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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250296, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339385

RESUMO

Abstract The current study aimed to determine the effects of different levels of Zingiber officinale as a herbal feed additive on growth performance, carcass characteristic, serum biochemistry, total bacterial count (TBC), gut morphology, and immunological parameters of broilers. A total of 1500, day-old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were equally accredited to five treatment groups, each with six replicates (50 birds/replicate). Five experimental diets were prepared using basal diet i.e. with antibiotics positive control (PC), 3 g/kg ginger (group A), 6 g/kg ginger (group B), 9 g/kg ginger (group C) and without antibiotics negative control (NC). Group A and C showed significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake (FI) as compared to other groups. Group C showed significantly (p<0.05) lower Total bacterial count (TBC) followed by group B as compared to NC. Carcass characteristics showed non-significant effects among different treatments. Mean villi length and width were significantly (p <0.05) higher in all ginger supplemented groups as compared to the control groups. Blood serum parameters including cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were significantly (p<0.05) lower in groups B and C in comparison with the control groups. Whereas high-density lipoproteins (HDL) was significantly higher in group B as compared to the others. In conclusion, ginger supplementation @0.6% in the basal diet significantly improved growth performance and gut morphometry of broilers. It also showed a positive impact on cholesterol, triglycerides and gut microbes. Therefore, ginger could be a better substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de Zingiber officinale como aditivo à base de plantas medicinais sobre o desempenho de crescimento, características da carcaça, bioquímica sérica, contagem bacteriana total (CBT), morfologia intestinal e parâmetros imunológicos de frangos de corte. Um total de 1.500 pintos de corte de um dia de idade (Hubbard) foram igualmente credenciados em cinco grupos de tratamento, cada um com seis repetições (50 aves/repetição). Cinco dietas experimentais foram preparadas usando dieta basal, ou seja, com controle positivo de antibióticos (PC), 3 g/kg de gengibre (grupo A), 6 g/kg de gengibre (grupo B), 9 g/kg de gengibre (grupo C) e sem controle negativo de antibióticos (NC). Os grupos A e C apresentaram consumo de ração (FI) significativamente (p < 0,05) maior do que os outros grupos. O grupo C apresentou contagem bacteriana total (CBT) significativamente menor (p < 0,05) seguido pelo grupo B em comparação com o NC. As características da carcaça apresentaram efeitos não significativos entre os diferentes tratamentos. O comprimento e largura médios das vilosidades foram significativamente (p < 0,05) maiores em todos os grupos suplementados com gengibre em comparação com os grupos de controle. Os parâmetros séricos do sangue, incluindo colesterol, triglicerídeos e lipoproteínas de baixa densidade (LDL), foram significativamente (p < 0,05) menores nos grupos B e C em comparação com os grupos controle. Enquanto as lipoproteínas de alta densidade (HDL) foram significativamente maiores no grupo B em comparação com os outros. Em conclusão, a suplementação de gengibre a 0,6% na dieta basal melhorou significativamente o desempenho de crescimento e a morfometria intestinal de frangos de corte. Ele também mostrou um impacto positivo sobre o colesterol, triglicerídeos e micróbios intestinais. Portanto, o gengibre pode ser um substituto melhor para os promotores de crescimento com antibióticos.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250402, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339404

RESUMO

Abstract We have evaluated the effects of different fish feeds on the body composition, growth, and enzyme activities of Labeo rohita (Rohu). In total, 240 fishes between the average weights of 24.77±2.15g were studied. The treatments were applied in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments of 60 fishes each. Treatments consisted of four different fish feeds [Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4)]. Body composition, growth performance, and enzyme activities were evaluated. There was a significant variation in performance of fishes fed with different type of feed; as fishes having Oryza feed showed the highest weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and best feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared to other groups that were considered to be significant (P ≤ 0.05). High net weight gain was obtained in T4 when compared with T2 and T3. FCR value of T4 was less than T1 but higher than T2, T3 and T2, which showed the lowest values. The specific growth rate was recorded as average in T4, but T2 led a high SGR than T3. Similarly, crude protein level and digestive enzymes activity was recorded significantly highest in fed with Oryza (T1) as compared to AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4). Water quality parameters were recorded significant in all treatments except pH and DO of treatment (T1), significantly different from other treatments. It was concluded that Rohu (Labeo rohita) could show a promising growth rate and protease enzyme activity when fed with the Oryza feed of 25% protein.


