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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242089, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285597

RESUMO

Abstract The study reveals the prevalence of a potential rodent-borne zoonotic helminth species, Hymenolepis diminuta in commensal rodents caught from irrigated and rain-fed areas of Swat, Pakistan. Three hundred and fifty rodents (269 rats and 81 mice) trapped during vegetative, flowering/fruiting and mature/harvesting stages of crops were studied from 2011-2013. Hymenolepisdiminuta eggs were identified on the basis of their shape, size, colour and markings on the surface of the egg shell and three pairs of embryonic hook-lets. Overall prevalence of H. diminuta was 3.14% (n=11/350). The highest prevalence 3.49% (n=5/143) of H. diminuta was noted at harvesting stages of the crops whereas the lowest 2.59% (n=2/77) during vegetative stage. Infection was higher in males 3.25% (n=7/215) than females 2.96% (n=4/135). Adult rodents were highly infected while no sub-adult was found infected. Infection was higher in mice 3.70% (3/81) than rats 2.69% (8/269) while no significance (p=1.0000:0.1250 to 32.00 CI). Rats and mice appears to show the most suitable reservoirs by hosting H. diminuta a zoonotic helminth. The presence of these rodents in all possible habitats can act as a main channel of transferring parasites through various habitats and can pose a hazard to humans in the area.


Resumo O estudo revela a prevalência de uma espécie potencial de helmintos zoonóticos transmitidos por roedores, Hymenolepis diminuta, em roedores comensais capturados em áreas irrigadas e alimentadas pela chuva de Swat, Paquistão. Trezentos e cinquenta roedores (269 ratos e 81 camundongos) presos durante os estágios vegetativo, floração/frutificação e maturidade/colheita das safras foram estudados de 2011-2013. Ovos de Hymenolepisdiminuta foram identificados com base em sua forma, tamanho, cor e marcações na superfície da casca do ovo e três pares de anzóis embrionários. A prevalência geral de H. diminuta foi de 3,14% (n = 11/350). A maior prevalência 3,49% (n = 5/143) de H. diminuta foi observada na fase de colheita das lavouras, enquanto a menor 2,59% (n = 2/77) durante a fase vegetativa. A infecção foi maior nos homens 3,25% (n = 7/215) do que nas mulheres 2,96% (n = 4/135). Roedores adultos foram altamente infectados, enquanto nenhum subadulto foi encontrado infectado. A infecção foi maior em camundongos 3,70% (3/81) do que em ratos 2,69% (8/269), embora sem significância (p = 1,0000: 0,1250 a 32,00 CI). Ratos e camundongos parecem mostrar os reservatórios mais adequados hospedando H. diminuta um helmintos zoonótico. A presença desses roedores em todos os habitats possíveis pode atuar como um canal principal de transferência de parasitas através de vários habitats e pode representar um perigo para os humanos na área.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246904, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706025

RESUMO

Hyperhydricity is a serious physiological disorder and affects In vitro propagation of many plants and as well of Salvia santolinifolia. The donor material to initiate the in vitro culture was the callus taken from the in vitro shoots produced on Murashig and Skoogs (MS) medium at 4.0 mg/l BA. This callus formed numerous hyperhydric shoots on culturing upon the medium of the same composition. The aim was to systematically evaluate the effect of cytokinins (Benzyladnine (BA) and N6-(-2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP), culture vessels magnitude, medium solidification, source of nitrogen and calcium chloride for the alleviation of hyperhydricity. In the tissue cultures of S. santolinifolia BA and 2iP induced severe hyperhydricity, when other factors i.e. culture vessels magnitude and a suitable concentration of agar, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), potassium nitrate (KNO3) & calcium chloride (CaCl2.2H2O) were not optimized. After 30 days' culture, we observed 83.82% hyperhydric shoots at increased level (1.5 mg/l 2iP) and 81.59% at decreased levels (1.0 mg/l 2iP). On the other hand, hyperhydricity percentage at decreased (0.4%) and at increased (0.8%) levels of agar were 72.37% and 39.08%, respectively. MS medium modification with NH4NO3 (412 mg/l), KNO3 (475 mg/l) and CaCl2.2H2O (880 mg/l) was found the best medium to reduced hyperhydricity (23.6%).


