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1.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765505

RESUMO

Ninety days study was conducted in hapas installed in earthen ponds. Fish of an average initial weight (220g) were evenly distributed in triplicate groups within fifteen hapas. Five experimental diets labeled as T1 (25% CP and NRC recommended amino acid level) as control diet, T2 (with 2% low protein and 5% amino acid supplementation), T3 (with 2% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation), T4 (with 4% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation) and T5 (with 4% low protein and 20% amino acid supplementation) were prepared. Fish were fed with @3% of their body weight twice a day at 10.00 & 16:00 hour. Significantly higher percent weight gain (420.18 ± 66.84a) and specific growth rate (13499.33±1273.54a) along with improved feed conversion ratio (1.29 ± 0.09b) and hundred percent survivals were recorded during the trial. Furthermore proximate analysis of meat showed significant improvement in the crude protein level (81.77 ± 0.19a) served with diet containing 20% limiting amino acids mixture. Therefore, limiting amino acids can be a source of cost effective feed and use safely in L. rohita diet.(AU)


O estudo de 90 dias foi realizado em hapas instalados em tanques de terra. Peixes com peso inicial médio (220 g) foram distribuídos uniformemente em grupos triplicados em 15 hapas. Cinco dietas experimentais rotuladas como T1 (25% de CP e NRC recomendado nível de aminoácidos) como dieta controle, T2 (com 2% de proteína baixa e 5% de suplementação de aminoácidos), T3 (com 2% de proteína baixa e 10% de suplementação de aminoácidos), T4 (com 4% de baixa proteína e 10% de suplementação de aminoácidos) e T5 (com 4% de baixa proteína e 20% de suplementação de aminoácidos) foram preparadas. Os peixes foram alimentados com 3% do seu peso corporal duas vezes por dia às 10h00 e 16h00. Ganho de peso significativamente maior (420,18 ± 66,84a) e taxa de crescimento específico (13499,33 ± 1273,54a) juntamente com taxa de conversão alimentar melhorada (1, 29 ± 0,09b) e sobrevivência de cem por cento foram registrados durante o ensaio. Além disso, a análise aproximada da carne mostrou melhora significativa no nível de proteína bruta (81,77 ± 0,19a) servida com dieta contendo 20% de mistura de aminoácidos limitantes. Portanto, a limitação de aminoácidos pode ser uma fonte de alimentação econômica e usada com segurança na dieta de L. rohita.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Dietoterapia/veterinária , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249422, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339393

RESUMO

Abstract Ninety days study was conducted in hapas installed in earthen ponds. Fish of an average initial weight (220g) were evenly distributed in triplicate groups within fifteen hapas. Five experimental diets labeled as T1 (25% CP and NRC recommended amino acid level) as control diet, T2 (with 2% low protein and 5% amino acid supplementation), T3 (with 2% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation), T4 (with 4% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation) and T5 (with 4% low protein and 20% amino acid supplementation) were prepared. Fish were fed with @3% of their body weight twice a day at 10.00 & 16:00 hour. Significantly higher percent weight gain (420.18 ± 66.84a) and specific growth rate (13499.33±1273.54a) along with improved feed conversion ratio (1.29 ± 0.09b) and hundred percent survivals were recorded during the trial. Furthermore proximate analysis of meat showed significant improvement in the crude protein level (81.77 ± 0.19a) served with diet containing 20% limiting amino acids mixture. Therefore, limiting amino acids can be a source of cost effective feed and use safely in L. rohita diet.


