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1.
Case Rep Nephrol ; 2020: 4079098, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963856

RESUMO

Introduction. Central pontine myelinolysis is characterized by the occurrence of acute demyelinating lesions of cells in the pons secondary to abrupt oscillations of serum osmolarity. Its exact incidence is not well defined, but studies show a prevalence of 0.25 to 0.5% in the general population, 2.5% in the intensive care unit, and up to 10% in patients with risk factors, such as chronic liver disease and hepatic transplantation, alcoholism, malnutrition, diuretic therapy, electrolyte imbalance, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia. Case Report. A 70-year-old white female with extranodal diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (extensive mass on the left anterior chest wall), stage IVA, developed pontine myelinolysis secondary to hypovolemic acute hypernatremia, which occurred due to diarrhea caused by chemotherapy (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine). Discussion. Pontine myelinolysis occurs most often due to the rapid correction of chronic hyponatremia. But here, we describe a case of the disease secondary to the occurrence of hypovolemic acute hypernatremia in a patient with a hematological malignancy under treatment, who was on chronic treatment with thiazide diuretics and who presented with other electrolyte disturbances as risk factors for the development of pontine myelinolysis.

2.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 71(6): 645-651, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725897

RESUMO

Following the appearance of several antimicrobial agents to control the spread of infections, two major challenges have emerged: (i) the occurrence and blowout of multiresistant bacteria and the increase of chronic diseases and (ii) difficult-to-eradicate infections. In this study, we tested five benzoylthiourea derivatives for their ability to inhibit and stop bacterial growth and evaluated the possible influence of 1,2,4-triazolyl-benzoylthiourea derivative 4 on the formation and eradication of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Benzoylthiourea derivatives 4, 6, 10, 11 and 13 were obtained in one or two steps with low cost and subjected to tests to identify their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration. In vitro tests were also performed to assess their effects on biofilm formation and in preformed biofilms and scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize the effects on biofilm formation. The 1,2,4-triazolyl-benzoylthiourea derivative 4 showed bacteriostatic activity against the S. aureus HU25 clinical strain with an MIC of 16 µg ml-1 , which is below the toxic concentration (at 2500 µg ml-1 , 62·25% of the cells remained viable). Compound 4 also effectively prevented biofilm formation at the three subinhibitory concentrations tested (1/2 MIC, 1/4 MIC and 1/8 MIC) as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. For breakdown of formed biofilms, the main influence was at a subinhibitory concentration (1/2 MIC). These findings make compound 4 a strong candidate for studies on the development of new antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Tioureia/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Plâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plâncton/fisiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Tioureia/química
3.
Prev Vet Med ; 182: 105091, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683190

RESUMO

This study aimed to measure the impact of productivity and the consequent economic losses related to lung lesions caused by M. hyopneumoniae. Five-hundred 75 days-old pigs were selected and weighed at the beginning and at the end of the finishing phase to assess the average daily gain (ADG). These animals were evaluated at the slaughter, and samples were collected for laboratory analysis to confirm the presence of M. hyopneumoniae DNA. The lungs of each pig were examined and classified into groups based on the extension of macroscopic lung lesions. Four-hundred eighty-six lungs were examined and 68.5% (n = 333) had macroscopic lung lesions. All pigs with lesions were positive for M. hyopneumoniae in qPCR. Linear mixed regression models (proc Glimmix) were performed on SAS to estimate the effect of macroscopic lung lesion scores on the ADG of finishing pigs. All pairwise comparisons among lesion score groups were performed using p < 0.05. For each increase of one percent in the lesion area, there was a decrease of 1.8 g in the daily weight gain. All the groups had a numerically lower ADG when compared to Group 1 (no lesions). The economic analysis was performed by simulation on Excel to estimate and compare the financial performance of the different lung lesion score groups. The negative correlation found between the group with no lung lesions and the group with more than 15.1% of lesions, showed a statistical difference in ADG, which could mean an opportunity to gain up to $ 6.55 per pig at slaughter. The presence of lesions causes the animals to decrease their productive potential, causing financial loss and generating impacts on the production system.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Pulmão/patologia , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/fisiologia , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/patologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/economia , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/virologia , Suínos
4.
Infect Genet Evol ; 85: 104421, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580027