Resumo Avaliamos os efeitos de diferentes alimentos para peixes em relação à composição corporal, crescimento e atividades enzimáticas de Labeo rohita (Rohu). No total, foram estudados 240 peixes com pesos médios de 24,77 ± 2,15 g. Os tratamentos foram aplicados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos de 60 peixes cada. Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro alimentos diferentes para peixes: Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3) e Supreme (T4). Foram avaliados a composição corporal, o desempenho de crescimento e as atividades enzimáticas. Houve uma variação significativa no desempenho dos peixes alimentados com diferentes tipos de ração. Peixes com alimentação Oryza apresentaram maior ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento específico (SGR) e melhor taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR) em comparação com outros grupos que foram considerados significativos (P ≤ 0,05). Elevado ganho de peso líquido foi obtido em T4 quando comparado com T2 e T3. O valor da FCR de T4 foi menor que T1, mas maior que T2 e T3, que apresentaram os menores valores. A taxa de crescimento específico foi registrada como média em T4, mas T2 teve uma SGR alta do que T3. Da mesma forma, o nível de proteína bruta e a atividade das enzimas digestivas foram registrados significativamente mais altos nos peixes alimentados com Oryza (T1) em comparação com AMG (T2), Aqua (T3) e Supreme (T4). Os parâmetros de qualidade da água foram registrados como significativos em todos os tratamentos, exceto pH e OD do tratamento (T1), significativamente diferente dos demais tratamentos. Concluiu-se que Rohu (Labeo rohita) pode apresentar uma taxa de crescimento promissora e atividade da enzima protease quando alimentado com Oryza de 25% de proteína.

3.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 172-179, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999699

RESUMO

Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is the optimal reperfusion strategy in patients with ST elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). However, despite achieving TIMI 3 flow after PPCI, some patients have less optimal perfusion at the myocardial tissue level, as assessed by Myocardial Blush Grade (MBG) and consequently show adverse outcome. This prospective observational study was performed in the National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), Dhaka, Bangladesh from March 2016 to February 2017. Total 74 patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI and achieved TIMI 3 flow were included among them 37 patients were taken with low MBG (grade 0 or 1) in Group I and other 37 patients with high MBG (grade II or III) were taken in Group II. Mean age of Group I and Group II were 53.70±9.17 and 51.49±9.41 years respectively (p=0.536). Male to female ratio was 5.7:1. Smoking (59.5% versus 35.1%, p=0.036) and diabetes mellitus (43.2% versus 18.9%, p=0.024) were significantly higher in low MBG group than high MBG group. Multi vessel involvement (24.3% versus 5.4%, p=0.022) and anterior MI (72.9% versus 51.4%, p=0.047) were significantly higher in low MBG group. LVEF was significantly lower in low MBG group than high MBG group (49.92?6.60% versus 58.84?4.55%, p=0.003). Among the complications acute heart failure was found significantly higher in low MBG group than high MBG group (8.1% versus 0.0%, p=0.048) along with total adverse in hospital outcome (24.3% versus 5.4%, p=0.041). In study population total mortality was 2.7% and all were in low MBG group (5.4%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed MBG was an independent predictor of adverse in hospital outcome after PPCI (OR 6.553, 95% CI 1.984-21.643, p=0.002). Low MBG is associated with more adverse in hospital outcome after PPCI. So, along with TIMI 3 flow following PPCI we have to assess MBG for evaluation of complete reperfusion and further outcome.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Angiografia Coronária , Circulação Coronária , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(21): 213602, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34860081

RESUMO

Einstein described the damping and thermalization of the center-of-mass motion of a mirror placed inside a blackbody cavity by collisions with thermal photons. While the time for damping even a microscale or nanoscale object is so long that it is not experimentally viable, we show that this damping is feasible using the high-intensity light from an amplified thermal light source with a well-defined chemical potential. We predict this damping of the center-of-mass motion will occur on timescales of tens of seconds for small optomechanical systems.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e251733, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932632