Assuntos
Salvia , Meios de Cultura , Brotos de Planta
3.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242089, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378679

RESUMO

The study reveals the prevalence of a potential rodent-borne zoonotic helminth species, Hymenolepis diminuta in commensal rodents caught from irrigated and rain-fed areas of Swat, Pakistan. Three hundred and fifty rodents (269 rats and 81 mice) trapped during vegetative, flowering/fruiting and mature/harvesting stages of crops were studied from 2011-2013. Hymenolepisdiminuta eggs were identified on the basis of their shape, size, colour and markings on the surface of the egg shell and three pairs of embryonic hook-lets. Overall prevalence of H. diminuta was 3.14% (n=11/350). The highest prevalence 3.49% (n=5/143) of H. diminuta was noted at harvesting stages of the crops whereas the lowest 2.59% (n=2/77) during vegetative stage. Infection was higher in males 3.25% (n=7/215) than females 2.96% (n=4/135). Adult rodents were highly infected while no sub-adult was found infected. Infection was higher in mice 3.70% (3/81) than rats 2.69% (8/269) while no significance (p=1.0000:0.1250 to 32.00 CI). Rats and mice appears to show the most suitable reservoirs by hosting H. diminuta a zoonotic helminth. The presence of these rodents in all possible habitats can act as a main channel of transferring parasites through various habitats and can pose a hazard to humans in the area.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Hymenolepis diminuta , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Muridae , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20172017 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28196821

RESUMO

Reed Sternberg (RS) cells in the setting of small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) can complicate the histopathological diagnosis. We report a case of a man aged 54 years who presented with cervical lymphadenopathy. Resection of the lymph node was performed and sent for histopathological evaluation to a local laboratory. A diagnosis of SLL with Classic Hodgkin's lymphoma (CHL) was made. The medical oncologist who encountered this diagnosis for the first time sent the biopsy blocks to our laboratory for a second opinion. On review of the biopsy and immunohistochemical stains, it showed typical SLL morphology and immunophenotype. Focally, it showed large mononuclear RS type cells; however, no typical background of CHL was seen. The diagnosis was revised to 'SLL with RS like cells with no convincing evidence of CHL'. The patient was subsequently treated as a case of SLL and no progression was observed on a follow-up of 5 years.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/diagnóstico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Células de Reed-Sternberg/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 22(14): 10744-57, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25758418

RESUMO

Because of high emissions of anthropogenic as well as natural particles over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), it is important to study the characteristics of fine (PM2.5) and inhalable particles (PM10), including their morphology, physical and chemical characteristics, etc., in Delhi during winter 2013. The mean mass concentrations of fine (PM2.5) and inhalable (PM10) (continuous) was 117.6 ± 79.1 and 191.0 ± 127.6 µg m(-3), respectively, whereas the coarse mode (PM10-2.5) particle PM mass was 73.38 ± 28.5 µg m(-3). During the same period, offline gravimetric monitoring of PM2.5 was conducted for morphological analysis, and its concentration was ~37 % higher compared to the continuous measurement. Carbonaceous PM such as organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were analyzed on the collected filters, and their mean concentration was respectively 33.8 and 4.0 µg m(-3) during the daytime, while at night it was 41.2 and 10.1 µg m(-3), respectively. The average OC/EC ratio was 8.97 and 3.96 during the day and night, respectively, indicating the formation of secondary organic aerosols during daytime. Effective carbon ratio was studied to see the effect of aerosols on climate, and its mean value was 0.52 and 1.79 during night and day, indicating the dominance of absorbing and scattering types of aerosols respectively into the atmosphere over the study region. Elemental analysis of individual particles indicates that Si is the most abundant element (~37-90 %), followed by O (oxide) and Al. Circularity and aspect ratio was studied, which indicates that particles are not perfectly spherical and not elongated in any direction. Trajectory analysis indicated that in the months of February and March, air masses appear to be transported from the Middle Eastern part along with neighboring countries and over Thar Desert region, while in January it was from the northeast direction which resulted in high concentrations of fine particles.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia , Estações do Ano , Compostos de Silício/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
6.
Br J Cancer ; 102(11): 1657-60, 2010 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20407442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No data exist on the population prevalence of, or risk factors for, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in predominantly Muslim countries in Asia. METHODS: Cervical specimens were obtained from 899 married women aged 15-59 years from the general population of Karachi, Pakistan and from 91 locally diagnosed invasive cervical cancers (ICCs). HPV was detected using a GP5+/6+ PCR-based assay. RESULTS: The prevalence of HPV in the general population was 2.8%, with no evidence of higher HPV prevalence in young women. The positivity of HPV was associated with women's lifetime number of sexual partners, but particularly with the age difference between spouses and other husbands' characteristics, such as extramarital sexual relationships and regular absence from home. The HPV16/18 accounted for 24 and 88% of HPV-positive women in the general population and ICC, respectively. CONCLUSION: Cervical cancer prevention policies should take into account the low HPV prevalence and low acceptability of gynaecological examination in this population.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Colo do Útero/patologia , Colo do Útero/virologia , DNA Viral/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prevalência , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto Jovem
7.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 16(3): 149-53, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21206703