RESUMO

Crab-eating (Cerdocyon thous) and Pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus) are wild canids distributed in South America. Domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and wild canids may share viral pathogens, including rabies virus (RABV), canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2). To characterize the virome of these wild canid species, the present work evaluated the spleen and mesenteric lymph node virome of 17 crab-eating and five Pampas foxes using high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Organ samples were pooled and sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform. Additional PCR analyses were performed to identify the frequencies and host origin for each virus detected by HTS. Sequences more closely related to the Paramyxoviridae, Parvoviridae and Anelloviridae families were detected, as well as circular Rep-encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses. CDV was found only in crab-eating foxes, whereas CPV-2 was found in both canid species; both viruses were closely related to sequences reported in domestic dogs from southern Brazil. Moreover, the present work reported the detection of canine bocavirus (CBoV) strains that were genetically divergent from CBoV-1 and 2 lineages. Finally, we also characterized CRESS DNA viruses and anelloviruses with marked diversity. The results of this study contribute to the body of knowledge regarding wild canid viruses that can potentially be shared with domestic canids or other species.


Assuntos
Cães/virologia , Raposas/virologia , Viroma , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Anelloviridae/classificação , Anelloviridae/genética , Animais , Bocavirus/classificação , Bocavirus/genética , Brasil , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Vírus de DNA/genética , DNA Viral , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/classificação , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Linfonodos/virologia , Metagenômica , Paramyxoviridae/classificação , Paramyxoviridae/genética , Parvoviridae/classificação , Parvoviridae/genética , Parvovirus Canino/classificação , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Filogenia , RNA Viral , Baço/virologia , Uruguai , Viroses/veterinária , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4100-4108, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197850

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main causative agents of food poisoning. This bacterium is an important component of cheese microbiota and plays an important role in foodborne diseases. Another important component of the microbiota is the lactic acid bacterium, which actively participates in processes that define the physicochemical, sensorial, and microbiological features of cheese. Of the various microbiological interactions in cheese, the interaction between lactic acid bacteria and Staph. aureus is most relevant. To this end, we evaluated the viability of Staph. aureus strains and the expression of their enterotoxins in cheeses produced experimentally, using Weissella paramesenteroides GIR16L4 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus D1 or both as starter cultures. Over 7 d, we observed that the presence of lactic acid bacteria did not impair Staph. aureus growth. However, via qPCR we observed a change in the gene expression of staphylococcal enterotoxins, suggesting that molecular communication exists between Staph. aureus strains and lactic acid bacteria in cheese.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Queijo/microbiologia , Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Superantígenos/metabolismo , Weissella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Queijo/análise , Enterotoxinas/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Leite , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Superantígenos/genética , Transcriptoma , Weissella/metabolismo
6.
Prev Vet Med ; 171: 104748, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470290

RESUMO

A study was conducted on 21 pig herds using one-site production system in the southeast region of Brazil to assess the relationships among serological results for primary pathogens involved in respiratory diseases (Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, App; Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mhyo; and swine influenza virus, SIV), cough index, pneumonia index, pleuritis and herd characteristics. The prevalence of antibodies against Mhyo and SIV increased throughout the raising phases, with the highest prevalence in slaughtered pigs (> 40%), while pigs in 65% (14/21) of nurseries demonstrated marked seroprevalence of App that decreased until the day of slaughter. Pleuritis and pulmonary consolidations were recorded in 9.0 and 72.4%, respectively, of the 908 evaluated lungs. Histopathological analysis of the lung lesions revealed suppurative bronchopneumonia in almost half of the lungs (48.9%). Regression analyses were conducted to identify risk factors associated with the cough index; pleuritis; pulmonary consolidation; and App, Mhyo and SIV serological results. All-in-all-out management in nursery buildings reduced the seroprevalence of Mhyo in herds. App seroprevalence was associated with pleuritis, and the presence of cough episodes in growing pigs was associated with SIV seropositivity in nursery pigs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Actinobacillus/veterinária , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Pleurisia/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Infecções por Actinobacillus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Actinobacillus/patologia , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Tosse/microbiologia , Tosse/veterinária , Estudos Transversais , Fazendas , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/patologia , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Pleurisia/epidemiologia , Pleurisia/microbiologia , Pleurisia/patologia , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 647-657, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011286

