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1.
Curr Drug Targets ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636297

RESUMO

Coronaviruses have been receiving continuous attention worldwide as they have caused a serious threat to global public health. This group of viruses is named so as they exhibit characteristic crown-like spikes on their protein coat. SARS-CoV-2, a type of coronavirus that emerged in 2019, causes severe infection in the lower respiratory tract of humans and is often fatal in immunocompromised individuals. No medications have been approved so far for the direct treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the currently available treatment options rely on relieving the symptoms. The medicinal plants occurring in nature serve as a rich source of active ingredients that could be utilized for developing pharmacopeial and non-pharmacopeial/synthetic drugs with antiviral properties. Compounds obtained from certain plants have been used for directly and selectively inhibiting different coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. The present review discusses the potential natural inhibitors against the highly pathogenic human coronaviruses, with a systematic elaboration on the possible mechanisms of action of these natural compounds while acting in the different stages of the life cycle of coronaviruses. Moreover, through a comprehensive exploration of the existing literature in this regard, the importance of such compounds in the research and development of effective and safe antiviral agents is discussed. We focused on the mechanism of action of several natural compounds along with their target of action. In addition, the immunomodulatory effects of these active components in the context of human health are elucidated. Finally, it is suggested that the use of traditional medicinal plants is a novel and feasible remedial strategy against human coronaviruses.

2.
Curr Mol Pharmacol ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488602

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD), a major form of dementia, has been reported to affect more than 50 million people worldwide. It is characterized by the presence of amyloid-ß (Aß) plaques and hyperphosphorylated Tau-associated neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Apart from AD, microtubule (MT)-associated protein Tau is also involved in other neurodegenerative diseases called tauopathies, including Pick's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration. The recently unsuccessful phase III clinical trials related to Aß-targeted therapeutic drugs indicated that alternative targets, such as Tau, should be studied to discover more effective and safer drugs. Recent drug discovery approaches to reduce AD-related Tau pathologies are primarily based on blocking Tau aggregation, inhibiting Tau phosphorylation, compensating impaired Tau function with MT-stabilizing agents, and targeting the degradation pathways in neuronal cells to degrade Tau protein aggregates. Owing to several limitations of the currently-available Tau-directed drugs, further studies are required to generate further effective and safer Tau-based disease-modifying drugs. Here, we review the studies that focused on medicinal plant-derived compounds capable of modulating the Tau protein, which is significantly elevated and hyperphosphorylated in AD and other tauopathies. We mainly considered the studies that focused on Tau protein as a therapeutic target. We reviewed several pertinent papers retrieved from PubMed and ScienceDirect using relevant keywords, with a primary focus on the Tau-targeting compounds from medicinal plants. These compounds include indolines, phenolics, flavonoids, coumarins, alkaloids, and iridoids, which have been scientifically proven to be Tau-targeting candidates for the treatment of AD.

3.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(12): 8466-8476, 2021 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35005922

RESUMO

Opportunistic skin pathogens and their resistance to pre-existing therapeutics are a challenge to normal physiological wound healing processes. Consistent development of antimicrobial agents is required to overcome the complications raised by antimicrobial resistance. An effective alternative proposed in recent research includes the use of antimicrobial nanoparticles or nanobiopolymers. Unfortunately, metallic nanoparticles that have been proven as antimicrobial agents also possess a certain level of toxicity. In this work, we demonstrate the use of a cationic polymer, branched polyethyleneimine (B-PEI), that has been electrospun to obtain a scaffold/fiber (B-PEI NF) mat resulting in a large surface area-to-volume ratio. SEM analysis revealed that the average diameter of the obtained fibers is 240 nm. The formation of nanoscaffold modulates the controlled release of the polymer from the matrix resulting in long-term effects. The antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of the B-PEI nanofiber (B-PEI NF) was evaluated against ESKAPE pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) and also against Candida albicans. Dose-dependent inhibition was observed for microbial growth and biofilm for all three test organisms, the minimum inhibitory concentration required for inhibiting P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and C. albicans is 33.125, 26.5, and 19.875 µM, respectively, in 2 mL of bacterial/fungal broth. Crystal violet and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays showed significant reduction in biomass and cell viability of sessile cells, respectively, within the biofilm after treatment using B-PEI NFs. A B-PEI NF matrix promotes cell migration and wound healing processes by mimicking the extracellular matrix. In vitro wound healing studies showed a fivefold increase in cell migration and wound healing by B-PEI NFs (97% wound coverage in 17 h) when compared to B-PEI (15% wound coverage in 17 h). The in vitro wound healing assays confirmed the biocompatibility and better wound healing activity of B-PEI NF mats.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Nanofibras , Antibacterianos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Candida albicans , Nanofibras/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoimina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Cicatrização
4.
Vet World ; 13(3): 465-470, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease that affects fertility in farm animals. The risk factors of brucellosis have not been well studied. This study aimed to understand the seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis among livestock in Bangriposi block of Mayurbhanj district in Odisha, a region that borders Similipal wildlife reserve. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) was carried out to estimate the seroprevalence of the livestock in this region. Bivariate analysis was carried out to analyze the association between the variables and brucellosis. Binary logistic regression was performed to assess the risk factors associated with brucellosis in the livestock. RESULTS: Based on RBPT, the seroprevalence of brucellosis among cattle and goats was estimated to be 1.1% and 11.2%, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis indicates that study area, age, goats, animals with a history of abortion, and rearing practices were the major risk factors in this region. CONCLUSION: This is one of the first studies in India to shed light on risk factors of brucellosis, an important neglected disease that affects the health of animals and humans and nation's economy.