RESUMO

AIM: Distribution of HLA class I and II alleles and haplotype was studied in Pakistani population and compared with the data reported for Caucasoid, Africans, Orientals and Arab populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HLA class I and II polymorphisms in 1000 unrelated Pakistani individuals was studied using sequence-specific primers and polymerase chain reaction and assay. RESULTS: The most frequent class I alleles observed were A*02, B*35 and CW*07, with frequencies of 19.2, 13.7 and 20%, respectively. Fifteen distinct HLA-DRB1 alleles and eight HLA-DQB1 alleles were recognized. The most frequently observed DRB1 alleles which represented more than 60% of the subjects were DRB1 *03, *07, *11 and *15. The rare DRB1 alleles detected in this study were HLADRB1 *08 and *09, having frequencies of 0.9 and 1.7%, respectively. In addition, at DRB1-DQB1 loci there were 179 different haplotypes and 285 unique genotypes and the most common haplotype was DRB1*15-DQB1*06 which represented 17% of the total DRB1-DQB1 haplotypes. In our population, haplotype A*33-B*58-Cw*03 comprised 2.8% of the total class I haplotypes observed. This haplotype was seen only in the oriental populations and has not been reported in the African or European Caucasoid. CONCLUSION: Our study showed a close similarity of HLA class I and II alleles with that of European Caucasoid and Orientals. In Pakistani population, two rare loci and three haplotypes were identified, whereas haplotypes characteristic of Caucasians, Africans and Orientals were also found, suggesting an admixture of different races due to migration to and from this region.

8.
Cytopathology ; 20(4): 231-4, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18627403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic value of clot examination for satisfactory processing and confirmation of malignancy in serous effusions in routine cytological evaluation and compare the results with those of conventional smear and cell block preparations. METHODOLOGY: Body cavity fluids (n = 600) received in our laboratory were processed according to a pre-designed protocol for the study as follows: Day1: on receipt of the specimen, smears were made and a cell block was prepared from the sediment. Day2: after overnight sample storage of the remaining specimen at 2-8 degrees C all fluids were examined for the presence of a clot at the bottom of the container. Fluids in which clot had formed were fixed in formalin. The clot was then placed on a lens paper, wrapped and processed routinely. Diagnostic yields were compared. RESULTS: In this study, we included 600 cases of serous fluids from pleural, pericardial and peritoneal effusions. In 73% (n = 437) of samples, clot formation was seen, while in 27%, (n = 163) no clot had formed. Routine smear and cell block preparations showed malignant cells in 9.6% (n = 42). However, with the addition of the clot preparation, the number of cases in which atypical/malignant cells were seen increased from 42 to 85 (19.4%), with a P < 0.001. Special stains and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were also performed on clot preparations in 10 difficult cases. CONCLUSION: Clot preparation from body cavity fluids on the second day can be used as an adjunct to smear and routine cell block preparation to improve the accuracy and yield of the cytological diagnosis and may also be of great help for special studies such as IHC staining.