RESUMO

Minas artisanal cheese is made from endogenous starter cultures, including lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Some LAB may possess probiotic potential. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro probiotic properties of lactobacilli isolated from Minas artisanal cheeses produced in Minas Gerais. Ten samples of lactobacilli, formerly isolated from those cheeses, were submitted to the following assays: antimicrobial susceptibility, tolerance to artificial gastric juice and biliary salts, production of hydrogen peroxide and antagonism against pathogenic and non-pathogenic micro-organisms. Only L. plantarum (C0) was sensitive to all tested antimicrobials, while the other LAB samples were resistant to at least one drug. Six samples were tolerant to artificial gastric juice, and L. brevis (A6) even grew in that medium. Three samples were tolerant to biliary salts. Only L. brevis (E35) produced hydrogen peroxide. Difference (P< 0.05) was observed among the means of inhibition haloes of lactobacilli against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 and Lactobacillus plantarum C24 in spot-on-the-lawn assay. All samples of lactobacilli inhibited Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 in co-culture antagonism test (P< 0.0001). Most lactobacilli samples showed in vitro probiotic potential. From the tested samples, L. brevis (A6) presented the best results considering all in vitro probiotic tests.(AU)


O queijo minas artesanal é produzido por culturas starters endógenas, incluindo bactérias ácido-láticas (BAL). Algumas BAL podem possuir potencial probiótico. Com isso, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades probióticas in vitro de lactobacilos isolados de queijo minas artesanal produzido no estado de Minas Gerais. Dez amostras de lactobacilos, previamente isoladas desses queijos, foram submetidas aos seguintes testes: susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos, tolerância ao suco gástrico artificial e aos sais biliares, produção de peróxido de hidrogênio e antagonismo contra micro-organismos patogênicos e não patogênicos. Apenas L. plantarum (C0) foi sensível a todos os antimicrobianos testados, enquanto as outras amostras de BAL foram resistentes a, pelo menos, uma droga testada. Seis amostras foram tolerantes ao suco gástrico artificial, e L. brevis (A6) apresentou crescimento nesse meio. Três amostras foram tolerantes aos sais biliares. Apenas L. brevis (E35) produziu peróxido de hidrogênio. Diferença (P<0,05) foi observada entre as médias dos halos de inibição de lactobacilos contra Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 e Lactobacillus plantarum C24 no teste do spot-on-the-lawn. Todas as amostras de lactobacilos inibiram Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 no teste de antagonismo em cocultura (P<0,0001). A maioria das amostras de lactobacilos apresentou potencial probiótico in vitro. Com base nas amostras testadas, L. brevis (A6) apresentou os melhores resultados, considerando-se todos os testes probióticos in vitro.(AU)


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Antibiose
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 647-657, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-23555

RESUMO

Minas artisanal cheese is made from endogenous starter cultures, including lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Some LAB may possess probiotic potential. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro probiotic properties of lactobacilli isolated from Minas artisanal cheeses produced in Minas Gerais. Ten samples of lactobacilli, formerly isolated from those cheeses, were submitted to the following assays: antimicrobial susceptibility, tolerance to artificial gastric juice and biliary salts, production of hydrogen peroxide and antagonism against pathogenic and non-pathogenic micro-organisms. Only L. plantarum (C0) was sensitive to all tested antimicrobials, while the other LAB samples were resistant to at least one drug. Six samples were tolerant to artificial gastric juice, and L. brevis (A6) even grew in that medium. Three samples were tolerant to biliary salts. Only L. brevis (E35) produced hydrogen peroxide. Difference (P< 0.05) was observed among the means of inhibition haloes of lactobacilli against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 and Lactobacillus plantarum C24 in spot-on-the-lawn assay. All samples of lactobacilli inhibited Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 in co-culture antagonism test (P< 0.0001). Most lactobacilli samples showed in vitro probiotic potential. From the tested samples, L. brevis (A6) presented the best results considering all in vitro probiotic tests.(AU)