Resumo O estudo de 90 dias foi realizado em hapas instalados em tanques de terra. Peixes com peso inicial médio (220 g) foram distribuídos uniformemente em grupos triplicados em 15 hapas. Cinco dietas experimentais rotuladas como T1 (25% de CP e NRC recomendado nível de aminoácidos) como dieta controle, T2 (com 2% de proteína baixa e 5% de suplementação de aminoácidos), T3 (com 2% de proteína baixa e 10% de suplementação de aminoácidos), T4 (com 4% de baixa proteína e 10% de suplementação de aminoácidos) e T5 (com 4% de baixa proteína e 20% de suplementação de aminoácidos) foram preparadas. Os peixes foram alimentados com 3% do seu peso corporal duas vezes por dia às 10h00 e 16h00. Ganho de peso significativamente maior (420,18 ± 66,84a) e taxa de crescimento específico (13499,33 ± 1273,54a) juntamente com taxa de conversão alimentar melhorada (1, 29 ± 0,09b) e sobrevivência de cem por cento foram registrados durante o ensaio. Além disso, a análise aproximada da carne mostrou melhora significativa no nível de proteína bruta (81,77 ± 0,19a) servida com dieta contendo 20% de mistura de aminoácidos limitantes. Portanto, a limitação de aminoácidos pode ser uma fonte de alimentação econômica e usada com segurança na dieta de L. rohita.


Assuntos
Animais , Cyprinidae , Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Aminoácidos
3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249422, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495169

RESUMO

Ninety days study was conducted in hapas installed in earthen ponds. Fish of an average initial weight (220g) were evenly distributed in triplicate groups within fifteen hapas. Five experimental diets labeled as T1 (25% CP and NRC recommended amino acid level) as control diet, T2 (with 2% low protein and 5% amino acid supplementation), T3 (with 2% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation), T4 (with 4% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation) and T5 (with 4% low protein and 20% amino acid supplementation) were prepared. Fish were fed with @3% of their body weight twice a day at 10.00 & 16:00 hour. Significantly higher percent weight gain (420.18 ± 66.84a) and specific growth rate (13499.33±1273.54a) along with improved feed conversion ratio (1.29 ± 0.09b) and hundred percent survivals were recorded during the trial. Furthermore proximate analysis of meat showed significant improvement in the crude protein level (81.77 ± 0.19a) served with diet containing 20% limiting amino acids mixture. Therefore, limiting amino acids can be a source of cost effective feed and use safely in L. rohita diet.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Cyprinidae , Aminoácidos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais
4.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 81(1): 44-52, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-30979

RESUMO

Three trials were executed to examine the nutritive profile, metabolisable energy and digestible amino acid (AA) contents of four indigenous feed ingredients including wheat (W), wheat middling (WM), canola meal (CM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in Nile tilapia. Three samples of each test ingredient were collected from three different locations of Multan (MUL) and Sukkar (SKR), of Pakistan. The collected three samples were pooled thereafter to make a homogenous/ representative sample of each test ingredient from a particular study site. Nutrients composition, AA and energy digestibility of these indigenous ingredients were evaluated by using laboratory analyses and fish studies. Proximate analysis indicated variations in some of the nutrients due to location (p < 0.05). Differences were also observed in some AA including arginine, lysine, serine, cysteine, glutamic and aspartic acids, histidine, valine and glycine contents of these ingredients (p < 0.05). Digestibility of leucine, glycine and glutamic acid was higher (p < 0.05) in RSM from MUL. Among W samples from MUL, AA digestibility for lysine, threonine, and aspartic acid was higher (p < 0.05). Crude protein, arginine, alanine, serine, and aspartic acid had higher digestibility (p < 0.05), whereas digestibility was lower (p < 0.05) for threonine, valine and tyrosine in RSM from MUL. Metaboliseable energy contents did not differ among W, WM, CM and RSM regarding their origin (p > 0.05). The results indicated that nutritional profiles and their digestibility indices vary with the location for Nile tilapia.(AU)


