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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248420, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339367

RESUMO

Abstract Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.


Resumo Muito pouco se sabe sobre a malacofauna no distrito de Swat, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, situada na parte norte do Paquistão. O vale do Swat possui uma variedade de condições ambientais adequadas, proporcionando diferentes tipos de habitats para a flora e a fauna. Levando em consideração esses pontos, o presente estudo foi conduzido para explorar a diversidade dos caracóis terrestres em campos agrícolas e não agrícolas no vale inferior de Swat. Um total de 417 conchas foram coletadas em três locais: Kokarai, Kanju Township e Deolai. Com base em características concológicas, três famílias: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae e Zonitidae foram identificadas usando diferentes chaves de caramujos terrestres. Em Kokarai e Deolai, conchas de membros de todas as famílias mencionadas acima foram encontradas em campos agrícolas. No município de Kanju, foram encontradas conchas de membros da família Bradybaenidae e Zonitidae. A partir dessas constatações, concluiu-se que o distrito de Swat possui uma malacofauna significativa que antes era inexplorada e ajudava mais a literatura existente sobre a malacofauna. Também apoia a ideia de que o agroecossistema é rico em diversidade de espécies. Recomenda-se a realização de um estudo mais aprofundado e extenso para uma taxonomia detalhada das famílias de gastrópodes terrestres descritas.

2.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 5, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013510

RESUMO

Lysosome axonal transport is important for the clearance of cargoes sequestered by the endocytic and autophagic pathways. Building on observations that mutations in the JIP3 (MAPK8IP3) gene result in lysosome-filled axonal swellings, we analyzed the impact of JIP3 depletion on the cytoskeleton of human neurons. Dynamic focal lysosome accumulations were accompanied by disruption of the axonal periodic scaffold (spectrin, F-actin and myosin II) throughout each affected axon. Additionally, axonal microtubule organization was locally disrupted at each lysosome-filled swelling. This local axonal microtubule disorganization was accompanied by accumulations of both F-actin and myosin II. These results indicate that transport of axonal lysosomes is functionally interconnected with mechanisms that control the organization and maintenance of the axonal cytoskeleton. They have potential relevance to human neurological disease arising from JIP3 mutations as well as for neurodegenerative diseases associated with the focal accumulations of lysosomes within axonal swellings such as Alzheimer's disease.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e225092, 2022. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249256

RESUMO

Abstract A new species of the genus Lutziella (Rohde, 1966) Yamaguti, 1971 is described here and named Lutziella swatensis sp.nov. from the liver of rat (Rattus rattus L.). The new species is characterized by having body flat, smooth, longer than broad with maximum width at the level of the ovary, oral sucker with weak musculature, pharynx small; eosophagus long; caeca of irregular shape which bifurcate on the anterior border of the ovary in to unequal portions, acetabulum weakly muscular, post-testicular, testes lobed, cirrus pouch somewhat median, small in size containing winding seminal vesicle, prostatic complex and short ejaculatory duct. Genital pore median. Ovary post testicular, submedian; seminal receptacle overlapping ovary, laurer's canal present. Vitellaria follicular extending on each side from almost the level of testes to anterior portion of posterior half of the body. Uterus filled with eggs occupying most of the body, eggs oval rather small, numerous, brownish in colour, excretory vesicle tubular with terminal pore. Lutziella swatensis n. sp. is the second species of the genus known from Pakistan as well as the second species described from murid rodents in the world.


Resumo Uma nova espécie do gênero Lutziella (Rohde, 1966) Yamaguti, 1971 é descrita aqui e denominada Lutziella swatensis sp.nov. do fígado do rato (Rattus rattus L.). A nova espécie é caracterizada por ter corpo liso, liso, mais longo que largo com largura máxima ao nível do ovário, otário oral com musculatura débil, faringe pequena; eosôfago longo; ceco de forma irregular que se bifurca na borda anterior do ovário em porções desiguais, acetábulo fracamente muscular, pós-testicular, testículos lobados, bolsa cirrus um pouco mediana, pequeno em tamanho contendo vesícula seminal sinuosa, complexo prostático e ducto ejaculatório curto. Mediana dos poros genitais. Ovário pós testicular, submediano; ovário sobreposto do receptáculo seminal, canal de laurer presente. Vitellaria folicular que se estende de cada lado de quase o nível dos testículos para a porção anterior da metade posterior do corpo. Útero cheio de ovos que ocupam a maior parte do corpo, oval ovos bastante pequenos, numerosos, de cor acastanhada, vesícula excretor tubular com poro terminal. Lutziella swatensis n. sp. é a segunda espécie do gênero conhecida do Paquistão, bem como a segunda espécie descrita de roedores do mundo.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242614, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816974

