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1.
Photoacoustics ; 27: 100373, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662895

RESUMO

In photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems, the tangential resolution decreases due to the finite size of the transducer as the off-center distance increases. To address this problem, we propose a multi-angle detection approach in which the transducer used for data acquisition rotates around its center (with specific angles) as well as around the scanning center. The angles are calculated based on the central frequency and diameter of the transducer and the radius of the region-of-interest (ROI). Simulations with point-like absorbers (for point-spread-function evaluation) and a vasculature phantom (for quality assessment), and experiments with ten 0.5 mm-diameter pencil leads and a leaf skeleton phantom are used for evaluation of the proposed approach. The results show that a location-independent tangential resolution is achieved with 150 spatial sampling and central rotations with angles of ±8°/±16°. With further developments, the proposed detection strategy can replace the conventional detection (rotating a transducer around ROI) in PAT.

2.
Biomed Eng Lett ; 12(2): 155-173, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35529338

RESUMO

Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging hybrid imaging modality integrating the benefits of both optical and ultrasound imaging. Although PAI exhibits superior imaging capabilities, its translation into clinics is still hindered by various limitations. In recent years, deeplearning (DL), a new paradigm of machine learning, is gaining a lot of attention due to its ability to improve medical images. Likewise, DL is also widely being used in PAI to overcome some of the limitations of PAI. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on the various DL techniques employed in PAI along with its promising advantages.

3.
Biomed Opt Express ; 13(3): 1774-1783, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35414989

RESUMO

Acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy (AR-PAM) has gained much attention in the past two decades due to its high contrast, scalable resolution, and relatively higher imaging depth. Multimode optical fibers (MMF) are extensively used to transfer light to AR-PAM imaging scan-head from the laser source. Typically, peak-power-compensation (PPC) is used to reduce the effect of pulse-to-pulse peak-power variation in generated photoacoustic (PA) signals. In MMF, the output intensity profile fluctuates due to the coherent nature of light and mode exchange caused by variations in the bending of the fibers during scanning. Therefore, using a photodiode (PD) to capture a portion of the total power of pulses as a measure of illuminated light on the sample may not be appropriate for accurate PPC. In this study, we have investigated the accuracy of PPC in fiber-guided and free-space AR-PAM systems. Experiments were conducted in the transparent and highly scattering medium. Based on obtained results for the MMF-based system, to apply PPC to the generated PA signals, tightly focused light confocal with the acoustic focus in a transparent medium must be used. In the clear medium and highly focused illumination, enhancement of about 45% was obtained in the homogeneity of an optically homogeneous sample image. In addition, it is shown that, as an alternative, free-space propagation of the laser pulses results in more accurate PPC in both transparent and highly scattering mediums. In free-space light transmission, enhancement of 25-75% was obtained in the homogeneity of the optically homogeneous sample image.

4.
Opt Lett ; 46(18): 4510-4513, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525034

RESUMO

Pulsed laser diodes are used in photoacoustic tomography (PAT) as excitation sources because of their low cost, compact size, and high pulse repetition rate. In combination with multiple single-element ultrasound transducers (SUTs) the imaging speed of PAT can be improved. However, during PAT image reconstruction, the exact radius of each SUT is required for accurate reconstruction. Here we developed a novel deep learning approach to alleviate the need for radius calibration. We used a convolutional neural network (fully dense U-Net) aided with a convolutional long short-term memory block to reconstruct the PAT images. Our analysis on the test set demonstrates that the proposed network eliminates the need for radius calibration and improves the peak signal-to-noise ratio by ∼73% without compromising the image quality. In vivo imaging was used to verify the performance of the network.