Três experimentos foram executados para examinar o perfil nutritivo, a energia metabolizável e o conteúdo de aminoácidos digestíveis (AA) de quatro ingredientes alimentícios, incluindo trigo (W), farelo de trigo (WM), farelo de canola (CM) e farelo de colza (RSM) em tilápia do Nilo. Três amostras de cada ingrediente do teste foram coletadas de dois locais diferentes (Multan (MUL) e Sukkar (SKR), do Paquistão) e assim agrupadas. A composição nutricional, AA e digestibilidade energética desses ingredientes indígenas foram avaliadas por meio de análises laboratoriais e estudos de peixes. A análise imediata indicou variações (p < 0,05) em alguns dos nutrientes devido à localização. Variações (p < 0,05) também foram observadas em alguns teores de AA desses ingredientes. A digestibilidade da leucina, glicina e ácido glutâmico foi maior (p < 0,05) em RSM de MUL. Entre as amostras de W da MUL, a digestibilidade de AA para Lys, Thr e Asp foi maior (p < 0,05). Proteína Crud, arginina, alanina, serina e ácido aspártico apresentaram maior digestibilidade (p < 0,05), e menor (p < 0,05) para treonina, valina e tirosina em MRS. Nenhuma diferença (p> 0,05) relacionada a energia metabolizável foi observada entre esses ingredientes em relação à sua origem. Os resultados indicaram que os perfis nutricionais e sua digestibilidade variam com a localização.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ciclídeos , Dieta/veterinária , Aminoácidos , Digestão
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 44-52, Feb. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153322

RESUMO

Abstract Three trials were executed to examine the nutritive profile, metabolisable energy and digestible amino acid (AA) contents of four indigenous feed ingredients including wheat (W), wheat middling (WM), canola meal (CM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in Nile tilapia. Three samples of each test ingredient were collected from three different locations of Multan (MUL) and Sukkar (SKR), of Pakistan. The collected three samples were pooled thereafter to make a homogenous/ representative sample of each test ingredient from a particular study site. Nutrients composition, AA and energy digestibility of these indigenous ingredients were evaluated by using laboratory analyses and fish studies. Proximate analysis indicated variations in some of the nutrients due to location (p < 0.05). Differences were also observed in some AA including arginine, lysine, serine, cysteine, glutamic and aspartic acids, histidine, valine and glycine contents of these ingredients (p < 0.05). Digestibility of leucine, glycine and glutamic acid was higher (p < 0.05) in RSM from MUL. Among W samples from MUL, AA digestibility for lysine, threonine, and aspartic acid was higher (p < 0.05). Crude protein, arginine, alanine, serine, and aspartic acid had higher digestibility (p < 0.05), whereas digestibility was lower (p < 0.05) for threonine, valine and tyrosine in RSM from MUL. Metaboliseable energy contents did not differ among W, WM, CM and RSM regarding their origin (p > 0.05). The results indicated that nutritional profiles and their digestibility indices vary with the location for Nile tilapia.


Resumo Três experimentos foram executados para examinar o perfil nutritivo, a energia metabolizável e o conteúdo de aminoácidos digestíveis (AA) de quatro ingredientes alimentícios, incluindo trigo (W), farelo de trigo (WM), farelo de canola (CM) e farelo de colza (RSM) em tilápia do Nilo. Três amostras de cada ingrediente do teste foram coletadas de dois locais diferentes (Multan (MUL) e Sukkar (SKR), do Paquistão) e assim agrupadas. A composição nutricional, AA e digestibilidade energética desses ingredientes indígenas foram avaliadas por meio de análises laboratoriais e estudos de peixes. A análise imediata indicou variações (p <0,05) em alguns dos nutrientes devido à localização. Variações (p <0,05) também foram observadas em alguns teores de AA desses ingredientes. A digestibilidade da leucina, glicina e ácido glutâmico foi maior (p <0,05) em RSM de MUL. Entre as amostras de W da MUL, a digestibilidade de AA para Lys, Thr e Asp foi maior (p <0,05). Proteína Crud, arginina, alanina, serina e ácido aspártico apresentaram maior digestibilidade (p <0,05), e menor (p <0,05) para treonina, valina e tirosina em MRS. Nenhuma diferença (p> 0,05) relacionada a energia metabolizável foi observada entre esses ingredientes em relação à sua origem. Os resultados indicaram que os perfis nutricionais e sua digestibilidade variam com a localização.


