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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251438, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345560

RESUMO

Abstract The northwestern portion of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion is one of the most disturbed and fragmented areas in the Atlantic Forest, and little is known about the local avifauna. In this study, we have described the composition and diversity of the aquatic avifauna of this region and analyzed the patterns of similarity with respect to the seasonal as well as spatial distribution. We used the line transect sampling technique in six distinct humid areas (including lentic and lotic water bodies) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013. A total of 52 species of waterfowl were recorded. The species richness of the studied areas was surprisingly distinct; only seven waterfowl species, namely Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764), were common to these six studied areas. This indicated that the other bird species that were observed might be habitat selective. Moreover, the analysis of the composition of birds in the two seasons (dry and rainy) combined with their spatial distributions showed significant dissimilarities between the areas with lotic (river and constructed wetland) and lentic (lagoons) characteristics. Nevertheless, despite the small extent and low total richness of the entire study area, it was found to be home to 1/3 of all freshwater aquatic birds documented in the state of São Paulo, with the record of 5 migratory species and 11 new species added to the northwest of the state. The heterogeneity of local aquatic environments, habitat selection combined with seasonality, and the absence of other humid locations in the surroundings can explain the diversity and distribution of these birds in the water bodies of this uninvestigated Atlantic Forest ecoregion.


Resumo A porção noroeste da ecorregião Floresta Atlântica do Alto Paraná é uma das mais alteradas e fragmentadas da Mata Atlântica, da qual pouco se sabe sobre a avifauna local. Nosso objetivo foi descrever a diversidade e composição da avifauna aquática, bem como analisar os padrões de similaridade quanto a distribuição temporal e espacial destas aves nesta ecorregião. Utilizamos a transecção linear para amostragem em seis áreas úmidas (corpos d'água lênticos e lóticos), nos períodos de seca e chuva entre 2012 e 2013. Registramos 52 espécies de aves aquáticas e as riquezas das áreas mostraram-se distintas, pois apenas Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764) foram comuns às seis áreas, o que indica seleção de habitat. Quando analisada a composição das aves nos dois períodos aliada à distribuição espacial, encontramos dissimilaridades temporais acentuadas entre os ambientes com características lóticas (rio e aterro) e lênticas (lagoas). Isto mostra que, além das diferentes épocas sazonais, é necessário analisar separadamente os diferentes tipos de áreas úmidas. Por fim, apesar da extensão pequena e baixa riqueza total, a área amostrada abrigou 1/3 das aves aquáticas de água doce para o estado de São Paulo, cinco espécies migratórias e 11 novas espécies para o noroeste do estado. A heterogeneidade de ambientes aquáticos locais, forte seleção de habitat aliada à sazonalidade e ausência de outros locais úmidos em seu entorno, explicam a diversidade e distribuição destas aves estreitamente relacionadas aos corpos d'água desta desconhecida ecorregião da Mata Atlântica.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves , Biodiversidade , Estações do Ano , Brasil , Florestas , Ecossistema
2.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e251438, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705953

RESUMO

The northwestern portion of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion is one of the most disturbed and fragmented areas in the Atlantic Forest, and little is known about the local avifauna. In this study, we have described the composition and diversity of the aquatic avifauna of this region and analyzed the patterns of similarity with respect to the seasonal as well as spatial distribution. We used the line transect sampling technique in six distinct humid areas (including lentic and lotic water bodies) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013. A total of 52 species of waterfowl were recorded. The species richness of the studied areas was surprisingly distinct; only seven waterfowl species, namely Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764), were common to these six studied areas. This indicated that the other bird species that were observed might be habitat selective. Moreover, the analysis of the composition of birds in the two seasons (dry and rainy) combined with their spatial distributions showed significant dissimilarities between the areas with lotic (river and constructed wetland) and lentic (lagoons) characteristics. Nevertheless, despite the small extent and low total richness of the entire study area, it was found to be home to 1/3 of all freshwater aquatic birds documented in the state of São Paulo, with the record of 5 migratory species and 11 new species added to the northwest of the state. The heterogeneity of local aquatic environments, habitat selection combined with seasonality, and the absence of other humid locations in the surroundings can explain the diversity and distribution of these birds in the water bodies of this uninvestigated Atlantic Forest ecoregion.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Aves , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Florestas , Estações do Ano
3.
Braz J Biol ; 75(3): 655-61, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26421766