O queijo minas artesanal é produzido por culturas starters endógenas, incluindo bactérias ácido-láticas (BAL). Algumas BAL podem possuir potencial probiótico. Com isso, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades probióticas in vitro de lactobacilos isolados de queijo minas artesanal produzido no estado de Minas Gerais. Dez amostras de lactobacilos, previamente isoladas desses queijos, foram submetidas aos seguintes testes: susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos, tolerância ao suco gástrico artificial e aos sais biliares, produção de peróxido de hidrogênio e antagonismo contra micro-organismos patogênicos e não patogênicos. Apenas L. plantarum (C0) foi sensível a todos os antimicrobianos testados, enquanto as outras amostras de BAL foram resistentes a, pelo menos, uma droga testada. Seis amostras foram tolerantes ao suco gástrico artificial, e L. brevis (A6) apresentou crescimento nesse meio. Três amostras foram tolerantes aos sais biliares. Apenas L. brevis (E35) produziu peróxido de hidrogênio. Diferença (P<0,05) foi observada entre as médias dos halos de inibição de lactobacilos contra Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 e Lactobacillus plantarum C24 no teste do spot-on-the-lawn. Todas as amostras de lactobacilos inibiram Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 no teste de antagonismo em cocultura (P<0,0001). A maioria das amostras de lactobacilos apresentou potencial probiótico in vitro. Com base nas amostras testadas, L. brevis (A6) apresentou os melhores resultados, considerando-se todos os testes probióticos in vitro.(AU)


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Antibiose
9.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 65(2): 375-380, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29393592

RESUMO

Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) has been detected in piglets with congenital tremor (CT) from three different continents including North America, Europe and Asia. Thirteen piglets from four farms in two different states in Brazil with CT were sampled. Viral RNA was detected by quantitative real-time PCR in the cerebellum or cerebellum and spinal cord in the 100% of the piglets with CT, and APPV was not detected in any tissue sample from clinically non-affected piglets with the exception of the cerebellum of one piglet from Farm A. Piglets with CT had an odds ratio of 99.0 (95% CI 3.4, 2823.8; p = .0072) compared to piglets without CT to test positive for APPV by qRT-PCR. A subset of positive samples was selected for sequencing of the NS3 gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Brazilian sequences of the NS3 formed an independent cluster and had the highest sequence identity with a sequence from the United States. This is the first identification of APPV infection in piglets with CT in South America.


Assuntos
Animais Lactentes/virologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Infecções por Pestivirus/veterinária , Pestivirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Tremor/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pestivirus/genética , Pestivirus/imunologia , Infecções por Pestivirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Pestivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pestivirus/virologia , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Tremor/diagnóstico , Tremor/epidemiologia , Tremor/virologia
10.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 65(2): e339-e343, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29144025

RESUMO

Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) has recently been identified as a cause of congenital tremor (CT) in pigs and has been detected in semen and preputial swabs from boars that were known to be clinically affected with CT. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to 1) detect the presence of APPV in semen, preputial fluids and preputial swabs from adult boars by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and 2) genetically characterize a subset of positive samples to better understand the ecology of APPV in commercial boar studs and the potential risk of transmission of APPV via semen. A total of 597 samples of semen, preputial fluid and preputial swabs each representing a different boar were obtained from four commercial boar studs located in three different states in the United States. Viral RNA was detected by qRT-PCR in 90 samples (15.08%; 90/597), with the greatest per cent positive from preputial swabs (23.81%; 5/21) followed by preputial fluid (22.81%; 26/114) and semen (12.91%; 59/457). The mean cycle quantification (Cq) between sample types was similar while eleven semen samples had Cq values lower than 27.0 corresponding to approximately 2 × 106  copies/ml. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the Npro gene, different viral strains can be on the same farm at the same and different times. This is the first report of detection of APPV in semen from commercial boar studs. Studies investigating the role of semen in the transmission of APPV and production of CT are needed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Pestivirus/veterinária , Pestivirus/isolamento & purificação , Sêmen/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Masculino , Infecções por Pestivirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Pestivirus/virologia , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos
11.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 182: 48-55, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28522314

