINDINGS: The presence of a double bond on the alkyl chain moiety leads to a depression in the Krafft point, allowing the surfactant to form a thermodynamically stable micellar solution over a wide range of temperatures, i.e. 5-95 °C. The surfactant self-assembles into worm-like micelles which, upon entanglement in the semi-dilute regime, result in the formation of a non-Newtonian, viscoelastic fluid. These observations have important implications in the development of new sustainable formulated products, enabling the preparation of surfactant phases with remarkable thermal resilience.

13.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(11): 9893-9905, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952031

RESUMO

Increasing dietary calcium has been suggested to have a range of health benefits, such as reducing the risk of osteoporosis and hypertension. However, producing calcium-fortified products is challenging due to the destabilizing effect caused by added calcium. We provide new data on the effect of adding either calcium gluconate or calcium lactate at up to 50 mM on the partition of salts and the structure and solubility of micellar calcium phosphate (MCP). The empirical chemical formula of the MCP in milk with added calcium was Ca(HPO4)0.6(PO4)0.267, similar to that previously reported for the MCP in native bovine casein micelles. Ion equilibria calculations showed that the solubility of the MCP was decreased as measured by an increase in negative logarithm of the solubility constant (pKS) from 6.8 to 7.3 ± 0.1 and 7.5 ± 0.1 for milk with added calcium gluconate and calcium lactate, respectively. No substantial change in the amorphous structure of the MCP was observed by either X-ray powder diffraction or infrared spectroscopy of dried casein micelles as a result of added calcium. The conclusion is that the added calcium caused an increase in the concentration of the MCP and decreased its solubility without changing its amorphous structure or chemical composition.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Cálcio/química , Leite/química , Animais , Caseínas/química , Bovinos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Micelas , Sais/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Solubilidade , Difração de Raios X
14.
Soft Matter ; 16(30): 7063-7076, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756673

RESUMO

The substantial part of the water-soluble hemicellulose fraction, obtained when processing cellulose to produce paper and other products, has so far been discarded. The aim of this work is to reveal the interfacial properties of softwood hemicellulose (galactoglucomannan, GGM) in relation to their molecular and solution structure. In this study the sugar composition of GGM was characterised by chemical analysis as well as 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Previously it has been demonstrated that hemicellulose has high affinity towards cellulose and has the ability to alter the properties of cellulose based products. This study is focused on the interactions between hemicellulose and the cellulose surface. Therefore, adsorption to hydrophobized silica and cellulose surfaces of two softwood hemicellulose samples and structurally similar seed hemicelluloses (galactomannans, GMs) was studied with ellipsometry, QCM-D and neutron reflectometry. Aqueous solutions of all samples were characterized with light scattering to determine how the degree of side-group substitution and molecular weight affect the conformation and aggregation of these polymers in the bulk. In addition, hemicellulose samples were studied with SAXS to investigate backbone flexibility. Light scattering results indicated that GM polymers form globular particles while GGMs were found to form rod-like aggregates in the solution. The polysaccharides exhibit higher adsorption to cellulose than on hydrophobic surfaces. A clear correlation between the increase in molecular weight of polysaccharides and increasing adsorbed amount on cellulose was observed, while the adsorbed amount on the hydrophobic surface was fairly independent of the molecular weight. The obtained layer thickness was compared with bulk scattering data and the results indicated flat conformation of the polysaccharides on the surface.