RESUMO

Vegetables eating raw are a leading source of transmission of infective forms of pathogenic internal parasites among human beings. This research was conducted from April to October, 2017 to assess the parasitic contamination of vegetables sold at main vegetable markets in districts Lower Dir and Peshawar, Pakistan. Eight hundred specimens of different vegetables were purchased and soaked in physiological saline solution, shaken with a mechanical shaker for 20 minutes and processed by sedimentation concentration method. Results revealed that only 19.7% (n=158/800) of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with single or multiple parasite species. Ascaris lumbricoides (the large round worm) 12.3% (n=99/800) was the most commonly detected pathogen and Taenia saginata (the beef tapeworm) 1.62% (n=13/800) was the least frequently detected one. Interestingly, significant p value (p>0.05 at 95%CI) between the number of examined and contaminated for all the variables studied including education status of the vendors, markets location, type of vegetables, means of display, washed before display, washing source of water and market type. The findings of this study evidenced that consumption of raw vegetables possesses great risk of getting parasitic infections in Lower Dir and Peshawar districts, Pakistan. Instructing the sellers and the public about parasitic disease transfer and their hygiene can reduce the infection rate of parasites of human origin.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Parasitos , Animais , Bovinos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Verduras
5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248420, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495163

RESUMO

Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Ecossistema , Animais , Humanos , Paquistão , Caramujos
6.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e225092, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037073

RESUMO

A new species of the genus Lutziella (Rohde, 1966) Yamaguti, 1971 is described here and named Lutziella swatensis sp.nov. from the liver of rat (Rattus rattus L.). The new species is characterized by having body flat, smooth, longer than broad with maximum width at the level of the ovary, oral sucker with weak musculature, pharynx small; eosophagus long; caeca of irregular shape which bifurcate on the anterior border of the ovary in to unequal portions, acetabulum weakly muscular, post-testicular, testes lobed, cirrus pouch somewhat median, small in size containing winding seminal vesicle, prostatic complex and short ejaculatory duct. Genital pore median. Ovary post testicular, submedian; seminal receptacle overlapping ovary, laurer's canal present. Vitellaria follicular extending on each side from almost the level of testes to anterior portion of posterior half of the body. Uterus filled with eggs occupying most of the body, eggs oval rather small, numerous, brownish in colour, excretory vesicle tubular with terminal pore. Lutziella swatensis n. sp. is the second species of the genus known from Pakistan as well as the second species described from murid rodents in the world.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Trematódeos , Infecções por Trematódeos , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Paquistão , Ratos
7.
Sex Transm Infect ; 85 Suppl 2: ii31-6, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19307349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the nature and extent of human rights abuses against three vulnerable groups (injecting drug users (IDUs) and male and female sex workers), to understand the social and sexual linkages between them and to examine how protecting their rights could enhance the impact of HIV prevention policies. METHODS: In-depth interviews were carried out with 38 high-risk respondents (IDUs and female, male and transgender sex workers) and a bio-behavioural survey was performed of 813 IDU/sex worker respondents in Rawalpindi. RESULTS: People in all vulnerable groups interacted both sexually and socially. All groups experienced human rights abuses by state and non-state actors which increased their HIV risk. Non-state actors, including relations and sex worker clients, are responsible for verbal, physical and sexual violence. State actors (particularly police) perpetrate harassment, exploitation and abuse of all vulnerable groups with impunity. Health service providers fail to provide adequate services for vulnerable groups. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of discrimination and abuse of human dignity of all groups studied were revealed. This violates their physical and mental integrity and also leads to an increased risk of HIV. The sexual and social interactions between groups mean that human rights abuses experienced by one high-risk group can increase the risk of HIV both for them and other groups. The protection of human rights needs to become an integral part of a multisector response to the risk of HIV/AIDS by state and non-state agencies. The Government of Pakistan should work at both legal and programme levels to protect the rights of, and minimise discrimination against, groups vulnerable to HIV in order to reduce the potential for the spread of HIV before the epidemic takes hold.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Violações dos Direitos Humanos/prevenção & controle , Preconceito , Trabalho Sexual , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/psicologia , Transexualidade/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/prevenção & controle , Transexualidade/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis
12.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 43(7): 127-8, 1993 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8230662
13.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 43(5): 95-6, 1993 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8264085

RESUMO

To determine the frequency and type of upper gastrointestinal lesions in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), upper G.I. endoscopy was done in 101 cases. Of the various mucosal lesions, inflammatory changes were seen maximally (40), followed by erosions (16) and ulcers (7). Other changes included atrophic gastro-duodenal folds (17), pale mucosa (11) and moniliasis (6) which was only seen in patients with end stage CRF. Lesions were more frequent in those who were in advanced stage of CRF (81%) and those undergoing dialysis (79%), reflecting a positive correlation of upper G.I. lesions with the severity of CRF.


Assuntos
Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 42(5): 105-7, 1992 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1507384
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