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2.
Data Brief ; 32: 106111, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32904423

RESUMO

Data examines the effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) HPMC15 cP, and HPMC 5 cP polymer composition on the physicochemical traits of encapsulated oil made using lab scale spray drying (180 °C). The data found showed that the properties of the reconstituted fish oil powder are significantly affected by the polymer's composition and ratio (p < 0.05). In this experiment, powder with the particle sizes below 60 µm was produced and it was observed that HPMC is a good emulsifier for all formulations and the encapsulation efficiency is high with 75.21% for AF1 formulation. It was also observed that the process of fish oil encapsulation employed by HPMC 5 cP produce a more volatile oil powder, while encapsulation with HPMC 15 cP produced a more stable fish oil powder. These finding shows that the utilisation of HPMC as a polymer to encapsulate fish oil can produce a more efficient and stable compound.

3.
Mymensingh Med J ; 28(4): 887-893, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599256

RESUMO

Severe malnutrition is an important cause of death in children. According to new WHO-growth chart 2006, the proportion of children with severe wasting is 3.1% thus the total number being 4, 65000 (BDHS 2014). Overall risk of death among children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is 9 times more than well nourished children. The death rate among hospitalized children of SAM was as high as 15%. Once properly treated, severely malnourished children would grow up leading a normal life. Severe malnutrition in children can be successfully treated by using WHO guidelines that have been shown to be feasible and sustainable even in small district hospital with limited resources. A randomized controlled trial was conducted at department of Pediatrics, Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2014 to September 2015. The trial enrolled 92 SAM patients (46 cases + 46 controls) aged 06 months to 59 months of either sex who meet the inclusion criteria consecutively. Enrolled children were randomized by lottery method into two groups, Group I and Group II. Patients in Group I was treated with F-75 and F-100 recipes and managed in two phases, initial stabilization phase with F-75 recipes then subsequently rehabilitation phase by F-100 recipes. Patients in Group II was treated with prepackaged F-75 & F-100 formulae and feeding was given in two phases i.e. initial stabilization phase and subsequently rehabilitation phase according to national guidelines for the management of severe malnourished children. Then play therapy was given for half an hour daily with red colored toy in Ashic play centre Dhaka Medical College Hospital for patients of both groups. The time (days) taken to return of appetite (mean±SD) was 5.1±1.16 and 4.8±1.34 in Group I and Group II respectively, disappearance of edema (mean±SD) 4.8±1.53 in and 4.9±1.05 for Group I Group II respectively, to gain target weight (mean±SD) 13.8±2.20 days and 13.5±1.74 days in Group I and Group II respectively, rate of weight gain (mean±SD) 17.70±7.07gm/kg/day for Group I and 16.20±4.63gm/kg/day for Group II. The side effects, diarrhea was equal in both group, vomiting was more in Group II, combined diarrhea and vomiting was more in Group I but the differences were not statistically significant. The treatment cost (mean±SD) was higher in Group II (97.2±78.24 BDT/child/day) than in Group I (58.5±54.36 BDT/child/day). Return of appetite and disappearance of oedema and target weight gain were similar in both groups but treatment cost was higher in Group II than Group I, which was statistically significant.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/terapia , Bangladesh , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia , Humanos , Lactente , Ganho de Peso
4.
Mymensingh Med J ; 28(3): 497-502, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391417

RESUMO

Perinatal asphyxia is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in developing countries. A significant portion of patient with perinatal asphyxia is admitted with complications. Cerebral complications are the most devastating and the child may be left with lifelong neurological impairment. Therefore, the high index of suspicion, prompt recognition and thorough understanding of common sonographic abnormalities are necessary to ensure timely intervention, management and counseling. A hospital based case control study was conducted in the neonatal unit of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Study period was six months (June 2012 to December 2012). This study was done to compare the ultra sonogram of brain findings of admitted asphyxiated babies with admitted non-asphyxiated babies. A total of 30 asphyxiated (case) and another 30 non-asphyxiated (control) neonate of this department were enrolled in the study. Necessary information was collected by taking detailed history, clinical examination and also close follow up of the neonates according to pre-designed questionnaire. The main outcome variable was abnormality in cranial ultrasound. Among case group (30 neonates), ultrasonogram of brain findings were abnormal in 9(30.0%) cases. Among them most common was ventricular dilatation 5(16.6%), followed by Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) 1(3.0%), intracranial hemorrhage 1(3.0%), HIE 1(3.0%) and cerebral edema in 1(3.0%) cases. On the contrarary, among asphyxiated control group all 30 cases had normal ultra sonogram of brain. In case group 22 babies had normal birth weight and 08 had low birth weight. Among the 22 normal birth weight neonates in case group total 6(27.2%) cases had abnormal ultra sonogram findings. Among normal birth weight cases 3(13.6%) had ventricular dilatation, 1(4.5%) Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), 1(4.5%) HIE, 1(4.5%) cerebral edema. Among 08 low birth weight neonates in case group total 3(37.5%) cases had abnormal ultrasonogram of brain finding. Among low birth weight cases 2(25%) had ventricular dilatation, 1(12.5%) IVH. Ultrasonogram brain findings difference between two groups was statistically significant. Abnormal findings were also common in low birth weight babies than normal birth weight babies. So, early detection of abnormal brain changes can help us for proper management and counseling.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal , Encéfalo , Asfixia Neonatal/diagnóstico , Bangladesh , Encéfalo/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
5.
Mymensingh Med J ; 28(1): 70-75, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755553