RESUMO

Mining is vital for human sustenance and a crucial sector in the state economy. However, its impacts on the environment and biodiversity cannot be underestimated. Which are potent to the attract government's attention. Environment and wildlife are subject to the harmful impacts of mining and its related activities. In this study, districts, namely Mardan and Mohmand have been targeted with respect to mining impacts. The assessment was carried out on wildlife adversely affected by the mining sector. The fauna has been keenly observed to bring the calculated risks and threat perception of the regional wildlife. Total 9 species of mammals, 21 species of birds, were recorded in District Mardan. While in District Mohmand 2 species of mammals, 9 species of birds, and 4 species of reptiles were studied. The Study explored that mining primarily responsible for land degradation. Which lead to food and agriculture losses. Several other factors like blasting, pollution, hunting, deforestation, habitat loss was also observed. Deforestation surfaced one of the major causes for extinction of fauna in the said region. preemptive measures are needed to seize the man-made catastrophe.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Biodiversidade , Mineração , Animais , Humanos , Paquistão
6.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242897, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816975

RESUMO

Cyprinus carpio is the member of family cyprinidae commonly called common carp. This study was aimed to find out the comparison of brain of wild (river system) and captive (hatchery reared) population of common carp. A total of thirty samples (15 from hatchery and 15 from river Swat) were collected. All the specimens were examined in Laboratory of Parasitoloy, Zoology Department, University of Malakand. Findings indicated that wild population were greater in brain size and weight as compared to hatchery reared population. The fish samples collected from captive environment (hatchery) were showing more weight and length as compared to wild population of common carps. The mean value of total weight of hatchery fishes 345±48.68 and the mean value of brain weight of hatchery reared fishes 0.28±0.047. The mean value of wild fish's total body weight 195.16±52.58 and the mean value of brain weight of wild fishes are 0.45±0.14. Present research calls for the fact that fish in dependent environmental conditions possess brain larger in size as compared to its captive population, it is due to use and disuse of brain in their environmental requirements.


Assuntos
Carpas , Cyprinidae , Animais , Encéfalo , Rios
7.
J Adv Pharm Technol Res ; 12(4): 311-320, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820303

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 is a serious health threat around the globe. Across the world, approximately 142 million people were infected, and three million deaths happened. The fast propagation is also associated with constant anxiety, mental stress, and discomfort in public and health-care professionals. Lack of approved drugs regimen to combat the pandemic challenge concretely is a challenging project for all who are committed to developing remedial assistance. However, the successful development of three vaccines gives a solid roadmap to combat this disease. In this review, we highlighted the current development and challenges of this pandemic.

8.
J Pharm Sci ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808217

RESUMO

The present work is concerned with tailoring and appraisal of a novel nano-cargo; bilosomes (BLS) dual laded with doxylamine succinate (DAS) and pyridoxine hydrochloride (PDH), the first treatment option against gestational nausea and vomiting, for intranasal delivery. This bifunctional horizon could surmount constraints of orally-commercialized platforms both in dosage regimen and pharmacokinetic profile. For accomplishing this purpose, DAS/PDH-BLS were elaborated integrating phospholipid, sodium cholate and cholesterol applying thin-film hydration method based on Box-Behnken design. Utilizing Design-Expert® software, the effect of formulation variables on BLS physicochemical features alongside the optimal formulation selection were investigated. Then, the optimum DAS/PDH-BLS formulation was incorporated into a thermally-triggered in situ gelling base. The in vivo pharmacokinetic studies were explored in rats for intranasal DAS/PDH-BLS in situ gel compared with analogous intranasal free in situ gel and oral solution. The optimized BLS disclosed vesicle size of 243.23 nm, ζ potential of -31.33 mV, entrapment efficiency of 59.18 and 41.63%, accumulative % release within 8 h of 63.30 and 85.52% and accumulative permeated amount over 24 h of 347.92 and 195.4 µg/cm2 for DAS/PDH, respectively. Following intranasal administration of the inspected BLS in situ gel, pharmacokinetic studies revealed a 1.64- and 2.3-fold increment in the relative bioavailability of DAS and a 1.7- and 3.73-fold increase for PDH compared to the intranasal free in situ gel and oral solution, respectively besides significantly extended mean residence times for both drugs. Thus, the intranasally exploited DAS/PDH-BLS could be deemed as a promising hybrid nanoplatform with fruitful pharmacokinetics and tolerability traits.