15.
Biomedicines ; 8(7)2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674418

RESUMO

In the last two decades, extracellular vesicles (EVs) from the three domains of life, Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes, have gained increasing scientific attention. As such, the role of EVs in host-pathogen communication and immune modulation are being intensely investigated. Pivotal to EV research is the determination of how and where EVs are taken up by recipient cells and organs in vivo, which requires suitable tracking strategies including labelling. Labelling of EVs is often performed post-isolation which increases risks of non-specific labelling and the introduction of labelling artefacts. Here we exploited the inability of helminths to de novo synthesise fatty acids to enable labelling of EVs by whole organism uptake of fluorescent lipid analogues and the subsequent incorporation in EVs. We showed uptake of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-(lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl) (DOPE-Rho) in Anisakis spp. and Trichuris suis larvae. EVs isolated from the supernatant of Anisakis spp. labelled with DOPE-Rho were characterised to assess the effects of labelling on size, structure and fluorescence of EVs. Fluorescent EVs were successfully taken up by the human macrophage cell line THP-1. This study, therefore, presents a novel staining method that can be utilized by the EV field in parasitology and potentially across multiple species.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(1): 380-389, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804792

RESUMO

Inhaled antibiotic treatment of cystic fibrosis-related bacterial biofilm infections is challenging because of the pathological environment of the lungs. Here, we present an "environment-adaptive" nanoparticle composed of a solid poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) core and a mucus-inert, enzymatically cleavable shell of d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) for the site-specific delivery of antibiotics to bacterial biofilms via aerosol administration. The hybrid nanoparticles with ultrasmall size were self-assembled via a nanoprecipitation process by using a facile microfluidic method. The interactions of the nanoparticles with the biological barriers were comprehensively investigated by using cutting-edge techniques (e.g., quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy-based particle tracking, in vitro biofilm model cultured in a flow-chamber system, and quantitative imaging analysis). Our results suggest that the mucus-inert, enzymatically cleavable TPGS shell enables the nanoparticles to penetrate through the mucus, accumulate in the deeper layer of the biofilms, and serve as sustained release depot, thereby improving the killing efficacy of azithromycin (a macrolide antibiotic) against biofilm-forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In conclusion, the ultrasmall TPGS-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles represent an efficient delivery system to overcome the multiple barriers and release antibiotics in a sustained manner in the vicinity of the biofilm-forming bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Ácido Poliglicólico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração por Inalação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
17.
RSC Adv ; 10(31): 18025-18034, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35517209

RESUMO

This study sets out to investigate the effect of the presence of small water-soluble additives on the tunability of the surfactant gel-to-liquid crystalline (Lß-Lα) phase transition temperature (T m) for a bilayer-forming cationic surfactant and the phase behavior of such surfactant systems on dilution. This is strongly driven by the fact that this type of cationic surfactant has many interesting unanswered scientific questions and has found applications in various areas such as consumer care, the petrochemical industry, food science, etc. The underlying surfactant/additive interactions and the interfacial behavior of lamellar surfactant systems including the surfactant deposition on surfaces can provide new avenues to develop novel product formulations. We have examined dioctadecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DODAC) in the presence of small polar additives, with respect to the phase behavior upon dilution and the deposition on silica. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to track the transition temperature, T m, and synchrotron and laboratory-based small and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) were used to determine the self-assembled surfactant structure below and above the T m. DSC scans showed that upon dilution the additives could be removed from the surfactant bilayer which in turn tuned the T m. A spontaneous transition from a liquid crystalline (Lα) phase to a gel (Lß) phase on dilution was demonstrated, which indicated that additives could be taken out from the Lα phase. By means of in situ null ellipsometry, the deposition of a diluted surfactant Lß phase upon replacement of bulk solution by deionized water was followed. This technique enables time-resolved monitoring of the deposited surfactant layer thickness and adsorbed amount, which allows us to understand the deposition on surfaces. Robust layers at least one bilayer-thick were deposited onto the surface and shown to be irreversibly adsorbed due to poor surfactant solvency in water. The thickest layer of surfactant deposited after dilution was found for mixtures with small amounts of additive since high amounts might lead to a phase-separated system.