5.
J Biomed Opt ; 26(8)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405599

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed binary tomography approach was able to recover the vasculature structures accurately, which could potentially enable the utilization of binary tomography algorithm in scenarios such as therapy monitoring and hemorrhage detection in different organs. AIM: Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) involves reconstruction of vascular networks having direct implications in cancer research, cardiovascular studies, and neuroimaging. Various methods have been proposed for recovering vascular networks in photoacoustic imaging; however, most methods are two-step (image reconstruction and image segmentation) in nature. We propose a binary PAT approach wherein direct reconstruction of vascular network from the acquired photoacoustic sinogram data is plausible. APPROACH: Binary tomography approach relies on solving a dual-optimization problem to reconstruct images with every pixel resulting in a binary outcome (i.e., either background or the absorber). Further, the binary tomography approach was compared against backprojection, Tikhonov regularization, and sparse recovery-based schemes. RESULTS: Numerical simulations, physical phantom experiment, and in-vivo rat brain vasculature data were used to compare the performance of different algorithms. The results indicate that the binary tomography approach improved the vasculature recovery by 10% using in-silico data with respect to the Dice similarity coefficient against the other reconstruction methods. CONCLUSION: The proposed algorithm demonstrates superior vasculature recovery with limited data both visually and based on quantitative image metrics.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Algoritmos , Animais , Imagens de Fantasmas , Ratos , Tomografia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074027

RESUMO

The development of a biomimetic neuronal network from neural cells is a big challenge for researchers. Recent advances in nanotechnology, on the other hand, have enabled unprecedented tools and techniques for guiding and directing neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro to construct an in vivo-like neuronal network. Nanotechnology allows control over neural stem cells by means of scaffolds that guide neurons to reform synaptic networks in suitable directions in 3D architecture, surface modification/nanopatterning to decide cell fate and stimulate/record signals from neurons to find out the relationships between neuronal circuit connectivity and their pathophysiological functions. Overall, nanotechnology-mediated methods facilitate precise physiochemical controls essential to develop tools appropriate for applications in neuroscience. This review emphasizes the newest applications of nanotechnology for examining central nervous system (CNS) roles and, therefore, provides an insight into how these technologies can be tested in vitro before being used in preclinical and clinical research and their potential role in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Rede Nervosa/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurogênese , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/instrumentação , Humanos , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Rede Nervosa/ultraestrutura , Células-Tronco Neurais/ultraestrutura , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Medicina Regenerativa , Engenharia Tecidual/instrumentação
7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(21): 24422-24430, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019376

RESUMO

For site-specific diseases such as atherosclerosis, it is desirable to noninvasively and locally deliver therapeutics for extended periods of time. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) provides targeted drug delivery, yet remains unable to sustain delivery beyond the HIFU treatment time. Furthermore, methods to validate HIFU-enhanced drug delivery remain limited. In this study, we report on HIFU-targeted implantation of degradable drug-loaded sound-sensitive multicavity PLGA microparticles (mcPLGA MPs) as a theranostic agent for the treatment of arterial lesions. Once implanted into the targeted tissue, mcPLGA MPs eluted dexamethasone for several days, thereby reducing inflammatory markers linked to oxidized lipid uptake in a foam cell spheroid model. Furthermore, implanted mcPLGA MPs created hyperechoic regions on diagnostic ultrasound images, and thus noninvasively verified that the target region was treated with the theranostic agents. This novel and innovative multifunctional theranostic platform may serve as a promising candidate for noninvasive imaging and treatment for site-specific diseases such as atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Arterite/diagnóstico por imagem , Medicina de Precisão , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Arterite/terapia , Humanos
8.
Biomed Opt Express ; 12(4): 1834-1845, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996201

RESUMO

In recent years, photoacoustic imaging has found vast applications in biomedical imaging. Photoacoustic imaging has high optical contrast and high ultrasound resolution allowing deep tissue non-invasive imaging beyond the optical diffusion limit. Q-switched lasers are extensively used in photoacoustic imaging due to the availability of high energy and short laser pulses, which are essential for high-resolution photoacoustic imaging. In most cases, this type of light source suffers from pulse peak-power energy variations and timing jitter noise, resulting in uncertainty in the output power and arrival time of the laser pulses. These problems cause intensity degradation and temporal displacement of generated photoacoustic signals which in turn deteriorate the quality of the acquired photoacoustic images. In this study, we used a high-speed data acquisition system in combination with a fast photodetector and a software-based approach to capture laser pulses precisely in order to reduce the effect of timing jitter and normalization of the photoacoustic signals based on pulse peak-powers simultaneously. In the experiments, maximum axial accuracy enhancement of 14 µm was achieved in maximum-amplitude projected images on XZ and YZ planes with ±13.5 ns laser timing jitter. Furthermore, photoacoustic signal enhancement of 77% was obtained for 75% laser pulses peak-power stability.