Assuntos
Líquido Ascítico/patologia , Líquidos Corporais/citologia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Derrame Pericárdico/patologia , Derrame Pleural Maligno/patologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Coagulação Sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 26(5): 214-6, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18227570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: There is limited published information on gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in the South Asian region. This study was conducted to describe the demographic characteristics, organ distribution and frequency of risk categories in cases of GIST referred to a tertiary hospital. METHODS: Data pertaining to 37 cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumors received at the histopathology section of the Aga Khan University Hospital between December 2004 and July 2005 were analyzed. Immunohistochemical stains including vimentin, CD34, CD117 (c-kit), ASMA, desmin and S-100 were performed. RESULTS: Of 37 tumors, 24 (64.9%) were from males. The mean age of the patients was 50.0 years (95% CI 45.3-54.6). Tumors were categorized as high risk (27 cases; 69.2%), intermediate risk (4 cases; 10.3%) and low risk (3 cases; 7.7%). The most common site of involvement was the stomach (29.7%), followed by small bowel (24.3%), mesentery (10.8%), pancreas (8.1%), rectum (2.7%) and retroperitoneum (2.7%). In 21.6% of cases, the site of origin was not specified. The mean age at diagnosis was 50.9 years (95% CI 45.5 - 56.3) in the high risk and 44.8 years (95% CI 28.6 - 60.9) in the intermediate risk category. CONCLUSIONS: Cases of GIST referred to us were more frequently from men, most commonly from stomach or small bowel, mostly in the high risk category, and presented a decade earlier than in other reported series.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/patologia , Fatores Etários , Antígenos CD34/análise , Autoanticorpos/análise , Desmina/análise , Feminino , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/análise , Fatores de Risco , Proteínas S100/análise , Fatores Sexuais , Vimentina/análise
11.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 17(4): 3-8, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16599024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to analyze the proportion of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (TALL) among all acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Pakistani population and its correlation with the demographic features. Accuracy of cell surface markers used in flow cytometric analysis of the leukemic cells was also determined. METHODS: Data of 209 consecutive cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) presenting between July 1995 and July 2003 was analyzed. Flow cytometry was performed on all ALL cases using the standard protocols. TALL markers included CD3, CD5 and CD7. RESULTS: Proportion of TALL among known ALL Pakistani patients was 17.22%. Mean age of the TALL patients was 17.2 years. Proportion of TALL was higher in adults than in children (21.95% vs. 14.17%). Overall in this study there were more male patients affected by TALL (25/36 or 69.40%) than females (11/36 or 30.60%). The female to male ratio among TALL patients was 1:2.27. However, the proportion (%) of TALL in females was higher than males (18.96% vs. 15.82 %) i, e, 1.2:1. CD7 was found to be the most sensitive among both adults & children. It was positive in 94.4% of the TALL cases. CONCLUSION: Proportion of TALL among ALL in Pakistan is similar to that reported in this region, indicating a candidate association with geographical location and socioeconomic status. The reactivity of markers with TALL. cells was similar to what we expected based upon literature. However, due to some aberrant and cross reactivity displayed by each marker, we strongly recommend a panel approach including B and myeloid markers to ensure a correct diagnosis of TALL.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/fisiopatologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Biomarcadores , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Prevalência
12.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 54(11): 561-5, 2004 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15623182