Assuntos
Animais , Ciclídeos , Aminoácidos , Paquistão , Dieta , Digestão , Íleo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
6.
Braz J Biol ; 81(1): 44-52, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159614

RESUMO

Three trials were executed to examine the nutritive profile, metabolisable energy and digestible amino acid (AA) contents of four indigenous feed ingredients including wheat (W), wheat middling (WM), canola meal (CM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in Nile tilapia. Three samples of each test ingredient were collected from three different locations of Multan (MUL) and Sukkar (SKR), of Pakistan. The collected three samples were pooled thereafter to make a homogenous/ representative sample of each test ingredient from a particular study site. Nutrients composition, AA and energy digestibility of these indigenous ingredients were evaluated by using laboratory analyses and fish studies. Proximate analysis indicated variations in some of the nutrients due to location (p < 0.05). Differences were also observed in some AA including arginine, lysine, serine, cysteine, glutamic and aspartic acids, histidine, valine and glycine contents of these ingredients (p < 0.05). Digestibility of leucine, glycine and glutamic acid was higher (p < 0.05) in RSM from MUL. Among W samples from MUL, AA digestibility for lysine, threonine, and aspartic acid was higher (p < 0.05). Crude protein, arginine, alanine, serine, and aspartic acid had higher digestibility (p < 0.05), whereas digestibility was lower (p < 0.05) for threonine, valine and tyrosine in RSM from MUL. Metaboliseable energy contents did not differ among W, WM, CM and RSM regarding their origin (p > 0.05). The results indicated that nutritional profiles and their digestibility indices vary with the location for Nile tilapia.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Ciclídeos , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta , Digestão , Íleo , Paquistão
8.
Poult Sci ; 99(1): 280-289, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416812

RESUMO

An experiment was executed to test the hypothesis that supplementation of dietary threonine (d-Thr), above NRC recommendation to diets containing poorly digestible protein source (PS) may compensate its detrimental effects on overall performance of broilers. In total, nine hundred 1-day-old mixed sex broilers (Ross-308) were randomly distributed over 6 (2 × 3) experimental diets comprising 5 replicates of 30 broilers each for 35 d. The experimental diets contain either soybean meal (SBM) or canola meal (CM) with 3 levels (100, 110, and 120% of NRC recommendation) of d-Thr. During the course of the trial (0 to 35 D), interactions (P < 0.05) between PS and d-Thr were observed for feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass, and gut health parameters. The broilers fed recommended level (100%) of d-Thr had 7 and 5% poorer FCR compared with those fed diets with 110 and 120% d-Thr, respectively. For villus height (VH), an interaction (P = 0.007) was found between PS and d-Thr level. Broilers consuming SBM diets had 22% longer villi, 10% deeper crypts, and 30% greater VH to crypt depth ratio (VCR) compared to those fed CM. The broilers fed 110% d-Thr diets had 9% lower crypt depth (CD) and 15% greater VCR compared with those fed diets containing NRC recommended levels. CM resulted in 9% lower protein digestibility with lower (P < 0.05) of some AA, whereas it was improved by 7% in broilers fed 120% d-Thr supplemented diets. The bursa and spleen weights were positively affected (P < 0.001) by PS. Threonine supplementation (10%) resulted in 25% greater thymus, 18% heavier bursa, and 30% greater infectious bursal disease titer. In conclusion, supplementation of d-Thr, above NRC recommendation, resulted in a better growth performance and carcass traits, improved ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids, better gut health, and immunity in broilers.


Assuntos
Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Treonina/administração & dosagem , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Brassica napus , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Feminino , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Proteínas/metabolismo , Soja
9.
Br Poult Sci ; 61(1): 43-50, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547675