9.
Biomed Opt Express ; 12(3): 1320-1338, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796356

RESUMO

The reconstruction methods for solving the ill-posed inverse problem of photoacoustic tomography with limited noisy data are iterative in nature to provide accurate solutions. These methods performance is highly affected by the noise level in the photoacoustic data. A singular value decomposition (SVD) based plug and play priors method for solving photoacoustic inverse problem was proposed in this work to provide robustness to noise in the data. The method was shown to be superior as compared to total variation regularization, basis pursuit deconvolution and Lanczos Tikhonov based regularization and provided improved performance in case of noisy data. The numerical and experimental cases show that the improvement can be as high as 8.1 dB in signal to noise ratio of the reconstructed image and 67.98% in root mean square error in comparison to the state of the art methods.

10.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 47(7): 1844-1856, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810888

RESUMO

Polymer nanoparticles and microparticles have been used primarily for drug delivery. There is now growing interest in further developing polymer-based solid cavitation agents to also enhance ultrasound imaging. We previously reported on a facile method to produce hollow poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles with different diameters and degrees of porosity. Here, we investigate the cavitation response from these PLGA microparticles with both therapeutic and diagnostic ultrasound transducers. Interestingly, all formulations exhibited stable cavitation; larger porous and multicavity particles also provided inertial cavitation at elevated acoustic pressure amplitudes. These larger particles also achieved contrast enhancement comparable to that of commercially available ultrasound contrast agents, with a maximum recorded contrast-to-tissue ratio of 28 dB. Therefore, we found that multicavity PLGA microparticles respond to both therapeutic and diagnostic ultrasound and may be applied as a theranostic agent.


Assuntos
Acústica , Meios de Contraste , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Nanopartículas , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico
11.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 246(12): 1355-1367, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779342

RESUMO

The rapidly evolving field of photoacoustic tomography utilizes endogenous chromophores to extract both functional and structural information from deep within tissues. It is this power to perform precise quantitative measurements in vivo-with endogenous or exogenous contrast-that makes photoacoustic tomography highly promising for clinical translation in functional brain imaging, early cancer detection, real-time surgical guidance, and the visualization of dynamic drug responses. Considering photoacoustic tomography has benefited from numerous engineering innovations, it is of no surprise that many of photoacoustic tomography's current cutting-edge developments incorporate advances from the equally novel field of artificial intelligence. More specifically, alongside the growth and prevalence of graphical processing unit capabilities within recent years has emerged an offshoot of artificial intelligence known as deep learning. Rooted in the solid foundation of signal processing, deep learning typically utilizes a method of optimization known as gradient descent to minimize a loss function and update model parameters. There are already a number of innovative efforts in photoacoustic tomography utilizing deep learning techniques for a variety of purposes, including resolution enhancement, reconstruction artifact removal, undersampling correction, and improved quantification. Most of these efforts have proven to be highly promising in addressing long-standing technical obstacles where traditional solutions either completely fail or make only incremental progress. This concise review focuses on the history of applied artificial intelligence in photoacoustic tomography, presents recent advances at this multifaceted intersection of fields, and outlines the most exciting advances that will likely propagate into promising future innovations.


Assuntos
Técnicas Fotoacústicas/métodos , Animais , Inteligência Artificial , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
12.
J Biophotonics ; 14(1): e202000191, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025761

RESUMO

Photoacoustic/Optoacoustic tomography aims to reconstruct maps of the initial pressure rise induced by the absorption of light pulses in tissue. This reconstruction is an ill-conditioned and under-determined problem, when the data acquisition protocol involves limited detection positions. The aim of the work is to develop an inversion method which integrates denoising procedure within the iterative model-based reconstruction to improve quantitative performance of optoacoustic imaging. Among the model-based schemes, total-variation (TV) constrained reconstruction scheme is a popular approach. In this work, a two-step approach was proposed for improving the TV constrained optoacoustic inversion by adding a non-local means based filtering step within each TV iteration. Compared to TV-based reconstruction, inclusion of this non-local means step resulted in signal-to-noise ratio improvement of 2.5 dB in the reconstructed optoacoustic images.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Algoritmos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Phys Med Biol ; 66(5)2021 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361580

RESUMO

Photoacoustic imaging-a hybrid biomedical imaging modality finding its way to clinical practices. Although the photoacoustic phenomenon was known more than a century back, only in the last two decades it has been widely researched and used for biomedical imaging applications. In this review we focus on the development and progress of the technology in the last decade (2011-2020). From becoming more and more user friendly, cheaper in cost, portable in size, photoacoustic imaging promises a wide range of applications, if translated to clinic. The growth of photoacoustic community is steady, and with several new directions researchers are exploring, it is inevitable that photoacoustic imaging will one day establish itself as a regular imaging system in the clinical practices.