9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833546

RESUMO

This paper shows the efficacy of a novel urban categorization framework based on deep learning, and a novel categorization method customized for cities in the global south. The proposed categorization method assesses urban space broadly on two dimensions-the states of urbanization and the architectural form of the units observed. This paper shows how the sixteen sub-categories can be used by state-of-the-art deep learning modules (fully convolutional network FCN-8, U-Net, and DeepLabv3+) to categorize formal and informal urban areas in seven urban cities in the developing world-Dhaka, Nairobi, Jakarta, Guangzhou, Mumbai, Cairo, and Lima. Firstly, an expert visually annotated and categorized 50 × 50 km Google Earth images of the cities. Each urban space was divided into four socioeconomic categories: (1) highly informal area; (2) moderately informal area; (3) moderately formal area, and (4) highly formal area. Then, three models mentioned above were used to categorize urban spaces. Image encompassing 70% of the urban space was used to train the models, and the remaining 30% was used for testing and validation of each city. The DeepLabv3+ model can segment the test part with an average accuracy of 90.0% for Dhaka, 91.5% for Nairobi, 94.75% for Jakarta, 82.0% for Guangzhou city, 94.25% for Mumbai, 91.75% for Cairo, and 96.75% for Lima. These results are the best for the DeepLabv3+ model among all. Thus, DeepLabv3+ shows an overall high accuracy level for most of the measuring parameters for all cities, making it highly scalable, readily usable to understand the cities' current conditions, forecast land use growth, and other computational modeling tasks. Therefore, the proposed categorization method is also suited for real-time socioeconomic comparative analysis among cities, making it an essential tool for the policymakers to plan future sustainable urban spaces.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Bangladesh , Cidades , Quênia , Urbanização
10.
Med J Malaysia ; 76(6): 933-936, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806690

RESUMO

Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is the commonest tachyarrhythmia among paediatric age group. Modified Valsalva manoeuvre can be attempted in a stable child. We discuss here a case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with stable SVT and iced towel was applied to his face to revert the tachyarrhythmia. This method was well tolerated by the child without any complications. The SVT was successfully reverted, and pictures were taken to capture the simple but effective method.

11.
J Adolesc Health ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756642

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to compare age-variant 18 health risk factors by constructing longitudinal predictive curves between African-American (AA) and Caucasian American (CA) adolescent girls. METHODS: A total of 2,379 girls (51% AA) from ages 9 to 10 were recruited in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. The various health indicators and dietary habits of these girls were assessed annually for 10 years. We model 2nd, 5th, 95th, and 98th percentile values of the health risk factors to compare trajectories between AA and CA adolescents by employing novel kernel smoothing regression and global tests of equality for regression curves. Health risk factors such as dietary fiber, intake of sodium, sugar, and total calories, systolic blood pressure, weight, body fat percentage, and high-density lipoprotein levels were compared. RESULTS: Trajectories of sugar, sodium, and total calories intake and systolic blood pressure, weight, body fat percentage, and high-density lipoprotein among AA girls were significantly higher than those of CA girls throughout their adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: AA girls exhibit several health risk factors that are significantly higher than those of CA adolescent girls at the 95th and 98th percentile. Interventions may be warranted for the purposes of ensuring access to health risk information as well as a greater ease of access to healthier food choices within the educational food system.

12.
J Adv Vet Anim Res ; 8(3): 367-369, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722734

RESUMO

Many countries of the world have been combating the new variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Black fungus is an opportunistic foe that may cause fatal infection in immunocompromised and steroid-treated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM) is now a serious concern throughout the world, including many Asian countries. Therefore, along with early and accurate diagnostic facilities, special care, and prompt, but coordinated approach are recommended to combat the CAM in patients.

13.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 1139-1145, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605488

RESUMO

COVID-19 is the devastating pandemic of the century predominantly fatal due to its respiratory failure nature. Severe and critical patients need oxygen supplementation in different forms. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four tertiary hospitals of Sylhet, Bangladesh from November 2020 to March 2021. All the patients admitted in the COVID-19 isolation units and fulfill the selection criterion were enrolled in this study. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate different types of respiratory supports and its relationship with initial oxygen saturation (SpO2). Total 481 patients were enrolled. There was a male predominance (65.00%) in the participants. Highest number of participants was from 61-70 years age group. Number of ventilated patients were significantly high (p<0.001) in the COVID-19 patient group. The initial SpO2 and hospital staying period of COVID-19 positive and negative group did not show any significant difference but these two parameters showed significant difference among died and survived group (p<0.001). Nearly one fourth patients (24.94%) of total patients were treated in ICU with high flow nasal cannula (HFNC), non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and mechanical ventilation. Among the ICU admitted patients nearly one-fourth (24.16%) patients were treated with mechanical ventilation. Mortality rate was 62.00% for ventilated patients, 70.60% for NIV patients and 15.80% for the HFNC patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Insuficiência Respiratória , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Oxigênio , Oxigenoterapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250402, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614125

