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J Food Prot ; 2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35333921


Consumption of unpasteurized (raw) milk has been linked to foodborne illness in the United States at higher relative rates than pasteurized milk and milk products. Intra-state regulation of these products differs by state. Regardless of the risk of consumption, some people still purchase and consume unpasteurized milk. Using the 2016 Food Safety Survey (FSS) and the 2019 Food Safety and Nutrition Survey (FSANS), we evaluated prevalence, frequency, and demographic predictors of consumption of raw milk in the U.S. population. In total, 4.4% of consumers reported consuming raw milk at least once in the past year, with 1.6% reporting frequent consumption of raw milk (once a month or more often) and 1.0% reporting consuming it once a week or more. Those consuming raw milk in the past 12 months are more likely to be younger, living in a rural area, and living in a state where retail sale of raw milk is legal. This study helps to quantify the prevalence, frequency, and demographics of those who consume unpasteurized milk in the United States.

Prev Med ; 153: 106824, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600959


FDA's Menu Labeling Final Rule requires covered establishments provide calorie information on menus or menu boards, among other requirements. This study describes correlates of noticing and using menu calorie information in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults before implementation of the Final Rule in May 2018. Data from the 2018 National Cancer Institute Health Information National Trends Survey was used to assess noticing menu calorie information, using menu calorie information to change menu ordering behavior, and knowledge of daily calorie needs. Regression analysis of weighted data tested associations between individual characteristics and noticing and using menu calorie information. Nearly half of adults (44%) reported noticing menu calorie information. Women, younger individuals, those who seek health information, individuals with a BMI ≥ 30, and those with higher education or higher income were more likely to report noticing menu calorie information. Among adults who reported noticing menu calorie information, three-quarters responded by ordering less (e.g., fewer calories), which equates to about one-third of the population. About 36% of women and 42% of men lacked calorie knowledge. Men with, versus without, calorie knowledge were twice as likely to report noticing menu calorie information (adjusted OR 2.23 95% CI 1.51, 3.29). Findings suggest behavioral response to menu calorie information varies and most individuals who notice the information respond by ordering less in ways that could reduce caloric intake. Future analyses could compare noticing and using menu calorie information before and after menu labeling implementation to assess the effect of policy on population behaviors.

Rotulagem de Alimentos , Neoplasias , Adulto , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Restaurantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1): 214-222, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350919


Foodborne illness source attribution is foundational to a risk-based food safety system. We describe a method for attributing US foodborne illnesses caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter to 17 food categories using statistical modeling of outbreak data. This method adjusts for epidemiologic factors associated with outbreak size, down-weights older outbreaks, and estimates credibility intervals. On the basis of 952 reported outbreaks and 32,802 illnesses during 1998-2012, we attribute 77% of foodborne Salmonella illnesses to 7 food categories (seeded vegetables, eggs, chicken, other produce, pork, beef, and fruits), 82% of E. coli O157 illnesses to beef and vegetable row crops, 81% of L. monocytogenes illnesses to fruits and dairy, and 74% of Campylobacter illnesses to dairy and chicken. However, because Campylobacter outbreaks probably overrepresent dairy as a source of nonoutbreak campylobacteriosis, we caution against using these Campylobacter attribution estimates without further adjustment.

Infecções por Campylobacter , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Gastroenterite , Listeria monocytogenes , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Surtos de Doenças , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 14(12): 701-710, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28926300


BACKGROUND: Foodborne disease data collected during outbreak investigations are used to estimate the percentage of foodborne illnesses attributable to specific food categories. Current food categories do not reflect whether or how the food has been processed and exclude many multiple-ingredient foods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Representatives from three federal agencies worked collaboratively in the Interagency Food Safety Analytics Collaboration (IFSAC) to develop a hierarchical scheme for categorizing foods implicated in outbreaks, which accounts for the type of processing and provides more specific food categories for regulatory purposes. IFSAC also developed standard assumptions for assigning foods to specific food categories, including some multiple-ingredient foods. The number and percentage of outbreaks assignable to each level of the hierarchy were summarized. RESULTS: The IFSAC scheme is a five-level hierarchy for categorizing implicated foods with increasingly specific subcategories at each level, resulting in a total of 234 food categories. Subcategories allow distinguishing features of implicated foods to be reported, such as pasteurized versus unpasteurized fluid milk, shell eggs versus liquid egg products, ready-to-eat versus raw meats, and five different varieties of fruit categories. Twenty-four aggregate food categories contained a sufficient number of outbreaks for source attribution analyses. Among 9791 outbreaks reported from 1998 to 2014 with an identified food vehicle, 4607 (47%) were assignable to food categories using this scheme. Among these, 4218 (92%) were assigned to one of the 24 aggregate food categories, and 840 (18%) were assigned to the most specific category possible. CONCLUSIONS: Updates to the food categorization scheme and new methods for assigning implicated foods to specific food categories can help increase the number of outbreaks attributed to a single food category. The increased specificity of food categories in this scheme may help improve source attribution analyses, eventually leading to improved foodborne illness source attribution estimates and enhanced food safety and regulatory efforts.

Surtos de Doenças , Contaminação de Alimentos , Alimentos/classificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Laticínios/microbiologia , Ovos/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/microbiologia , Humanos , Carne/microbiologia , Pasteurização