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1.
Recent Pat Nanotechnol ; 6(2): 99-104, 2012 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22292609

RESUMO

This article reviews the latest developments in the synthesis of Graphene, Carbon nanotubes and graphene/CNT based devices based on patents, patent applications and articles published in the last two years. A brief introduction about CNT and Graphene is presented, followed by the latest techniques and advanced processing for the large scale synthesis of Graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, a brief account of emerging devices based on applications of CNTs and graphene not limited to sensors, high speed electronics, energy harvesting and storage applications are presented.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Eletrônica , Grafite/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Patentes como Assunto
2.
Mol Cell Biol ; 21(16): 5512-9, 2001 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11463833

RESUMO

Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), the loss of mRNAs carrying premature stop codons, is a process by which cells recognize and degrade nonsense mRNAs to prevent possibly toxic effects of truncated peptides. Most mammalian nonsense mRNAs are degraded while associated with the nucleus, but a few are degraded in the cytoplasm; at either site, there is a requirement for translation and for an intron downstream of the early stop codon. We have examined the NMD of a mutant HEXA message in lymphoblasts derived from a Tay-Sachs disease patient homozygous for the common frameshift mutation 1278ins4. The mutant mRNA was nearly undetectable in these cells and increased to approximately 40% of normal in the presence of the translation inhibitor cycloheximide. The stabilized transcript was found in the cytoplasm in association with polysomes. Within 5 h of cycloheximide removal, the polysome-associated nonsense message was completely degraded, while the normal message was stable. The increased lability of the polysome-associated mutant HEXA mRNA shows that NMD of this endogenous mRNA occurred in the cytoplasm. Transfection of Chinese hamster ovary cells showed that expression of an intronless HEXA minigene harboring the frameshift mutation or a closely located nonsense codon resulted in half the normal mRNA level. Inclusion of multiple downstream introns decreased the abundance further, to about 20% of normal. Thus, in contrast to other systems, introns are not absolutely required for NMD of HEXA mRNA, although they enhance the low-HEXA-mRNA phenotype.


Assuntos
RNA Mensageiro/genética , Cadeia alfa da beta-Hexosaminidase/genética , Linhagem Celular , Códon de Terminação/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Doença de Tay-Sachs/genética
3.
J Biol Chem ; 273(15): 8971-4, 1998 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9535882

RESUMO

Vaults are 13-MDa ribonucleoprotein particles composed largely of a 104-kDa protein, termed major vault protein or MVP, and a small vault RNA, vRNA. While MVP levels have been found to increase up to 15-fold in non-P-glycoprotein multidrug-resistant cell lines, the levels of vault particles have not been investigated. As both the function of vault particles and the mechanism of drug resistance in non-P-glycoprotein cells are unknown, we decided to determine whether vault synthesis was coupled to MDR. By cloning the human gene for vRNA and careful quantitation of the MVP and vRNA levels in MDR cells, we find that vRNA is in considerable excess to MVP. Sedimentation measurements of vault particles in multidrug resistance cells have indeed revealed up to a 15-fold increase in vault synthesis, coupled with a comparable shift of associated vRNA, demonstrating that vault formation is limited by expression of MVP or the minor vault proteins. The observation that vault synthesis is linked directly to multidrug resistance supports a direct role for vaults in drug resistance.


Assuntos
Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , RNA/biossíntese , Ribonucleoproteínas/biossíntese , Transcrição Genética , Partículas de Ribonucleoproteínas em Forma de Abóbada , Sequência de Bases , Neoplasias da Mama , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas , Clonagem de Organismos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mieloma Múltiplo , RNA/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
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