RESUMO

We have evaluated the effects of different fish feeds on the body composition, growth, and enzyme activities of Labeo rohita (Rohu). In total, 240 fishes between the average weights of 24.77±2.15g were studied. The treatments were applied in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments of 60 fishes each. Treatments consisted of four different fish feeds [Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4)]. Body composition, growth performance, and enzyme activities were evaluated. There was a significant variation in performance of fishes fed with different type of feed; as fishes having Oryza feed showed the highest weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and best feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared to other groups that were considered to be significant (P ≤ 0.05). High net weight gain was obtained in T4 when compared with T2 and T3. FCR value of T4 was less than T1 but higher than T2, T3 and T2, which showed the lowest values. The specific growth rate was recorded as average in T4, but T2 led a high SGR than T3. Similarly, crude protein level and digestive enzymes activity was recorded significantly highest in fed with Oryza (T1) as compared to AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4). Water quality parameters were recorded significant in all treatments except pH and DO of treatment (T1), significantly different from other treatments. It was concluded that Rohu (Labeo rohita) could show a promising growth rate and protease enzyme activity when fed with the Oryza feed of 25% protein.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Peixes , Animais
15.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 12(5): 589-596, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delayed sternal closure (DSC) has been used for patients who develop bleeding, chest wall edema, and malignant arrhythmia following cardiopulmonary bypass. Multiple factors can influence the timing of when to perform DSC. We aimed to describe our DSC experience in neonates and infants by comparing outcomes between patients undergoing early (<48 hours) versus late DSC (> 48 hours). We explored the associations between specific clinical and laboratory variables and the timing of DSC. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of neonates and infants (

16.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e051701, 2021 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706956

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The burden of malnutrition is widely evaluated in Bangladesh in different contexts. However, most of them determine the influence of sociodemographic factors, which have limited scope for modification and design intervention. This study attempted to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity and their modifiable lifestyle predictors in a rural population of Bangladesh. METHODS: This study was part of a cross-sectional study that applied the WHO Package of Essential Noncommunicable Disease Interventions in a rural area of Bangladesh to assess the burden of diabetes, hypertension and their associated risk factors. Census was used as the sampling technique. Anthropometric measurement and data on sociodemographic characteristics and behavioural risk factors were collected following the standard protocol described in the WHO STEP-wise approach. Analysis included means of continuous variables and multinomial regression of factors. RESULTS: The mean body mass index of the study population was 21.9 kg/m2. About 20.9% were underweight, 16.4% were overweight and 3.5% were obese. Underweight was most predominant among people above 60 years, while overweight and obesity were predominant among people between 31 and 40 years. Higher overweight and obesity were noted among women. Employment, consumption of added salt and inactivity increased the odds of being underweight by 0.32, 0.33 and 0.14, respectively. On the other hand, the odds of being overweight or obese increased by 0.58, 0.55, 0.78, 0.21 and 0.25 if a respondent was female, literate, married, housewife and consumed red meat, and decreased by 0.38 and 0.18 if a respondent consumed added salt and inadequate amounts of fruits and vegetables, respectively. Consumption of added salt decreases the odds of being overweight or obese by 0.37. CONCLUSION: The study emphasised malnutrition to be a public health concern in spite of the dynamic sociodemographic scenario. Specific health messages for targeted population may help improve the nutritional status. Findings from further explorations may support policies and programmes in the future.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Magreza/epidemiologia
17.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250296, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669804

RESUMO

The current study aimed to determine the effects of different levels of Zingiber officinale as a herbal feed additive on growth performance, carcass characteristic, serum biochemistry, total bacterial count (TBC), gut morphology, and immunological parameters of broilers. A total of 1500, day-old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were equally accredited to five treatment groups, each with six replicates (50 birds/replicate). Five experimental diets were prepared using basal diet i.e. with antibiotics positive control (PC), 3 g/kg ginger (group A), 6 g/kg ginger (group B), 9 g/kg ginger (group C) and without antibiotics negative control (NC). Group A and C showed significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake (FI) as compared to other groups. Group C showed significantly (p<0.05) lower Total bacterial count (TBC) followed by group B as compared to NC. Carcass characteristics showed non-significant effects among different treatments. Mean villi length and width were significantly (p <0.05) higher in all ginger supplemented groups as compared to the control groups. Blood serum parameters including cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were significantly (p<0.05) lower in groups B and C in comparison with the control groups. Whereas high-density lipoproteins (HDL) was significantly higher in group B as compared to the others. In conclusion, ginger supplementation @0.6% in the basal diet significantly improved growth performance and gut morphometry of broilers. It also showed a positive impact on cholesterol, triglycerides and gut microbes. Therefore, ginger could be a better substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.


