Venous punctures are among the most common procedures performed by healthcare professionals. In particular, the cubital fossa is the site where the venous accesses are frequently made due to the number of superficial veins and the numerous anastomoses in this region. The arrangement of these venous connections is of particular interest for clinical application in several areas, thus, the healthcare professional must possess knowledge about these vessels and their anatomical relationships. The present study aims to analyze the venous pattern of the cubital fossa among individuals from Brazil. This study was approved by a Research Ethics Committee. The sample had 100 healthy individuals (50 men and 50 women). The superficial veins of the cubital fossa were analyzed with the aid of a sphygmomanometer. When inflated, the pressure in the forearm increased and the veins became prominent. It was observed that in the selected sample the types with the highest prevalence were the Type I and Type VII, both with 22% in 200 limbs studied. The chi2 test showed a significant statistical difference between the anastomosis pattern and the sex of the studied sample. The anastomotic pattern of the superficial veins of the studies sample is similar to African, European and Asian populations. The study of these variations is necessary to provide scientific basis for the healthcare professional during a venipuncture in order to avoid iatrogenic errors and damages in cutaneous nerves or neighboring arteries.
AssuntosVariação Anatômica , Cotovelo/irrigação sanguínea , Erros Médicos/prevenção & controle , Flebotomia/efeitos adversos , Veias/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Artérias/anatomia & histologia , Brasil , Cotovelo/inervação , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Flebotomia/métodos , Fatores Sexuais , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Pele/inervação , Esfigmomanômetros , Adulto Jovem
Realizou-se a observação comportamental de nove cães terapeutas (oito da raça Labrador Retriever e um Golden Retriever), dosaram-se cortisol sérico e salivar, aferiram-se a temperatura retal, a pressão arterial sistólica e as frequências cardíaca e respiratória nos seguintes momentos: M0 (média de três avaliações do cão em repouso) e em M1, M2 e M3 (imediatamente antes, imediatamente após e decorridas 24h das atividades de terapia assistida por animais - TAA), respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa quanto às características estudadas (P>0,05), exceto pela temperatura, que foi mais elevada em M1 e M2 do que em M0 (P=0,009). A avaliação comportamental, realizada de maneira descritiva, não apresentou alteração negativa. Houve diferença significativa quanto à concentração de cortisol sérico entre os momentos M1 e M3 (P=0,071), e não ocorreu diferença da concentração do cortisol salivar entre os quatro momentos (P=0,746). As alterações observadas foram atribuídas à contenção e à manipulação dos animais e não desencadearam desconforto físico ou estresse dignos de nota em cães.
Behavioral observation of nine therapist dogs (eight Labrador Retrievers and one Golden Retriever) was performed and serum and salivar cortisol dosage, rectal temperature, systolic blood pressure and heart and respiratory rates were measured and evaluated at the following moments: M0 (average of three evaluations of the dog at rest) and M1, M2 e M3 (immediately before, at the end and 24 hours after the AAT activities, respectively). There was no significant difference in the parameters between the moments (P>0.05) except for temperature, which was higher in M1 and M2 than M0 (P=0.009). The behavioral assessment was conducted in a descriptive way and didn't present a negative effect. There was significant difference when comparing the serum cortisol levels between M1 and M3 (P=0.0712). There wasn't asignificant difference in salivary cortisol levels when comparing the values of the four moments (P=0.7458). The observed alterations are probably related to the containment and handling of animals, demonstrating that the therapy doesn't have a negative effect on dogs.
The three-dimensional structures of five mutants of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) have been determined. These mutations are in the long central alpha helix and are useful in mapping portions of TSST-1 involved in superantigenicity and lethality. The T128A, H135A, Q139K, and I140T mutations appear to reduce superantigenicity by altering the properties of the T-cell receptor interaction surface. The Q136A mutation is at a largely buried site and causes a dramatic change in the conformation of the beta7-beta9 loop which covers the back of the central alpha helix. As this mutation has the unique ability to reduce the toxin's lethality in rabbits while retaining its superantigenicity, it raises the possibility that this rear loop mediates the ability of TSST-1 to induce lethality and suggests a route for producing nonlethal toxins for therapeutic development.