RESUMO

1. This study determined the effects of three protein sources (PS), each at two digestibility crude protein (DCP) levels, on performance, gut morphology and fermentation characteristics in the hindgut of broilers.2. It was hypothesised that broilers fed ingredients high in indigestible CP, i.e. rapeseed meal (RSM) or maize gluten (MG), could potentially cause reduced growth, impaired gut health, and more protein fermentation products in caecal digesta. Increasing the DCP level in each of the indigestible CP diets may compensate for these detrimental effects.3. In total, 288 one-d-old male Ross 308 broilers were used in a completely randomised 3 × 2 factorial design, with six replicate pens per treatment. Three PS: soybean meal (SBM), rapeseed meal (RSM) or maize gluten (MG), and two DCP levels: 15.8 and 17.2% were used.4. Broilers fed SBM had increased feed intake and BWG and improved FCR compared with those fed RSM and MG diets. Broilers fed high DCP had better performance compared with those on low DCP. No significant effects of PS or DCP level were found on gastrointestinal tract development, caecal ammonia or volatile fatty acid concentrations.5. Broilers fed SBM had longer villi, smaller crypts and increased villus height to crypt depth ratio compared with those fed RSM and MG diets. Broilers fed RSM diet had a lower caecal pH, and had 16.5% and 14.9% more branched chain fatty acid contents in caecal digesta compared with those fed SBM and MG diets, respectively, indicating more proteolytic fermentation.6. Replacing SBM by RSM and MG negatively affected growth performance and gut morphology. Hindgut protein fermentation was substantially increased in RSM fed birds.7. To a certain extent, retarded growth performance in RSM and MG fed birds could be counterbalanced by increasing the dietary level of digestible CP.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta , Fermentação , Masculino
10.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS, VETINDEX | ID: vti-744510

RESUMO

Abstract Three trials were executed to examine the nutritive profile, metabolisable energy and digestible amino acid (AA) contents of four indigenous feed ingredients including wheat (W), wheat middling (WM), canola meal (CM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in Nile tilapia. Three samples of each test ingredient were collected from three different locations of Multan (MUL) and Sukkar (SKR), of Pakistan. The collected three samples were pooled thereafter to make a homogenous/ representative sample of each test ingredient from a particular study site. Nutrients composition, AA and energy digestibility of these indigenous ingredients were evaluated by using laboratory analyses and fish studies. Proximate analysis indicated variations in some of the nutrients due to location (p 0.05). Differences were also observed in some AA including arginine, lysine, serine, cysteine, glutamic and aspartic acids, histidine, valine and glycine contents of these ingredients (p 0.05). Digestibility of leucine, glycine and glutamic acid was higher (p 0.05) in RSM from MUL. Among W samples from MUL, AA digestibility for lysine, threonine, and aspartic acid was higher (p 0.05). Crude protein, arginine, alanine, serine, and aspartic acid had higher digestibility (p 0.05), whereas digestibility was lower (p 0.05) for threonine, valine and tyrosine in RSM from MUL. Metaboliseable energy contents did not differ among W, WM, CM and RSM regarding their origin (p > 0.05). The results indicated that nutritional profiles and their digestibility indices vary with the location for Nile tilapia.


Resumo Três experimentos foram executados para examinar o perfil nutritivo, a energia metabolizável e o conteúdo de aminoácidos digestíveis (AA) de quatro ingredientes alimentícios, incluindo trigo (W), farelo de trigo (WM), farelo de canola (CM) e farelo de colza (RSM) em tilápia do Nilo. Três amostras de cada ingrediente do teste foram coletadas de dois locais diferentes (Multan (MUL) e Sukkar (SKR), do Paquistão) e assim agrupadas. A composição nutricional, AA e digestibilidade energética desses ingredientes indígenas foram avaliadas por meio de análises laboratoriais e estudos de peixes. A análise imediata indicou variações (p 0,05) em alguns dos nutrientes devido à localização. Variações (p 0,05) também foram observadas em alguns teores de AA desses ingredientes. A digestibilidade da leucina, glicina e ácido glutâmico foi maior (p 0,05) em RSM de MUL. Entre as amostras de W da MUL, a digestibilidade de AA para Lys, Thr e Asp foi maior (p 0,05). Proteína Crud, arginina, alanina, serina e ácido aspártico apresentaram maior digestibilidade (p 0,05), e menor (p 0,05) para treonina, valina e tirosina em MRS. Nenhuma diferença (p> 0,05) relacionada a energia metabolizável foi observada entre esses ingredientes em relação à sua origem. Os resultados indicaram que os perfis nutricionais e sua digestibilidade variam com a localização.