Assuntos
Gengibre , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais
18.
NPJ Digit Med ; 4(1): 133, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504281

RESUMO

Heterogeneous patient populations, complex pharmacology and low recruitment rates in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) have led to the failure of many clinical trials. Recently, machine learning (ML) emerged as a new technology to process and identify big data relationships, enabling a new era in clinical trial design. In this study, we designed a ML model for predictively stratifying acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients, ultimately reducing the required number of patients by increasing statistical power through cohort homogeneity. From the Philips eICU Research Institute (eRI) database, no less than 51,555 ARDS patients were extracted. We defined three subpopulations by outcome: (1) rapid death, (2) spontaneous recovery, and (3) long-stay patients. A retrospective univariate analysis identified highly predictive variables for each outcome. All 220 variables were used to determine the most accurate and generalizable model to predict long-stay patients. Multiclass gradient boosting was identified as the best-performing ML model. Whereas alterations in pH, bicarbonate or lactate proved to be strong predictors for rapid death in the univariate analysis, only the multivariate ML model was able to reliably differentiate the disease course of the long-stay outcome population (AUC of 0.77). We demonstrate the feasibility of prospective patient stratification using ML algorithms in the by far largest ARDS cohort reported to date. Our algorithm can identify patients with sufficiently long ARDS episodes to allow time for patients to respond to therapy, increasing statistical power. Further, early enrollment alerts may increase recruitment rate.

19.
J Sch Health ; 91(11): 936-947, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children are expected to adhere to the recommended physical activity (PA) dose of 60 minutes per day and minimize sedentary behaviors (SB) to stray away from the cardio-metabolic disease risk. However, there is a lack of review of current evidence pointing to the negative physical health effects of the Covid-19 lockdown, with its barriers and facilitators for effective PA implementation in children aged 3 to 13. METHODS: Two independent authors conducted an extensive search on five peer-reviewed journal databases for the studies examining changes in PA or SB in children and the potential barriers during Covid-19 lockdown. RESULTS: Of 1039 studies initially screened, only 14 studies were included. Ninety-three percent of the studies were cross-sectional surveys. A 34% reduction in PA was noted while SB, including screen time, increased by 82%. Our review identified potential barriers to the effective implementation of PA behaviors in children at four levels: individual, family, school, and government policies. CONCLUSIONS: A moderate reduction in PA and high SB in children during lockdown was linked with obstacles at the individual, family, school, and political levels. Stakeholders should consider the above barriers when designing and implementing interventions to address low PA and SB practices.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Cureus ; 13(8): e16859, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513436

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a term that encompasses conditions characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). It includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Major scientific organizations interested in gastrointestinal systems or GIT-focused organizations worldwide release guidelines for diagnosing, classifying, managing, and treating IBD. However, there are subtle differences among each of these guidelines. This review evaluates four evidence-based guidelines in the management of IBD and seeks to highlight the differences and similarities between them. The main differences in the evaluated guidelines were in diagnosis and treatment recommendations. The diagnosing recommendations were comparable amongst the four guidelines; however, some were more specific about limiting the number of interventions necessary to confirm a diagnosis. Regarding treatment options, each guideline had clear suggestions about what was considered ideal. Although the treatment options were identical, the main differences existed in the recommended diets and initial therapy in patients with moderate disease. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) recommend evidence-based practice from opinion leaders in clinical decision-making. Rather than dictating a one-size-fits-all approach in IBD management, reviewing various guidelines can enhance the cross-pollination of ideas amongst clinicians to improve decision-making. Clearly describing and appraising evidence-based reasoning for scientific recommendations remain driving factors for quality patient care. The effectiveness of CPGs in improving health and the complexities of their formation requires constant review to maximize constructive criticisms and explore possible improvements.

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