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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240842, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339375

RESUMO

Abstract This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar várias atividades mosquitocidas do extrato n-hexano de planta inteira de Chenopodium botrys contra Culex quinquefasciatus. O extrato mostrou atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora de oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus. Durante as atividades larvicida e pupicida, a concentração letal de 24 horas (CL50) do extrato contra larvas de 2º estádio, larvas de 4º estádio e pupa foi de 324,6, 495,6 e 950,8 ppm, respectivamente. Durante o bioensaio com frasco do CDC (Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças) para adulticida, o tempo médio de desativação (KDT50) na concentração de 1,25% foi de 123,4 minutos. Durante o bioensaio de impregnação com papel de filtro para a atividade adulticida do extrato, o valor KDT50 na concentração de 0,138 mg / cm2 foi de 48,6 minutos. O extrato foi fracionado em 14 frações através de cromatografia em coluna de gel de sílica que foram então combinadas em seis frações com base em um valor de fator de retenção (Rf) semelhante. Essas frações foram selecionadas quanto à atividade adulticida por meio da aplicação do bioensaio com garrafa do CDC. A fração obtida através da fase móvel de n-hexanos-clorofórmio 60:40% a 50:50% com valor de 0,5 Rf apresentou atividade adulticida de 100% na concentração de 0,2%. Durante a atividade de dissuasão da oviposição, a maior concentração de extrato (1000 ppm) apresentou repelência efetiva de 71,3 ± 4,4% e índice de atividade de oviposição de 0,6 ± 0,1. Durante a atividade de inibição da emergência de adultos, o valor médio de inibição da emergência (EI50) foi de 312,3 ppm. A partir do resultado da presente investigação, conclui-se que o extrato de n-hexano da planta inteira de C. botrys possui fortes atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora da oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e240842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550279

RESUMO

This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Culex , Inseticidas , Animais , Hexanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
6.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 25(3): 316-323, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29787886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) although rare, is a potentially fatal infection. The majority of cases are polymicrobial, although a recent surge has been reported in monomicrobial NF caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP-NF). KP-NF recently accounted for an average of 16% among all pathogens, with highest mortality rate of 60%. This review discusses the important aspects of KP-NF with additional notes on the implications of multidrug resistant infections. SOURCES: The literature was searched using PubMed. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated monomicrobially in NF cases was used as the selection criteria. CONTENT: KP-NF predominates in East Asia with the majority of cases reported from Taiwan alone. Reports from the Western hemisphere are also gradually rising. This infection has invariably presented with underlying predisposing factors occurring mostly in individuals with compromised host immunity. Diabetes, chronic liver disease, and instrumentation are important risk factors. With haematogenous spread more common, multifocal involvement via metastasis is reported. Clinical presentations are usually aggressive with rapid progression despite antimicrobial therapy. It may even present with severe sepsis. Clinicians must be aware of the differential diagnosis of such severe presentations. Emergency surgical explorations and microbiological investigations clinch the diagnosis. Outcomes are not favourable, with a high mortality rate of 40% even after appropriate interventions. Nosocomial KP-NF cases are more fulminant and multidrug resistant with even higher mortality rates (approx. 70%). IMPLICATIONS: KP-NF with its virulent course and high mortality, is an emerging life threat. Clinicians must be aware of its key features. Further comprehensive studies are needed for better insights into the spectrum of this fatal infection.


Assuntos
Fasciite Necrosante/diagnóstico , Fasciite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/diagnóstico , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fasciite Necrosante/fisiopatologia , Fasciite Necrosante/terapia , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/terapia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Virulência
10.
Br J Vener Dis ; 54(6): 400-2, 1978 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-737517

RESUMO

Cefuroxime, a new antibiotic derived from cephalosporin-C which is very stable in the presence of beta-lactamases produced by Gram-negative organisms, was used to treat 856 male patients and 340 female patients with uncomplicated gonorrhoea. In men the drug was used in three different doses, 1.5 g, 1 g, and 750 mg plus 1 g probenecid; in women 1 g and 750 mg cefuroxime plus 1 g probenecid was used. Cure rates ranged from 94.8% to 99.3%. The antibiotic was well tolerated and was free from side effects. Cefuroxime would be a valuable and efficient substitute for penicillin in the treatment of gonorrhoea due to beta-lactamase-producing strains of gonococci.


Assuntos
Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Cefalosporinas/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Furanos/administração & dosagem , Furanos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Probenecid/uso terapêutico
11.
Proc R Soc Med ; 70(Suppl 9): 131-3, 1977.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20919389
12.
Br J Vener Dis ; 51(3): 179-82, 1975 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1139277

RESUMO

1,223 ambulant patients with gonorrhoea were each treated with a single dose of eight tablets of cotrimoxazole. 1,069 patients were followed up (794 males and 275 females). Of these, only 46 (4%) failed to respond. Cotrimoxazole in the dosage used was well tolerated by all the patients, with very few side-effects. There was clear evidence that cotrimoxazole did not mask concomitant syphilitic infections; neither did it produce a gonococcal carrier state. The incidence of post-gonococcal non-specific urethritis was 6 per cent. At present cotrimoxazole seems to be the most useful alternative to penicillin in the treatment of gonorrhoea.


Assuntos
Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Trimetoprima/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Portador Sadio , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sulfametoxazol/administração & dosagem , Trimetoprima/administração & dosagem
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