Assuntos
Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Imagem Multimodal , Técnicas Fotoacústicas/métodos , Análise Espectral
14.
J Biophotonics ; 14(3): e202000371, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231356

RESUMO

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a disorder when a blood clot (thrombus) is formed in one of the deep veins. These clots detach from the original sites and circulate in the blood stream at high velocities. Diagnosing these blood clots at an early stage is necessary to decide the treatment strategy. For label-free, in vivo, and real-time detection, high framerate photoacoustic imaging can be used. In this work, a dual modal clinical ultrasound and photoacoustic (PA) system is used for the high framerate PA imaging of circulating blood clots in blood at linear velocities up to 107 cm/sec. Blood clot had 1.4 times higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the static mode and 1.3 times higher SNR compared to blood PA signal in the flow experiments. This work demonstrates that fast-moving circulating blood clots are easy to recognize against the background PA signal and may aid in early diagnosis.


Assuntos
Trombose , Coagulação Sanguínea , Humanos , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
15.
JACS Au ; 1(12): 2328-2338, 2021 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34977901

RESUMO

The efficacy of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-based therapy is substantially constrained by the limited ROS generation, stern activation conditions, and lack of a straightforward reaction paradigm. Carbon dots (CDs) have been highly sought after for therapeutic applications for their biocompatibility and intrinsic fluorescence imaging capabilities, making them suitable for ROS generation. Herein, we synthesized a CD-based ultrasmall hybrid nanostructure possessing active sites of Mo, Cu, and IR-780 dye. After cooperative self-assembly with 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-poly(ethylene glycol), the obtained assembly (CMIR-CDa) exhibits near-infrared fluorescence imaging and photoacoustic tomography. Interestingly, CMIR-CDa can generate singlet oxygen (1O2), hydroxyl radical (·OH), and superoxide radical anion (O2 • -) upon ultrasound stimulus owing to its sonosensitizing and enzyme-mimicking properties, showing an enhanced efficacy for tumor ablation in vivo. The collective in vitro and in vivo results indicate that CMIR-CDa has a high potency as an ROS nanogenerator under US irradiation, even at a low concentration. The present study offers an approach for engineering hybrid CDs in a bioinspired way for intratumoral ROS augmentation in response to deep tissue penetrable external stimuli.

16.
Ultrasonics ; 108: 106174, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502893

RESUMO

Photoacoustic (PA) imaging combining the advantages of high resolution of ultrasound imaging and high contrast of optical imaging provides images with good quality. PA imaging often suffers from disadvantages such as clutter noises and decreased signal-to-noise-ratio at higher depths. One studied method to reduce clutter noises is to use weighting factors such as coherence factor (CF) and its modified versions that improve resolution and contrast of images. In this study, we combined the Eigen-space based minimum variance (EIBMV) beamformer with the sign coherence factor (SCF) and show the ability of these methods for noise reduction when they are used in combination with each other. In addition, we compared the proposed method with delay-and-sum (DAS) and minimum variance (MV) beamformers in simulated and experimental studies. The simulation results show that the proposed EIBMV-SCF method improves the SNR about 94 dB, 87.65 dB, and 62.29 dB compared to the DAS, MV, and EIBMV, respectively, and the corresponding improvements were 79.37/34.43 dB, 77.25/26.96 dB, and 33.19/25.56 dB in the ex vivo/in vivo experiments.