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the epidemiology of ocular Rhabdomyosarcoma (ORMS) in Karachi. METHODS: Incident ORMS cases resident of Karachi, registered at Karachi Cancer Registry (KCR) during 1st January 1998 to 31st December 2002 were included in the study. The data were classified using ICD-O2; computerized with Canreg-3, and analyzed using SPSS 10.0. RESULTS: Ten cases of ORMS were reported to KCR during 1998-2002. RMS originated in the orbit in eight cases, conjunctiva in one and eyelid in one. Nine cases presented with proptosis, associated with conjunctivitis in four cases. One case presented with eyelid swelling. The crude annual incidence rate was 0.13/100,000, the age standardized rate was 0.3/100,000. The mean age of childhood cases was 10.4 years (95% CI 4.0; 16.7); and adult cases was 24.8 years (95% CI 12.8; 36.7). At presentation, eight patients were older than 10 years and three were older than 20 years. Five cases were categorized as childhood malignancies. Tumors were a TNM stage III disease at presentation in eight cases; survival at the end of one year was 70%, and at the end of two years 20%. There were no survivors at the end of three years. CONCLUSION: ORMS in Karachi is a disease with a dismal survival. It may reflect a late presentation, or shorter adult ORMS survival or a manifestation of a different genetic pattern, associated with rapid evolution and poor prognosis. Health education for the population, especially parents and health providers is essential for early ORMS diagnosis. Pediatricians, ophthalmologists and health professionals, can play a vital role. Healthcare planning should focus on capacity building for ophthalmologic screening. Cytogenetic studies are advised to determine the genetic pattern.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Orbitárias/epidemiologia , Rabdomiossarcoma Embrionário/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Orbitárias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Orbitárias/patologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Rabdomiossarcoma Embrionário/metabolismo , Rabdomiossarcoma Embrionário/patologia
13.
J Radiol Prot ; 24(3): 307-14, 2004 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15511022

RESUMO

The two-hourly time-integrated thyroid dose due to radio-iodines released to the atmosphere through the exhaust stack of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1), under accident conditions, has been calculated. A computer program, PAKRAD (which was developed under an IAEA research grant, PAK/RCA/8990), was used for the dose calculations. The sensitivity of the dose results to different exhaust flow rates and atmospheric stability classes was studied. The effect of assuming a constant activity concentration (as a function of time) within the containment air volume and an exponentially decreasing air concentration on the time-integrated dose was also studied for various flow rates (1000-50000 m3 h(-1)). The comparison indicated that the results were insensitive to the containment air exhaust rates up to or below 2000 m3 h(-1), when the prediction with the constant activity concentration assumption was compared to an exponentially decreasing activity concentration model. The results also indicated that the plume touchdown distance increases with increasing atmospheric stability.