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the association between antral follicular blood flow velocity and the response of ewes to hormonal ovarian superstimulation. Ten Santa Inês ewes were subjected to a short- (7days; Group 1) or long-term (13days; Group 2) progesterone (CIDR®; InterAg, Hamilton, New Zealand) priming, and a superovulatory treatment with porcine follicle-stimulating hormone (pFSH; Folltropin®-V; Bioniche Animal Health, Belleville, ON, Canada), given twice daily for four consecutive days in decreasing doses and initiated four or ten days after CIDR insertion, respectively. Embryos were recovered surgically seven days after the last pFSH dose. From one day prior to until the end of the pFSH regimen (Days -1 to 3), all ewes underwent daily transrectal ultrasonography of ovaries. The number of high-velocity pixels (HVPs; 0.055-0.11m/s or upper 50% of recordable velocities) on Day 1 correlated directly with the number of corpora lutea (CL; r=0.92, P=0.0002) and of viable embryos (r=0.77, P=0.01). Correlations were also recorded between the number of HVPs on Day 3 and the recovery rate (r=-0.69, P=0.03), viability rate (r=-0.64, P=0.05), and percentage of degenerated embryos (r=0.65, P=0.04). The percentage of HVPs relative to the total area of ovarian cross section on Day 1 was correlated with the number of CL (r=0.95, P<0.001) and of viable embryos (r=0.85, P=0.002). This parameter on Day 3 was also correlated with the recovery rate (r=-0.69, P=0.03). The percentage of HVPs relative to the total Doppler area on Day 0 was correlated with the recovery rate (r=0.72, P=0.02). It can be concluded that sonographic assessment of high-velocity antral follicular blood flow has the makings of a useful non-invasive method to predict the outcome of the superovulatory treatment in ewes.


Assuntos
Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/farmacologia , Folículo Ovariano/irrigação sanguínea , Ovinos/fisiologia , Superovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Embrião de Mamíferos , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/administração & dosagem , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Progesterona/farmacologia , Superovulação/fisiologia , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos
12.
Interação psicol ; 21(1): 1-8, jan.-abr. 2017.
Artigo em Português | Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: psi-70830

RESUMO

O artigo analisa a partir da psicologia psicodinâmica e da antropologia social o desenvolvi-mento de crianças sob influência dos contextos sociais e da religiosidade para compreendercomo o contexto ambiental e o apoio emocional influenciam no desenvolvimento. Trata-se deum estudo qualitativo que utiliza entrevistas semiestruturadas, observações e diário de cam-po. Participaram cinco crianças, com idades de cinco a seis anos, pais, cuidadores e profes-sores. Os resultados foram sistematizados pela análise de conteúdo e apontaram umacirculação atravessada pela violência do bairro e influência religiosa das famílias na sociabili-dade das crianças. Conclui-se que a circunstância do contexto social, que gerou medo e inse-gurança nos pais das crianças, e a prática religiosa dos cuidadores incidiram de modosignificante no desenvolvimento emocional(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Religião e Psicologia , Criança , Meio Social
13.
Neotrop Entomol ; 46(2): 151-158, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27909952