17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1857, 2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312987

RESUMO

Despite its growing promise in cancer treatment, ferrotherapy has low therapeutic efficacy due to compromised Fenton catalytic efficiency in tumor milieu. We herein report a hybrid semiconducting nanozyme (HSN) with high photothermal conversion efficiency for photoacoustic (PA) imaging-guided second near-infrared photothermal ferrotherapy. HSN comprises an amphiphilic semiconducting polymer as photothermal converter, PA emitter and iron-chelating Fenton catalyst. Upon photoirradiation, HSN generates heat not only to induce cytotoxicity but also to enhance Fenton reaction. The increased ·OH generation promotes both ferroptosis and apoptosis, oxidizes HSN (42 nm) and transforms it into tiny segments (1.7 nm) with elevated intratumoral permeability. The non-invasive seamless synergism leads to amplified therapeutic effects including a deep ablation depth (9 mm), reduced expression of metastasis-related proteins and inhibition of metastasis from primary tumor to distant organs. Thereby, our study provides a generalized nanozyme strategy to compensate both ferrotherapy and phototherapeutics for complete tumor regression.


Assuntos
Ferro/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Fototerapia/métodos , Polímeros/química , Semicondutores , Animais , Apoptose , Catálise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quelantes , Ferroptose , Células HeLa , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal , Células NIH 3T3 , Nanomedicina/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Oxigênio/química , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142429

RESUMO

Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a noninvasive imaging modality combining the benefits of optical contrast at ultrasonic resolution. Analytical reconstruction algorithms for photoacoustic (PA) signals require a large number of data points for accurate image reconstruction. However, in practical scenarios, data are collected using the limited number of transducers along with data being often corrupted with noise resulting in only qualitative images. Furthermore, the collected boundary data are band-limited due to limited bandwidth (BW) of the transducer, making the PA imaging with limited data being qualitative. In this work, a deep neural network-based model with loss function being scaled root-mean-squared error was proposed for super-resolution, denoising, as well as BW enhancement of the PA signals collected at the boundary of the domain. The proposed network has been compared with traditional as well as other popular deep-learning methods in numerical as well as experimental cases and is shown to improve the collected boundary data, in turn, providing superior quality reconstructed PA image. The improvement obtained in the Pearson correlation, structural similarity index metric, and root-mean-square error was as high as 35.62%, 33.81%, and 41.07%, respectively, for phantom cases and signal-to-noise ratio improvement in the reconstructed PA images was as high as 11.65 dB for in vivo cases compared with reconstructed image obtained using original limited BW data. Code is available at https://sites.google.com/site/sercmig/home/dnnpat.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Técnicas Fotoacústicas/métodos , Tomografia/métodos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Transdutores
19.
J Biophotonics ; 13(6): e201960162, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030895

RESUMO

Intracranial hypotension (IH) is a pathophysiological condition of reduced intracranial pressure caused by low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume due to dural injuries from lumbar puncture, surgery, or trauma. Understanding the prognosis of IH in small animal models is important to gain insights on the complications associated with it such as orthostatic headache, cerebral venous thrombosis, coma, and so forth. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) offers a novel and cost-effective way to perceive and detect IH in small animal models. In this study, a pulsed laser diode (PLD)-based PAT imaging system was used to examine the changes in the venous sinuses of the rat brain due to IH, induced through CSF extraction. After the CSF extraction, an increase in the sagittal sinus area by ~30% and width by 40% ± 5% was observed. These results provide supportive evidence that the PLD-PAT can be employed for detecting changes in sagittal sinus due to IH in rat model.


Assuntos
Hipotensão Intracraniana , Animais , Dilatação Patológica , Cefaleia , Ratos , Punção Espinal , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027784

RESUMO

Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a noninvasive hybrid imaging modality offering rich optical contrast and high depth-to-resolution ratio deep-tissue imaging. Endogenous chromophores present in the body such as hemoglobin, lipid, melanin, and so on provide strong photoacoustic contrast due to their strong light absorption in certain optical window. To enhance the performance of PAI further, researchers have developed several exogenous contrast agents such as metallic nanoparticles, carbon-based nanomaterials, quantum dots, organic small molecules, semiconducting polymer nanoparticles, and so on. These exogenous contrast agents not only help improving the imaging contrast, but also make targeted molecular imaging possible. In this review article, we first discuss the state-of-the-art PAI techniques with endogenous contrast mechanism. Later, we provide an overview of recent progress in the development of exogenous photoacoustic contrast agents for in vivo imaging applications. Finally, we present the pros/cons of the existing PA contrast agents along with future challenges of contrast agent-based PAI for biomedical applications. This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > Diagnostic Nanodevices Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/química , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Animais , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Polímeros/química , Pontos Quânticos/química
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