Assuntos
Movimentos do Ar , Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Reatores Nucleares , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Humanos , Paquistão , Doses de Radiação , Pesquisa , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos da radiação , Tempo
14.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 54(6): 306-11, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15366795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the cases sent to the section of histopathology, Aga Khan Universty (AKU) for second opinion and see whether there are significant differences in the original outside diagnosis and the subsequent diagnosis submitted by us. METHODS: A retrospective study of all consecutive cases for second opinion in the form of paraffin blocks from 1st Novemver 2001 to 31st July 2002. The primary submitted diagnosis in each case was compared with the subsequent AKU diagnosis. RESULTS: The study included a total of 381 cases. However, in 45 cases (11.81%), initial histopathological diagnosis was not provided. Out of the remaining 336 cases, there were differences between the original diagnosis and the subsequent AKU diagnosis in 120 cases (35.71%). Out of these 120 cases, immunohistochemistry was performed in 65 cases (54.16%) only. CONCLUSION: In a developing country like Pakistan, where few laboratories are equipped to function as modern histopathology units, second opinion on difficult cases is very important. Worldwide, the concept of second opinion in surgical pathology is well established.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Patologia Cirúrgica/métodos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Paquistão , Pâncreas/patologia , Patologia Cirúrgica/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Glândulas Salivares/patologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
15.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 54(7): 345-8, 2004 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15449914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the trends of cancer esophagus in Karachi South during 1995-2002 and identify risk factors. METHODS: Incident esophageal cancer cases recorded at the Karachi Cancer Registry for Karachi South, during 1st January 1995 to 31st December 2003 were reviewed. For maximum completion of data, incident cases registered from 1st January 1995 to 31st December 2002 were included for final analyses. RESULTS: The Age Standardized Incidence Rates (ASIRs) of cancer esophagus in Karachi South for males were 6.5/100,000 (1995-1997) and 6.4/100,000 (1998-2002). In females the observed rates were 7.0/100,000 (1995-1997) and 8.6/100,000 (1998-2002). CONCLUSION: In the moderately high incidence, cancer esophagus zone of Karachi, the ASIRs in males remained stable during the last decade, but in females, an upward trend was observed suggesting a progressively higher exposure to risk factors in the latter. The potential risk factors in Karachi are use of all forms of tobacco, areca nut, infrequent consumption of raw fruits and vegetables and diet deficiencies. There is a necessity to actively control the proven risk factors and address the existence of other risk factors. The primary recommended strategy for the control of cancer esophagus would therefore be legislation against tobacco and areca nut in Pakistan and public health education. The risk factors of cancer esophagus identified in this article need to be further confirmed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
16.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 53(3): 94-7, 2003 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12779021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To know the frequency of breast diseases in Pakistani females. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 3279 breast specimens received over a period of 4 years (1993-1996) at the department of pathology, the Aga Khan University Hospital. RESULTS: Out of a total of 3279 breast specimens, common breast lesions included infiltrating duct carcinoma 37%, followed by fibro adenoma 16.95%, fibrocystic change 13.96%, mastitis 6.83% and duct ectasia 5.33%. Majority of the cases of infiltrating duct carcinoma were encountered in the 5th and 6th decades of life. Tumour size was 2 or >2 cms. in 93% of cases and 40% of them showed 3 or >3 positive lymph nodes. Grade I tumours were 11.38%, grade II 59.17% and grade III tumours 29.47%. Correlation of grade with lymph node metastases (3 or >3+ve nodes) showed 15 cases (1.53%) of grade I, 178 cases (18.25%) of grade II and 68 (6.97%) cases of grade III tumours. CONCLUSION: This study shows that in Pakistani females, the most commonly encountered lesion in carcinoma of the breast followed by the benign lesions such as fibro adenoma, fibrocystic disease & others. Breast carcinoma occurs at a younger age group with predominance of high-grade lesions and with frequent lymph node metastasis.