RESUMO

The aquatic insect community is an important element for stream functionality and diversity, but the effects of altitude and conservation areas on the aquatic insect community have been poorly explored in neotropical ecozone. The lack of studies about the relative importance of space and environment on community structure is another obstacle within aquatic insect ecology, which precludes the inclusion of these studies in more current frameworks, like the metacommunity dynamics. We evaluated the relationship between the aquatic insect community structure at 19 streams in the Brazilian Cerrado and spatial and environmental variables, namely geographical distance among sites, stream altitude, chemical variables, and environmental protection areas. We partitioned the variance explained by spatial and environmental components using a partial redundancy analysis. The environment exhibited a strong spatial structure for abundance and number of genera, increasing these community parameters with elevated water conductivity. Only community composition had a large unexplained portion of variance, with a small portion constrained by environmental (altitude and conductivity) and spatial factors. A relevant point in the result was the streams with high conductivity were located outside of the conservation areas. These results suggest that the relationship between number of genera and abundance with environmental conditions is always associated with spatial configuration of streams. Our study shows that altitude is an important determinant of community structure, as it exerts indirect influences, and electrical conductivity directly determines community composition, and that some national parks may be inefficient in maintaining the diversity of aquatic insects in the Cerrado region.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Insetos , Rios , Altitude , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema
14.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 174: 80-86, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27765297

RESUMO

This study was conducted to document the pattern of antral follicular wave emergence throughout the 14-day, progesterone (P4)-based estrous synchronization protocol in ewes that were maintained in subtropical conditions, during the period of increasing day lengths (ID), decreasing day lengths (DD), and the transitional period (TP). In addition, the influence of ovarian status (i.e., size of ovarian antral follicles and the presence of corpora lutea) at the outset of P4 treatment on ensuing ovarian follicular wave development was examined. Sexually mature Santa Inês ewes (n=70) were subjected to one of the two estrous synchronization protocols in the three seasons. On Day 0, the ewes received an i.m. injection of prostaglandin F2α and an intravaginal P4-releasing device that remained in place for 14days (G-1CIDR) or was replaced on Day 7 (G-2CIDR). Daily ultrasonography of ovaries was conducted from Days 0 to 15. Mean (±SEM) numbers of follicular waves per ewe were 3.7±0.1 and 3.6±0.1 for G-1CIDR and G-2CIDR (P>0.05). The number of emerging follicular waves was greater (P<0.05) during the ID period than during the TP and DD periods (4.0±0.1, 3.4±0.1 and 3.6±0.1, respectively). The presence of medium-sized antral follicles (4.0 to 5.75mm) in the absence of corpora lutea at the time of CIDR insertion tended to advance follicular wave emergence. Although the long-term P4 treatment was not originally designed to synchronize follicular waves, there was a distinctive pattern of follicular wave dynamics during the period of application of CIDRs that was affected mainly by the number of emerging follicular waves and ovarian status at CIDR insertion.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Fotoperíodo , Progesterona/sangue , Estações do Ano
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 99(8): 6086-6096, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27289151

RESUMO

Minas artisanal cheese, produced in the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil, is made from raw milk and endogenous starter cultures. Although this cheese is of great historical and socioeconomic importance, little information is available about its microbiological and physical-chemical qualities, or about its beneficial microbiota. This work was aimed at evaluating the qualities of the cheese and the components used for its production, comparing samples collected during the dry and rainy seasons. We also conducted molecular identification and isolated 50 samples of lactic acid bacteria from cheese (n=21), water (n=3), raw milk (n=9), and endogenous starter culture (n=17). The microbiological quality of the cheese, water, raw milk, and endogenous starter culture was lower during the rainy period, given the higher counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Enterococcus faecalis was the lactic acid bacteria isolated most frequently (42.86%) in cheese samples, followed by Lactococcus lactis (28.57%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (14.29%). Lactobacillus brevis (5.88%), Enterococcus pseudoavium (5.88%), Enterococcus durans (5.88%), and Aerococcus viridans (5.88%) were isolated from endogenous starter cultures and are described for the first time in the literature. The lactic acid bacteria identified in the analyzed cheeses may inhibit undesirable microbiota and contribute to the safety and flavor of the cheese, but this needs to be evaluated in future research.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Leite/microbiologia , Estações do Ano , Microbiologia da Água , Animais , Brasil , Queijo/análise , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Ácido Láctico , Lactobacillaceae/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus plantarum/isolamento & purificação , Lactococcus lactis/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Chuva , Água
16.
Neotrop Entomol ; 45(2): 159-69, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26830433