11.
Poult Sci ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504950

RESUMO

An experiment was executed to test the hypothesis that supplementation of dietary threonine (d-Thr), above NRC recommendation to diets containing poorly digestible protein source (PS) may compensate its detrimental effects on overall performance of broilers. In total, nine hundred 1-day-old mixed sex broilers (Ross-308) were randomly distributed over 6 (2 × 3) experimental diets comprising 5 replicates of 30 broilers each for 35 d. The experimental diets contain either soybean meal (SBM) or canola meal (CM) with 3 levels (100, 110, and 120% of NRC recommendation) of d-Thr. During the course of the trial (0 to 35 D), interactions (P < 0.05) between PS and d-Thr were observed for feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass, and gut health parameters. The broilers fed recommended level (100%) of d-Thr had 7 and 5% poorer FCR compared with those fed diets with 110 and 120% d-Thr, respectively. For villus height (VH), an interaction (P = 0.007) was found between PS and d-Thr level. Broilers consuming SBM diets had 22% longer villi, 10% deeper crypts, and 30% greater VH to crypt depth ratio (VCR) compared to those fed CM. The broilers fed 110% d-Thr diets had 9% lower crypt depth (CD) and 15% greater VCR compared with those fed diets containing NRC recommended levels. CM resulted in 9% lower protein digestibility with lower (P < 0.05) of some AA, whereas it was improved by 7% in broilers fed 120% d-Thr supplemented diets. The bursa and spleen weights were positively affected (P < 0.001) by PS. Threonine supplementation (10%) resulted in 25% greater thymus, 18% heavier bursa, and 30% greater infectious bursal disease titer. In conclusion, supplementation of d-Thr, above NRC recommendation, resulted in a better growth performance and carcass traits, improved ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids, better gut health, and immunity in broilers.

12.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4664-4672, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220863

RESUMO

2 experiments were conducted to explore nutrient composition, AME, AMEn, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP, and amino acids (AA) of 4 indigenous protein sources including canola meal (CM), rapeseed meal (RSM), guar meal (GM), and sunflower meal (SFM) collected from 2 different locations, Multan (MUL; n = 3) and Sukkur (SKR; n = 3), of Pakistan. Higher (P < 0.05) dry matter (DM), CP, and gross energy (GE), whereas lower (P < 0.05) ash contents were found in SKR, CM, and RSM compared with those from MUL. The MUL GM had higher (P < 0.05) crude fiber (CF) and CP, whereas lower (P < 0.05) GE compared with those from SKR. The SFM from MUL had higher DM, whereas lower CF and CP contents than SKR. In the first experiment, 216 21-d-old male broilers (Ross 308) were distributed over 8 test diets (4 ingredients × 2 locations) and 1 basal diet, with 4 replicates containing 6 birds each (9 × 4 × 6), in a complete randomized design to determine AME and AMEn. The results indicated higher (P < 0.05) AME and AMEn in MUL CM than SKR. In the second experiment, 216 21-d-old male broilers (Ross 308) were raised in 36 cages (6 birds each) to determine SID of CP and AA in a complete randomized design. 8 test diets (4 ingredients × 2 locations) and a protein-free diet, with 4 replicates each, were tested. The SID of CP and some AA were higher (P < 0.05) in MUL CM and RSM than SKR. The SKR GM had a higher (P < 0.05) SID of CP, arginine, methionine, threonine, valine, and cysteine compared with that from MUL. The SFM from MUL had higher (P < 0.05) SID of CP, arginine, histidine, methionine, valine, alanine, aspartate, cysteine, and serine than SKR. In conclusion, major differences do exist between CM, GM, RSM, and SFM from different locations in terms of nutrients, AME, digestible CP, and AA contents for male broilers.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Estado Nutricional , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Digestão , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
13.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 20(3): 455-462, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-738620