RESUMO

Cyclarhis gujanensis is a little bird which feeds on high number of large preys, such frogs, lizards, snakes, bats and birds. As there are few studies on the cranial anatomy of this species, we aimed to describe the cranial myology to contribute to the anatomical knowledge of this species and to make some assumptions about functional anatomy. Thus, we described the muscles from the jaw apparatus (external and internal adductor muscles, the muscles of the pterygoid system and the depressor muscles of the mandible). The adductor system is the greatest and multipinulated, particularly in its origin in the caudal portion of the temporal fossa. The depressor jaw muscles systems are enlarged with many components in complexity. The most of jaw apparatus muscles are short, but the strength (biting or crushing forces) from short feeding apparatus fibers probably is increased by high number of components and pinnulation. These anatomical aspects of the muscles indicate a considerable force in the jaws, without which C. gujanensis probably could not cut their prey into smaller pieces. However, functional approaches to analysis of forces of the muscle fibers are needed to corroborate / refute the hypotheses mentioned above.


Assuntos
Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Aves Canoras/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Músculos da Mastigação/anatomia & histologia
4.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 75(3): 655-661, Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-341485

RESUMO

Cyclarhis gujanensis is a little bird which feeds on high number of large preys, such frogs, lizards, snakes, bats and birds. As there are few studies on the cranial anatomy of this species, we aimed to describe the cranial myology to contribute to the anatomical knowledge of this species and to make some assumptions about functional anatomy. Thus, we described the muscles from the jaw apparatus (external and internal adductor muscles, the muscles of the pterygoid system and the depressor muscles of the mandible). The adductor system is the greatest and multipinulated, particularly in its origin in the caudal portion of the temporal fossa. The depressor jaw muscles systems are enlarged with many components in complexity. The most of jaw apparatus muscles are short, but the strength (biting or crushing forces) from short feeding apparatus fibers probably is increased by high number of components and pinnulation. These anatomical aspects of the muscles indicate a considerable force in the jaws, without which C. gujanensis probably could not cut their prey into smaller pieces. However, functional approaches to analysis of forces of the muscle fibers are needed to corroborate / refute the hypotheses mentioned above.(AU)


O pitiguari (C. gujanensis) é um pássaro neotropical que se alimenta de uma ampla variedade de presas grandes, tais como lagartos, anuros, morcegos e aves. Como são escassos os estudos sobre a anatomia craniana desta espécie, descrevemos a miologia craniana para contribuir com o seu conhecimento anatômico e inferir hipóteses sobre sua anatomia funcional. Foram descritos os músculos adutores mandibulares, externos e internos, do sistema pterigóideo e depressores da mandíbula. O sistema adutor, com a função de elevar a mandíbula, é o mais desenvolvido, particularmente em sua origem na porção caudal da fossa temporal. O músculo depressor da mandíbula possui vários componentes. A maioria dos músculos do aparato mandibular tem tamanho pequeno, porém a ave possui um grande potencial para dilacerar, e essa força provavelmente se deve ao grande número de componentes e pinulações neles presentes. Esses aspectos anatômicos da musculatura indicam uma força considerável nas maxilas, sem a qual C. gujanensis provavelmente não conseguiria cortar suas presas em pedaços menores. No entanto, mais estudos, tanto em abordagens funcionais como análises de forças das fibras musculares, são necessários para corroborar/refutar as hipóteses mencionadas acima.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Aves Canoras/anatomia & histologia , Músculos da Mastigação/anatomia & histologia
5.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 74(4): 844-853, 11/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-13433