RESUMO

Stream ecology studies see to understand ecological dynamics in lotic systems. The characterization of streams into Functional Process Zones (FPZ) has been currently debated in stream ecology because aquatic communities respond to functional processes of river segments. Therefore, we tested if different functional process zones have different number of genera and trophic structure using the aquatic insect community of Neotropical streams. We also assessed whether using physical and chemical variables may complement the approach of using FPZ to model communities of aquatic insects in Cerrado streams. This study was conducted in 101 streams or rivers from the central region of the state of Goiás, Brazil. We grouped the streams into six FPZ associated to size of the river system, presence of riparian forest, and riverbed heterogeneity. We used Bayesian models to compare number of genera and relative frequency of the feeding groups between FPZs. Streams classified in different FPZs had a different number of genera, and the largest and best preserved rivers had an average of four additional genera. Trophic structure exhibited low variability among FPZs, with little difference both in the number of genera and in abundance. Using functional process zones in Cerrado streams yielded good results for Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera communities. Thus, species distribution and community structure in the river basin account for functional processes and not necessarily for the position of the community along a longitudinal dimension of the lotic system.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Insetos/classificação , Rios , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Ephemeroptera , Clima Tropical
17.
Theriogenology ; 85(3): 452-60, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26474683

RESUMO

This study set out to investigate the efficiency of long-term estrus synchronization protocols and ovulatory follicle dynamics in ultrasonographically monitored Santa Inês ewes during lengthening (LD; September-October) and shortening photoperiods (SD; April-May), and the transitional period (TP; January). In addition, the influence of ovarian status (e.g., size of antral follicles and/or presence of corpora lutea) at the outset of the estrus synchronization protocols on the ensuing development of ovulatory follicles was examined. Seventy sexually mature Santa Inês ewes were subjected to one of the two estrus synchronization regimens; on Day 0 (random day of the estrous cycle or anovulatory period), the ewes were fitted with an intravaginal progesterone (P4)-releasing (controlled intrauterine drug release [CIDR]) device, which was left in place for 14 days (G-1CIDR, n = 35) or replaced on Day 7 (G-2CIDR, n = 35), and received an intramuscular injection of 10 mg of PGF2α. The ewes allocated to the G-1CIDR group had mean serum P4 concentrations less than 2 ng/mL during the last 4 days of the synchronization protocol. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in mean ovulation rates between the two protocols tested nor among the ewes varying in ovarian status or studied at different times of the year, but ovulations occurred ∼ 12 hours later in the TP compared with the SD period (P < 0.05). Ovulatory follicles emerged earlier (P < 0.05) in the G-1CIDR group than in the G-2CIDR group (Day 8.3 ± 0.5 vs. 9.2 ± 0.4) and during LD (Day 7.1 ± 0.6) compared with the TP (Day 9.1 ± 0.6) and SD (Day 9.9 ± 0.5 of the protocol). In conclusion, the replacement of CIDR devices prevented the occurrence of lower-than-normal luteal phase levels of P4 at the end of the 14-day estrus synchronization protocol. However, although this procedure and seasonal influences altered certain growth characteristics of ovulatory follicles, there were no effects of these factors on the mean ovulation rate.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/fisiologia , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Estações do Ano , Ovinos/fisiologia , Administração Intravaginal , Animais , Clima , Corpo Lúteo/diagnóstico por imagem , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Fotoperíodo , Progesterona/sangue , Fatores de Tempo , Ultrassonografia
18.
B. Indústr. Anim. ; 73(2): 117-110, 2016.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-328261