18.
Nanoscale ; 11(44): 21291-21301, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667477

RESUMO

In the formulation of an active enzyme enclosed in a matrix for controlled delivery, it is a challenge to achieve a high protein load and to ensure high activity of the protein. For the first time to our knowledge, we report the use of a highly swollen lipid sponge (L3) phase for encapsulation of the large active enzyme, ß-galactosidase (ß-gal, 238 kDa). This enzyme has large relevance for applications in, e.g. the production of lactose free milk products. The formulation consisted of diglycerol monooleate (DGMO), and a mixture of mono-, di- and triglycerides (Capmul GMO-50) stabilised by polysorbate 80 (P80). The advantage of this type of matrix is that it can be produced on a large scale with a fairly simple and mild process as the system is in practice self-dispersing, yet it has a well-defined internal nano-structure. Minor effects on the sponge phase structure due to the inclusion of the enzyme were observed using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The effect of encapsulation on the enzymatic activity and kinetic characteristics of ß-galactosidase activity was also investigated and can be related to the enzyme stability and confinement within the lipid matrix. The encapsulated ß-galactosidase maintained its activity for a significantly longer time when compared to the free solution at the same temperature. Differences in the particle size and charge of sponge-like nanoparticles (L3-NPs) with and without the enzyme were analysed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta-potential measurements. Moreover, all the initial ß-galactosidase was encapsulated within L3-NPs as revealed by size exclusion chromatography.


Assuntos
Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Kluyveromyces/enzimologia , Nanopartículas/química , beta-Galactosidase/química , Caprilatos/química , Estabilidade Enzimática , Glicerídeos/química , Polissorbatos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
Langmuir ; 35(43): 13904-13914, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566987

RESUMO

The self-assembly of the two anomeric forms of n-hexadecyl-d-maltopyranoside (denoted α-C16G2 and ß-C16G2) has been studied in dilute aqueous solution by means of surface tension measurements, scattering methods (dynamic light scattering, static light scattering, and small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering), and cryo-transmission electron microscopy at different surfactant concentrations and temperatures. Surface tension measurements demonstrate differences in the surfactant adsorption at the air-water interface, where α-C16G2 shows a lower CMC than ß-C16G2. Similarly, micelle morphology was found to profoundly depend on anomerism. ß-C16G2 preferentially forms very elongated micelles with large persistence lengths, whereas α-C16G2 assembles into smaller micelles for which the structure varies with concentration and temperature. The differences between the two surfactant anomers in terms of self-assembly can be attributed to the interaction between neighboring headgroups. Specifically, ß-C16G2 allows for a closer packing in the palisade layer, hence reducing the micelle curvature and promoting the formation of more elongated micelles. Strong intermolecular headgroup interactions may also account for the observed rigidity of the micelles.

20.
Biophys J ; 117(5): 829-843, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422820

RESUMO

Encapsulation of proteins within lipid inverse bicontinuous cubic phases (Q2) has been widely studied for many applications, such as protein crystallization or drug delivery of proteins for food and pharmaceutical purposes. However, the use of the lipid sponge (L3) phase for encapsulation of proteins has not yet been well explored. Here, we have employed a lipid system that forms highly swollen sponge phases to entrap aspartic protease (34 kDa), an enzyme used for food processing, e.g., to control the cheese-ripening process. Small-angle x-ray scattering showed that although the L3 phase was maintained at low enzyme concentrations (≤15 mg/mL), higher concentration induces a transition to more curved structures, i.e., transition from L3 to inverse bicontinuous cubic (Q2) phase. The Raman spectroscopy data showed minor conformational changes assigned to the lipid molecules that confirm the lipid-protein interactions. However, the peaks assigned to the protein showed that the structure was not significantly affected. This was consistent with the higher activity presented by the encapsulated aspartic protease compared to the free enzyme stored at the same temperature. Finally, the encapsulation efficiency of aspartic protease in lipid sponge-like nanoparticles was 81% as examined by size-exclusion chromatography. Based on these results, we discuss the large potential of lipid sponge phases as carriers for proteins.


Assuntos
Ácido Aspártico Proteases/metabolismo , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Lipídeos/química , Cristais Líquidos/química , Área Sob a Curva , Liofilização , Glicerol/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Espalhamento de Radiação , Análise Espectral Raman
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