RESUMO

Despite remarkable significance of Pantanal for the conservation of aquatic birds, the status of their populations, the spatiotemporal patterns of distribution and habitat use and structure of communities are little known. Thus, we studied three aquatic environments (Negro river, bays and salines) from 2007 to 2009 in the Nhecolândia Pantanal to verify the distribution and composition of aquatic birds and also if there is significant seasonal influence on these aspects. We adopted the transect method (288 hours of sampling) and recorded 135 species (7.834 individuals). The Negro river showed the highest diversity, while the salines the lowest. The similarity of aquatic bird communities was higher between bays and salines, followed by Negro river and bays and lower between salines and Negro river. The equidistribution is more variable in the salines and more stable in the Negro river. The environments strongly differ from each other in aquatic bird composition in space (habitat use and distribution) and time (seasonal water fluctuations). The diversity of bird community in the dry season varies significantly in the salines, followed by the bays and more stable in the Negro river. The Negro river, regardless of large annual amplitude of flow, is more seasonally stable since its riparian vegetation is continuous (not isolated) and constant. These aspects provide better conditions to stay all year, contributing to decrease the seasonal nomadic tendencies of aquatic birds. Finally, all these data provide strong arguments to the preservation of all phytophysiognomies in the Nhecolândia sub- region of Pantanal, but with special attention to the salines widely used by many flocks of aquatic birds (mainly in the dry season) and migrant and/or rare species restricted to this habitat.(AU)


Apesar da notável importância do Pantanal para a conservação de aves aquáticas, é pouco conhecido o status de suas populações, seus padrões espaço-temporais de distribuição e uso do habitat e estrutura da comunidade. Assim, foram estudados três ambientes aquáticos (rio Negro, baías e salinas) de 2007 a 2009 no Pantanal da Nhecolândia para verificar se as aves aquáticas diferem na distribuição e composição e também se há influência sazonal significativa sobre estes aspectos. Adotamos o método de transectos lineares durante 288 horas de amostragem e registradas 135 espécies e 7.834 indivíduos. O rio Negro apresentou a maior diversidade e as salinas a menor. A similaridade das comunidades de aves aquáticas foi maior entre baías e salinas, seguida pelo rio Negro e baías e salinas e rio Negro. O equidistribuição é mais variável nas salinas e mais estável no rio Negro. Os ambientes diferem entre si na composição de aves aquáticas no espaço (uso de habitat e distribuição) e tempo (flutuações sazonais de água). A diversidade na estação seca variou significativamente nas salinas, seguido pelas baías, sendo mais estável no rio Negro. No entanto, independentemente da grande amplitude anual de seu fluxo, o rio Negro é o mais estável sazonalmente em relação à comunidade de aves. Isto se deve principalmente pela mata ciliar no rio Negro ser contínua (não isolada) e constante ao longo do ano. Estes aspectos proporcionam melhores condições para as aves se manterem durante todo o ano neste ambiente, contribuindo para diminuir as tendências sazonais nômades de aves aquáticas. Todos estes dados fornecem fortes argumentos para o preservação de todos as fitofisionomias na sub-região da Nhecolândia, mas com especial a atenção para as salinas amplamente utilizadas por muitos bandos de aves aquáticas (principalmente no período seco) e migrantes e/ou espécies raras restritas a este habitat.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Biodiversidade , Aves/classificação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Baías , Brasil , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Rios , Estações do Ano
6.
Braz J Biol ; 74(4): 844-53, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25627594

RESUMO

Despite remarkable significance of Pantanal for the conservation of aquatic birds, the status of their populations, the spatiotemporal patterns of distribution and habitat use and structure of communities are little known. Thus, we studied three aquatic environments (Negro river, bays and salines) from 2007 to 2009 in the Nhecolândia Pantanal to verify the distribution and composition of aquatic birds and also if there is significant seasonal influence on these aspects. We adopted the transect method (288 hours of sampling) and recorded 135 species (7.834 individuals). The Negro river showed the highest diversity, while the salines the lowest. The similarity of aquatic bird communities was higher between bays and salines, followed by Negro river and bays and lower between salines and Negro river. The equidistribution is more variable in the salines and more stable in the Negro river. The environments strongly differ from each other in aquatic bird composition in space (habitat use and distribution) and time (seasonal water fluctuations). The diversity of bird community in the dry season varies significantly in the salines, followed by the bays and more stable in the Negro river. The Negro river, regardless of large annual amplitude of flow, is more seasonally stable since its riparian vegetation is continuous (not isolated) and constant. These aspects provide better conditions to stay all year, contributing to decrease the seasonal nomadic tendencies of aquatic birds. Finally, all these data provide strong arguments to the preservation of all phytophysiognomies in the Nhecolândia sub- region of Pantanal, but with special attention to the salines widely used by many flocks of aquatic birds (mainly in the dry season) and migrant and/or rare species restricted to this habitat.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Aves/classificação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Animais , Baías , Brasil , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Rios , Estações do Ano
7.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 73(4): 737-741, Nov. 2013. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-31068