RESUMO

Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do uso de adubos orgânicos e mineral na estrutura e na produção de forragem do Panicum maximum cv. Massai. O experimento foi desenvolvido na fazenda escola do Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte, campus Apodi. Os tratamentos avaliados foram fontes orgânicas de nitrogênio (dejetos da suinocultura, da avicultura e da ovinocultura) e uma fonte mineral (ureia), fixados em 150 kg/ha de N. Avaliou-se a produção de forragem e de componentes morfológicos, a altura do pasto, a interceptação luminosa, o índice de área foliar e o teor de clorofila, em cortes realizados a cada 60 dias. A altura do dossel foi afetada pelo tipo de adubo aplicado, e maior altura foi observada no pasto adubado com ureia (50,97 cm). A maior interceptação de luz (IL) pelo dossel foi observada nos pastos que receberam ureia, porém não alcançaram 95% de IL. O índice de área foliar nos pastos adubados com ureia foi maior que nos demais, e os valores observados nos pastos que receberam adubos orgânicos foram considerados muito baixos. As massas de forragem, de lâmina foliar, de colmo e de material morto foram afetadas pelo tipo de adubo, e foram maiores nos pastos que receberam ureia. Os teores de clorofila total nas lâminas foliares não diferiram entre os adubos avaliados. A estrutura e a produção de forragem em pastos de capim-massai não são afetadas pelo tipo de dejetos de produção animal utilizado como fonte de nitrogênio. A eficiência destes adubos orgânicos como fonte de nitrogênio é inferior à da adubação mineral. Os dejetos de produção animal avaliados podem ser utilizados como fonte de nitrogênio para pastos de capim-massai em condições de baixo custo e para diminuir os impactos ambientais...(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on the structure and production of Panicum maximum cv. Massai forage. The experiment was conducted at the teaching farm of Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte, Apodi Campus. The treatments evaluated were organic sources of nitrogen (wastes of pig, poultry and sheep farming) and a mineral source (urea), set at 150 kg N/ha. Forage production, morphological components, pasture height, light interception, leaf area index, and chlorophyll content were evaluated in samples obtained at intervals of 60 days. Canopy height was affected by the type of fertilizer applied and the greatest height was observed for pasture fertilized with urea (50.97 cm). The highest light interception by the canopy was observed for pastures receiving urea, but 95% light interception was not reached. The leaf area index was higher for pastures fertilized with urea compared to the other treatments and the values obtained for pastures receiving organic fertilizers were considered very low. Forage, leaf blade, stem and dead material mass was affected by the type of fertilizer and was higher for pastures receiving urea. The total chlorophyll content of leaf blades did not differ between the types of fertilizer evaluated. Forage structure or production in massai grass pastures is not affected by the type of animal manure used as nitrogen source. The efficiency of these organic fertilizers as a nitrogen source is lower than that of mineral fertilization. The animal manures evaluated can be used as nitrogen sources for massai grass pastures to reduce costs and environmental impacts...(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Esterco/classificação , Panicum/classificação , Nitrogênio , Riscos Ambientais , Suínos , Aves , Ovinos
19.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 55(12): 1584-92, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25812705

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to determine the morphological renal impairment in pregnant rats spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) submitted to swimming when compared with those who did not perform the activity, and to analyze the relationship of expression of cytokines in inflammatory fibrotic and protrained and sedentary animals. METHODS: SHRs and their respective control normotensive rats (WKY) were submitted or not to a swimming protocol during 9 weeks, resulting in four pregnant experimental groups: sedentary hypertensive (HS), trained hypertensive (HT), sedentary normotensive (NS), and trained normotensive (NT). RESULTS: Pregnant untrained hypertensive rats presented higher resting mean blood pressure (MAP) compared with both sedentary and trained normotensive groups (P<0.05). We can observe too, that the exercise training did not change the heart rate (HR) in both hypertensive and normotensive groups (P=0.127). The HT rats showed lower area of mesangial matrix (MM) compared to NT group (P=0.018). The perceptual of fibrosis (%F) in hypertensive rats was significantly higher compared with the % F in normotensive rats (P<0.001). The rats in the HT group showed higher expression of TGF-b (P<0.001) and of IL-10 (P<0.001) when compared with the other groups. CONCLUSION: The main conclusion is that in SHR rats it is shown a greater expression of TGF-beta, resulting in increased fibrosis in renal parenchyma due to the increased number of inflammatory cells that secrete this cytokine, and thus the practice of swimming can attenuate inflammatory processes, and mitigate the blood pressure of these animals.


Assuntos
Rim/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
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