Assuntos
Doenças Mamárias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Doenças Mamárias/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 52(6): 244-6, 2002 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12481632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A minimal cancer incidence data for Karachi, the largest city of Pakistan, is being presented here, for the years 1998-1999. The city has a population of 9,802,134; males 5,261,712 (52.6%) and females 4,540,422 (47.4%); census 1998. METHODOLOGY: A predominantly mixed (passive and active) registration system has evolved in Karachi, the data sources being the hospitals within the Karachi Division. The reported/retrieved cancer data sets at the Karachi Cancer Registry are checked, coded, computerised in an analytical format and analysed. RESULTS: The incident cancer cases registered in Karachi, during the 2-year period, 1st January 1998 to 31st December 1999 were analysed. The age-standardised incidence rate (ASR) of cancer, all sites was 132.4/100,000 for the males. Cancer of the lung 10.8%; ASR 17.3 was the most frequently recorded malignancy, followed by oral cavity 10.5%; ASR 13.2 and larynx 5.0%; ASR 7.4. The age-standardised incidence rate (ASR) of cancer, all sites was 133.0/100,000 in the females. Cancer of the breast, 32.0%; ASR 40.7 was the most frequently recorded malignancy, followed by oral cavity 8.1%; ASR 11.7 and gall bladder 3.6%; ASR 5.5. CONCLUSION: The present data has been calculated with an estimated 15-20% probable under ascertainment. Tobacco-associated cancers in Karachi were responsible for 38.3% of the tumours diagnosed amongst the males. Two principal cancers, breast and oral cavity were responsible for 40.1% of the cancers in females. A rare finding was the high incidence of gall bladder cancer in the females. At present it is difficult to determine whether this indicates a genuine high risk or a selection bias. A continuous process of cancer registration to study the trends in the incidence and an adequate cancer control program are possible and essential for Pakistan and can be based on the pattern being practiced in Karachi.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros
18.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 52(5): 192-5, 2002 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12174489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node involvement in primary breast cancer is one of its most important prognostic features. Thus any factors that may predict axillary lymph node involvement in this setting could be potentially helpful in treatment planning and other interventions. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical, pathological and immuno-histochemical markers in univariate and multivariate analysis, which may be helpful predictors of axillary lymph node involvement in breast cancer. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of 555 cases. Of these 58% had axillary nodal positivity and 42% were negative. CONCLUSION: Factors of no significance included patient's age, height, weight, age of first pregnancy, parity, marital status, menopausal status, family history of breast cancer, side of tumor. In univariate analysis the age of menarche, duration of symptoms, tumor size, site in outer quadrant, S phase and skin and nipple involvement all predicted axillary nodal involvement. The length of breast-feeding, increased intraductal component and increased PCNA were inversely proportional to nodal involvement. In multiple regression analysis however only size of the tumor, involvement of the skin and nipple and disease in the outer quadrant of breast were the factors, which assumed significance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Axila , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfonodos/patologia , Paquistão , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/análise
19.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 52(3): 104-10, 2002 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12071064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the independent and interdependent prognostic value of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in carcinoma of breast in female population. The Type 1 family of growth factor receptors includes epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR also known as EGFR1). METHODS: The expression of EGFR protein was analysed immunohistochemically on 315 tumour specimens of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast. These patients also had axillary lymph nodes sampling. RESULTS: Overexpression and/or amplification of EGFR was observed in 70 (22.00%) tumours. Eleven (16%) were grade I, 43 (61%) grade II and 16 (23%) grade III tumours. Axillary lymph node metastasis had significant correlation with intensified positivity of EGFR (p < 0.05). Significant number of EGFR positive patients developed local recurrence and distant metastases to brain, liver and bone (p < 0.05). EGFR positivity showed significant correlation with the disease free and overall survival (p < 0.05). At a median follow-up of 48 (4 years) months in EGFR positive patients, the overall survival was 3.39 years and disease free survival was 2.86 years. EGFR negative tumour patients showed a better survival. In this group the overall survival was 4.62 years and the disease free survival was 4 years. CONCLUSION: EGFR analysis can be a useful indicator for the selection of patients who are at the high risk, for hormonal therapy decisions and can be useful as a target for new treatment modalities.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Receptores ErbB/análise , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Biópsia por Agulha , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Amostragem , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Pathol Res Pract ; 198(1): 13-7, 2002.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11866205

RESUMO

Atypical hyperplasia of the endometrium is an entity that needs to be clearly distinguished from other florid hyperplastic states on the one hand and from well-differentiated adenocarcinomas on the other. This may at times be difficult on pure morphological grounds. In this study, DNA ploidy and S-phase fraction of hyperplastic, atypical and cancerous endometrium were evaluated using flow cytometry from paraffin-embedded tissues. In total, 72 cases (24 hyperplastic, 24 atypical and 24 adenocarcinomas) were selected. All hyperplastic endometria showed a diploid stemline, while 2/24 atypical hyperplasias showed aneuploid (Near-diploid) peaks. Both of these cases were severely atypical and one of these, on hysterectomy, showed early invasive carcinoma. There was no significant difference in mean S-phase fractions of hyperplastic vs. atypical endometria. DNA aneuploidy was significantly more common with much higher S-phase fractions in poorly and moderately differentiated carcinomas than in well-differentiated ones. It was concluded that aneuploid (near-diploid) peaks, if ever present in atypical hyperplasias, may indicate an aggressive disease/neoplastic transformation.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/análise , Hiperplasia Endometrial/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Ploidias , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética , Fase S , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenoma/genética , Adenoma/patologia , Hiperplasia Endometrial/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Inclusão em Parafina , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia
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