RESUMO

Birds play crucial role on the pollination of many plants. However, little is known about the interactions between nectarivorous neotropical birds and exotic Angiosperms. S. nilotica is an exotic African plant widely used in Brazilian urban landscaping. However, it has been poorly studied in relation to its interactions with Neotropical birds. In this way, we studied the feeding nectar strategies and the interspecific antagonistic behaviours among nectarivorous Neotropical birds to verify the bird contributions to the S. nilotica pollination. The study was conducted from May 2008 to April 2011, but only in months of S. nilotica flowering (April to May). From 148 hours of sampling we identified 16 species feeding nectar on S. nilotica: 13 hummingbirds (Trochilidae), Aratinga aurea (Psittacidae), Tangara palmarum (Thraupidae) and Coereba flaveola (Coerebidae). Eupetomena macroura was the most frequent (96.88%), followed by Chlorostilbon lucidus (78.13%) and Coereba flaveola (59.38%). Most birds obtained nectar by punching at the base of the corolla, except for A. aurea that obtained the nectar by the upper opening of the petals in 100% of its visits, Heliomaster furcifer (95.65%), F. fusca (95%) and A. nigricollis (70.27%). Despite E. macroura also obtains nectar only by punching at the base of the corolla, it showed the highest level of legitimate visits. Antagonistic events were more frequent in E. macroura (58.65%), Florisuga fusca (11.04%) and Amazilia fimbriata (10.87%), being E. macroura dominant in all events. These results showed E. macroura plays an important role on this plant being the most important bird as a potential pollinator. Moreover, other birds contribute partially to the S. nilotica pollination. Most probably it is a result of recent Neotropical bird interactions with this African plant.(AU)


As aves representam um grupo ecologicamente importante nas interações animais-flores na região Neotropical, onde desempenham respeitável papel na polinização de diversas angiospermas. Entretanto, pouco se conhece sobre a organização das comunidades e as interações bióticas entre animais/plantas em ambientes urbanos. Como exemplo, S. nilotica, planta exótica africana amplamente explorada para fins de paisagismo urbano, têm sido pouco estudada em relação às suas interações com aves. Assim, analisamos quais espécies de aves visitam S. nilotica, o tipo de exploração dos recursos nectarívoros pelas aves e o comportamento antagonístico intra e interespecífico das aves que visitaram esta planta. O estudo foi realizado de maio de 2008 a abril de 2011, nos meses de florescimento de S. nilotica (abril a maio). Foram totalizadas 148 horas de amostragem e identificadas 16 espécies se alimentando de néctar, 13 beija-flores (Trochilidae), Aratinga aurea (Psittacidae), Tangara palmarum (Thraupidae) e Coereba flaveola (Coerebidae). As aves mais frequentes foram Eupetomena macroura (96,88%), Chlorostilbon lucidus (78,13%) e Coereba flaveola (59,38%). A frequência de visitas foi maior no período matutino, exceto para E. macroura, H. longirostris e T. palmarum. A maioria das aves obteve o néctar através de rompimento na base da corola (orifícios), com exceção de A. aurea que obteve néctar pela abertura superior entre as pétalas em 100% de suas visitas e H. furcifer (95,65%), F. fusca (95%) e A. nigricollis (70,27%). Eventos antagonísticos foram mais acentuados em E. macroura (58,65%), Florisuga fusca (11,04%) e Amazilia fimbriata (10,87%), sendo E. macroura dominante durante os eventos. Os resultados demonstram que E. macroura é a ave dominante em S. nilotica e a que se apresenta com maior potencial para sua polinização. Entretanto, as outras aves contribuem parcialmente como potenciais polinizadoras de S. nilotica. Muito provavelmente isto é resultado de uma interação recente entre as aves neotropicais e esta planta Africana.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aves , Polinização , Bignoniaceae , Área Urbana , Néctar de Plantas
8.
Braz J Biol ; 73(4): 737-41, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24789388