RESUMO

This study was designed to examine carryover effect of dietary lysine (Lys) levels fed during the starter phase on the growth performance of three varieties of Aseel chickens. A total of 378 birds (126 from each variety) derived from a previous experiment, in which birds were distributed according a randomized block design in a 3×3 factorial arrangement, were evaluated from 7-18 weeks of age. Treatments consisted of three varieties of Aseel chicken [(Mianwali (MW), Peshawari (PW) and Lakha (LK)] fed three dietary Lys regimes (high, medium and low) during the starter phase (0-6 weeks). In the present experiment, the performance parameters, carcass traits, and meat chemical composition six replicates of seven birds per treatment were evaluated. The MW variety exhibited higher weight gain and better feed to gain ratio (p 0.05). Previous medium dietary Lys regimen improved weight gain, feed to gain ratio, final weight gain (p0.05). Birds previously fed medium dietary Lys showed higher thigh dry matter content (p 0.05), and those previously fed low Lys significantly higher thigh crude protein (CP) content (p 0.05). The highest breast muscle CP % were observed birds previously fed the high Lys regime (p 0.05), those of the MW variety (p 0.05). Higher slaughter weight and carcass weight and yield were obtained in the birds previously fed to medium dietary Lys level (p 0.05), and the MW variety showed overall better carcass traits (p 0.05). It is concluded that medium Lys levels in the starter feed promote subsequent better growth performance and that the MW variety has better carcass traits, it may be used as for rural chicken meat production.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Carne/análise , Lisina/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ganho de Peso
14.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 20(2): 203-210, Apr.-June 2018. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-734702

RESUMO

A study was designed with the objective, to evaluate the effect of dietary lysine (Lys) regimens on growth performance and meat composition of Aseel chicken. In total, 540 day old chicks, 180 from each variety, were randomly assigned to 9 experimental groups in a 3 (Varieties: Mianwali (MW), Peshawari (PW), and Lakha (LK)) × 3 (Lys regimens: L1, L2 and L3:1.35, 1.30 and 1.25%) factorial arrangement under randomized complete block design (RCBD) with sex as block. Each experimental group was replicated 6 times with 10 birds in each with average weight of 29 gram. Feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG) and feed:gain ratio (F:G) parameters of growth performance and Dry Matter (DM), Ash, Crude Protein (CP) and Ether Extract (EE) parameters of meat composition were evaluated. The results indicated better (p=0.0006) WG and (p=0.0006) F:G was observed in MW verities. Among different Lys regimens, higher and medium level in the diet improved WG (p<.0001), F:G (p<.0001) and reduced (p=0.0001) FI. Similarly increased (p<.0001; 0.0150) ash content in thigh and breast due to increased level of lysine in the early life period. Dry matter was found to be higher (p=0.0036) only in medium Lys regimen, whereas meat CP was observed to be higher (p=0.0064) in control diet. It was concluded that, 1.30% digestible Lys level regimen can be used to improve the early growth rate of Aseel chicken. Similarly, Mianwali variety due to its better early growth can be used as a meat type chicken.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Carne/análise , Aves Domésticas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Lisina
15.
Poult Sci ; 94(9): 2152-64, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26175052

RESUMO

An experiment with 288 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet supplemented with butyric acid (BA) and fermentable carbohydrates (FC) improves performance of broilers with a poorly digestible protein source. The interaction effects of diet structure (fine or coarse), FC supplementation (with or without), and BA supplementation (with or without) in a poorly digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 8 (2×2×2) dietary treatments. The coarseness of the diet affected feed intake (FI) (P<0.001), BW gain (P=0.001), and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P=0.001) positively. Broilers fed the coarse diets had, on average, 14% heavier gizzards and 11, 7, 5, and 6% lower relative empty weights of the crop, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively, compared with those fed the fine diets. Dietary coarseness resulted in, on average, 6% greater ileal protein digestibility, 20% lower gizzard pH, 19% greater villus height, 18% lower crypt depth, and 23% reduced cecal branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) compared with chickens fed the fine diets. Broilers fed BA-supplemented diets had an improved FCR (P=0.004) and decreased crypt depth (P<0.001) compared with those fed diets without BA. Fermentable carbohydrate supplementation did not influence growth performance, gut development, or contents of total BCFA and total biogenic amines in the cecal digesta (P>0.05). Supplementation with FC, however, decreased the cecal concentration of spermine by approximately 31% compared with broilers fed diets without FC (P=0.002). In conclusion, feeding a coarse diet supplemented with BA improved performance of broilers fed a diet containing a poorly digestible protein source. The negative effects of a poorly digestible protein source can thus be partly counterbalanced by coarse grinding and BA supplementation in the diet.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Ceco/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Fermentação , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
16.
Poult Sci ; 93(12): 3053-64, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25306462