5.
Curr Drug Targets ; 21(2): 105-124, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538891

RESUMO

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses associated with chronic diseases in humans are major threats to public health causing high mortality globally. The high mutation rate of RNA viruses helps them to escape the immune response and also is responsible for the development of drug resistance. Chronic infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis viruses (HBV and HCV) lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and hepatocellular carcinoma respectively, which are one of the major causes of human deaths. Effective preventative measures to limit chronic and re-emerging viral infections are absolutely necessary. Each class of antiviral agents targets a specific stage in the viral life cycle and inhibits them from its development and proliferation. Most often, antiviral drugs target a specific viral protein, therefore only a few broad-spectrum drugs are available. This review will be focused on the selected viral target proteins of pathogenic viruses containing single-stranded (ss) RNA genome that causes chronic infections in humans (e.g. HIV, HCV, Flaviviruses). In the recent past, an exponential increase in the number of available three-dimensional protein structures (>150000 in Protein Data Bank), allowed us to better understand the molecular mechanism of action of protein targets and antivirals. Advancements in the in silico approaches paved the way to design and develop several novels, highly specific small-molecule inhibitors targeting the viral proteins.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Proteínas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Virais/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 10: 5237-47, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26316752

RESUMO

Over the last three decades, phage display technology has been used for the display of target-specific biomarkers, peptides, antibodies, etc. Phage display-based assays are mostly limited to the phage ELISA, which is notorious for its high background signal and laborious methodology. These problems have been recently overcome by designing a dual-display phage with two different end functionalities, namely, streptavidin (STV)-binding protein at one end and a rheumatoid arthritis-specific autoantigenic target at the other end. Using this dual-display phage, a much higher sensitivity in screening specificities of autoantibodies in complex serum sample has been detected compared to single-display phage system on phage ELISA. Herein, we aimed to develop a novel, rapid, and sensitive dual-display phage to detect autoantibodies presence in serum samples using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring as a sensing platform. The vertical functionalization of the phage over the STV-modified surfaces resulted in clear frequency and dissipation shifts revealing a well-defined viscoelastic signature. Screening for autoantibodies using antihuman IgG-modified surfaces and the dual-display phage with STV magnetic bead complexes allowed to isolate the target entities from complex mixtures and to achieve a large response as compared to negative control samples. This novel dual-display strategy can be a potential alternative to the time consuming phage ELISA protocols for the qualitative analysis of serum autoantibodies and can be taken as a departure point to ultimately achieve a point of care diagnostic system.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/química , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Técnicas de Microbalança de Cristal de Quartzo , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Bacteriófagos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/química , Peptídeos , Ligação Proteica , Estreptavidina/química , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
7.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 98(14): 6365-73, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24764015

RESUMO

M13 filamentous bacteriophage has been used in displaying disease-specific antibodies, biomarkers, and peptides. One of the major drawbacks of using phage in diagnostic assays is the aspecific adsorption of proteins leading to a high background signal and decreasing sensitivity. To deal with this, we developed a genetically pure, exchangeable dual-display phage system in which biomarkers and streptavidin-binding protein (SBP) are displayed at opposite ends of the phage. This approach allows for sample purification, using streptavidin-coated magnetic beads resulting in a higher sensitivity of signal detection assays. Our dual-display cassette system approach also allows for easy exchange of both the anchor protein (SBP) and the displayed biomarker. The presented principle is applied for the detection of antibody reactivity against UH-RA.21 which is a good candidate biomarker for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The applicability of dual-display phage preparation using a helper plasmid system is demonstrated, and its increased sensitivity in phage ELISA assays using patient serum samples is shown.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Técnicas de Visualização da Superfície Celular/métodos , Inovirus/genética , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Soro/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Humanos , Plasmídeos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(6): 804-7, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24037206

RESUMO

Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is a prerequisite for electrochemical sensor-based detection of parasite DNA and other diagnostic applications. To achieve this detection, an asymmetric polymerase chain reaction method was optimised. This method facilitates amplification of ssDNA from the human lymphatic filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti. This procedure produced ssDNA fragments of 188 bp in a single step when primer pairs (forward and reverse) were used at a 100:1 molar ratio in the presence of double-stranded template DNA. The ssDNA thus produced was suitable for immobilisation as probe onto the surface of an Indium tin oxide electrode and hybridisation in a system for sequence-specific electrochemical detection of W. bancrofti. The hybridisation of the ssDNA probe and target ssDNA led to considerable decreases in both the anodic and the cathodic currents of the system's redox couple compared with the unhybridised DNA and could be detected via cyclic voltammetry. This method is reproducible and avoids many of the difficulties encountered by conventional methods of filarial parasite DNA detection; thus, it has potential in xenomonitoring.


Assuntos
DNA de Cadeia Simples , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/normas , Wuchereria bancrofti/genética , Animais , Sondas de DNA , Sondas de Oligonucleotídeos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Wuchereria bancrofti/isolamento & purificação
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