RESUMO

Birds play crucial role on the pollination of many plants. However, little is known about the interactions between nectarivorous neotropical birds and exotic Angiosperms. S. nilotica is an exotic African plant widely used in Brazilian urban landscaping. However, it has been poorly studied in relation to its interactions with Neotropical birds. In this way, we studied the feeding nectar strategies and the interspecific antagonistic behaviours among nectarivorous Neotropical birds to verify the bird contributions to the S. nilotica pollination. The study was conducted from May 2008 to April 2011, but only in months of S. nilotica flowering (April to May). From 148 hours of sampling we identified 16 species feeding nectar on S. nilotica: 13 hummingbirds (Trochilidae), Aratinga aurea (Psittacidae), Tangara palmarum (Thraupidae) and Coereba flaveola (Coerebidae). Eupetomena macroura was the most frequent (96.88%), followed by Chlorostilbon lucidus (78.13%) and Coereba flaveola (59.38%). Most birds obtained nectar by punching at the base of the corolla, except for A. aurea that obtained the nectar by the upper opening of the petals in 100% of its visits, Heliomaster furcifer (95.65%), F. fusca (95%) and A. nigricollis (70.27%). Despite E. macroura also obtains nectar only by punching at the base of the corolla, it showed the highest level of legitimate visits. Antagonistic events were more frequent in E. macroura (58.65%), Florisuga fusca (11.04%) and Amazilia fimbriata (10.87%), being E. macroura dominant in all events. These results showed E. macroura plays an important role on this plant being the most important bird as a potential pollinator. Moreover, other birds contribute partially to the S. nilotica pollination. Most probably it is a result of recent Neotropical bird interactions with this African plant.


Assuntos
Bignoniaceae/classificação , Aves/fisiologia , Polinização/fisiologia , Animais , Bignoniaceae/fisiologia , Brasil , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , População Urbana
9.
Braz J Biol ; 72(2): 235-41, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22735129

RESUMO

The foraging, territoriality and displacement of the Snail Kite were studied over 232 hours of observations in an urban lake during the dry and wet seasons. The temperature and rainfall variations were used to correlate with predation rates and the correlation coefficients were 0,39 and 0,34, respectively. Snail Kites spent more time foraging during the wet than the dry season when perching is more frequently recorded. The higher predation in the wet season can be explained by the higher abundance of apple snails and the energy demand for reproduction. In the wet season, the territories were smaller and the conspecific conflicts decreased as prey were more available. However, due to the lack of food in the dry season, intra-specific conflicts and expansion of male territories were observed and the female and immatures were expelled from their foraging area to another location. In this way, site tenacity of Snail Kites should be interpreted in relation to the variations on food and dominance gradients according to the temporal changes (time) and foraging sites (space).


Assuntos
Falconiformes/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Territorialidade , Animais , Falconiformes/classificação , Feminino , Masculino , Estações do Ano , População Urbana , Áreas Alagadas
10.
Braz J Biol ; 70(1): 195-204, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20231978

RESUMO

The anatomy of Neomorphinae is poorly understood and the systematics of this sub-family is also the most controversial of the cuckoo taxa, mainly with regard to the systematic position of Tapera and Dromococcyx. In this study, morphological similarities of the Neomorphinae are discussed after a comprehensive description of the cranial osteology was conducted in seven species, embracing all the Neomorphinae genera. This description is followed by comparisons with other cuckoos in order to contribute to the anatomy and systematics of this sub-family. In this way, we provide illustrations that enable the osteological descriptions and the proposed primary homologies to be visualised and compared. Even though Neomorphinae species share many cranial osteological characteristics, there are some anatomical divergences that allowed us to divide them into two distinct groups: (Dromococcyx/Tapera) and (Morococcyx(Neomorphus/Geococcyx)). After comparisons among all cuckoos this study suggests that Neomorphinae are more similar to Crotophaginae and Couinae than to other sub-families of cuckoos. Our results contrast with a recent phylogenetic study based on morphological features, mainly because alternative interpretations to the primary osteological homologies in this study grouped Tapera and Dromococcyx with Cuculinae. Although morphological studies can be used in phylogenetic analysis, we demonstrated here that decisions in the interpretation of the homologies can provide ambiguous results.


Assuntos
Aves/anatomia & histologia , Aves/classificação , Filogenia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Classificação , Especificidade da Espécie
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