RESUMO

An experiment with 210 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet improves performance of broilers fed a poorly digestible protein source. A highly digestible diet based on soybean meal was gradually replaced by a low digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) in 5 steps (RSM-0%, RSM-25%, RSM-50%, RSM-75%, and RSM-100%). Two diet structures (fine and coarse) were used as an additional factor. These 2 factors and their interactions were tested at different ages in a factorial arrangement with 10 dietary treatments. An increase in indigestible dietary protein negatively affected feed intake (P = 0.003), BW gain (P = 0.008), and feed conversion ratio (P = 0.034). This increase in dietary indigestible protein contents resulted in a decrease (P = 0.001) in total cecal volatile fatty acid concentration from 209.1 to 125.9 mmol/kg of DM digesta in broilers with increasing RSM in diets. Increase in the indigestible protein level, from RSM-0% to RSM-100%, resulted in a decrease (P = 0.042) in villus heights (1,782 vs. 1,574 µm), whereas crypt depths increased (P = 0.021; 237 vs. 274 µm). A coarse diet improved feed intake (P = 0.006), BW gain (P = 0.014), and feed conversion ratio (P = 0.009). Broilers fed coarse diets had approximately 11, 24, and 10% lower relative empty weights of the crop, proventriculus, and jejunum, respectively, whereas a 15% heavier gizzard was found compared with those fed the fine diets. Dietary coarseness resulted in approximately 16% lower gizzard pH, 21% greater villus heights, 27% lower crypt depths, 24% reduced branched-chain fatty acids, and 12% lower biogenic amines in the cecal digesta compared with broilers fed fine diets. In conclusion, feeding coarse particles improved broiler performance irrespective of digestibility of the diet. Hindgut protein fermentation can be reduced by coarse grinding of the diet.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Masculino
17.
Poult Sci ; 92(3): 591-602, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23436509

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary dilution sources and levels on feather damage, performance, feeding behavior, and litter condition in rearing pullets. It was hypothesized that dietary dilution increases feeding-related behavior and improves feather condition, particularly if insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides are used as the dilution source. In total, 864 Lohmann Brown 1-d-old non-beak-trimmed pullets were used until 18 wk of age. Four dietary treatments, a control diet without any dilution (R_0%), 7.5% diluted diet with sunflower seed extract/oat hulls (R_7.5%), 15% diluted diet with sunflower seed extract (R_15%_S), and 15% diluted diet with oat hulls (R_15%_O), with 6 replicates (1 replicate is a pen with 36 pullets) per treatment were used. On 4-wk intervals, behavioral parameters, including eating time, feather pecking, feather condition, and general behavior were evaluated. Pullets fed the control diet showed increased feather, comb, and wire pecking compared with pullets fed diluted diets. The level of feather damage decreased with increasing dietary dilution level. Pullets receiving R_15%_S and R_15%_O showed more feeding-related behavior than the pullets on R_7.5% and R_0%. Oat hulls were more effective in preventing feather damage than sunflower seed extract. Pullets did not fully compensate their feed intake if fed a dietary dilution, resulting in a proportionally reduced available ME intake. The R_15%_O pullets had 2.9% lower average BW gain compared with those fed R_0%. Average eating duration increased by 12.8, 33.2, and 42.1% in R_7.5%, R_15%_S, and R_15%_O fed pullets, respectively, compared with R_0%, whereas eating rate [feed intake (g)/pullet per eating min] was decreased in R_15%_S and R_15%_O pullets. Relative weights of empty gizzards were 3.95, 10.30, and 62.72% greater in R_7.5%, R_15%_S, and R_15%_O pullets compared with pullets fed R_0%. It was concluded that dietary dilution affected time budgets of the pullets, as shown by more feeding-related behavior, resulting in less feather pecking behavior. Based on our results, application of this feeding strategy could improve production and welfare in pullets.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Plumas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Fezes/química , Feminino , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Ganho de Peso
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