RESUMO

Beta thalassaemia trait is one of the most common forms of thalassaemia in Bangladesh. This clinical entity usually remains undiagnosed because they present with mild anaemia or sometimes no anaemia. Determination of trait is the mainstay of prevention of thalassaemia. RBC indices can provide valuable diagnostic tool for beta thalassaemia trait. This was a hospital based cross-sectional, analytical study, done at Department of Paediatrics, Rangpur Medical College Hospital, Rangpur, Bangladesh from July 2014 to June 2016. A total of 150 anaemic children, aged 1-15 years from inpatient and outpatient department were included by purposive sampling. Blood samples were collected and sent to the Department of Biochemistry, Rangpur Medical College to determine the value of RBC indices. Out of 150 anaemic children 37(24.66%) children were diagnosed as E-trait, 9(9%) E-disease 6(4%) as E-Beta thalassaemia, 1(0.66%) had error in the report, a total of 53 children were excluded from the study. Finally, 32(21.3%) children, diagnosed as beta thalassaemia trait and 65(43.33%) children, diagnosed as normal Hb variant, so a total of 97 children were enrolled in this study. Age of the children was 1-15 years. Their mean age was 6.4 years. Male female ratio was 1.15:1. There was significant difference of HbA2 between BTT and non BTT group of participants (p value <0.001). Value of MCV and MCH were significantly greater in BTT than non BTT group (p value <0.05). Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive predictive value, Negative predictive value and Youden index of MCV were 81.25%, 90.76%, 81%, 90% and 71 respectively. Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive predictive value, Negative predictive value and Youden index of MCH were 84.37%, 92.30%, 84%, 92% and 76 respectively.


Assuntos
Índices de Eritrócitos , Talassemia beta/sangue , Adolescente , Bangladesh , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30123795

RESUMO

The purpose of this article is to provide information on the history, accomplishments, and future direction of the Bt brinjal (eggplant) program in Bangladesh, formerly under the Agricultural Biotechnology Support Project II, now the South Asia Eggplant Improvement Partnership (SAEIP). The India-based Maharashtra Hybrid Seed Company (Mahyco) developed an eggplant expressing Cry1Ac (EE-1) for control of the eggplant fruit and shoot borer (EFSB). In a partnership among Mahyco, USAID, Sathguru Management Consultants and Cornell University EE-1 was provided to the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) who bred it into local varieties. After regulatory approval, four varieties were distributed to 20 farmers who harvested Bt brinjal in 2014. Adoption in subsequent years has increased rapidly so that, in 2018, 27,012 farmers used this technology. This article provides background information on the process leading up to current adoption levels, the level of control of EFSB achieved and the economic benefits of Bt brinjal. Efforts on stewardship, farmer training and communication are discussed. In order to ensure the long-term future of the partnership, we discuss the need to enhance involvement of the private sector in the production and stewardship of Bt eggplant. Bt brinjal is the first genetically engineered crop to be commercially released in Bangladesh, and other GE crops are in the pipeline. Hence, success of the Bt brinjal partnership is likely to affect the future of other GE crops in Bangladesh, as well as other parts of the world where biotechnology is needed for food security and environmental safety.

8.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 102(2): e948-e956, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29327786

RESUMO

Thyroid hormones (THs) are involved in the development of lymphoid organs and regulation of immune function in birds. However, their role as an immune-modulator in the hyperthyroid state is still debatable. To explore the interrelationship of thyroxine (T4 ) and the immune system, chicks were divided into three groups. Group I was comprised of control birds, who received the basal diet while group II and III were given diets supplemented with 5 µg and 10 µg thyroxine/kg feed, respectively, from 15 to 28 days of age. Cell-mediated immune response was evaluated through in vitro abdominal macrophage phagocytosis assay, macrophage nitric oxide (NO) production, heterophil-to-lymphocyte (H:L) ratio and delayed-type hypersensitivity response against phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Humoural immune response was assessed through serum IgG and IgM antibody production against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) and antibody production against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Sampling was carried out at 7, 14 and 21 days of treatment. Results have shown higher levels (p < .001) of circulating T4 in both treatment groups compared to the control group. There was a lower (p < .05) macrophage engulfment percentage, an increase in H:L ratio (p < .001) in treated birds, while their NO production remained higher (p < .05) in thyroxine supplemented groups after bacterial lipopolysaccharide stimulation. The humoural immune response revealed a significant decline (p < .001) in IgG, IgM antibody production against SRBCs but IBV circulating antibodies increased with age. In conclusion, hyperthyroidism has a strong co-relation with decreased immune performance of birds.


Assuntos
Hipertireoidismo/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Anticorpos/imunologia , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Galinhas , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Hipertireoidismo/induzido quimicamente , Macrófagos Peritoneais/fisiologia , Masculino , Fito-Hemaglutininas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Ovinos , Ganho de Peso
9.
Appl Bionics Biomech ; 2017: 6848014, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28894351

RESUMO

Electroencephalographic signal is a representative signal that contains information about brain activity, which is used for the detection of epilepsy since epileptic seizures are caused by a disturbance in the electrophysiological activity of the brain. The prediction of epileptic seizure usually requires a detailed and experienced analysis of EEG. In this paper, we have introduced a statistical analysis of EEG signal that is capable of recognizing epileptic seizure with a high degree of accuracy and helps to provide automatic detection of epileptic seizure for different ages of epilepsy. To accomplish the target research, we extract various epileptic features namely approximate entropy (ApEn), standard deviation (SD), standard error (SE), modified mean absolute value (MMAV), roll-off (R), and zero crossing (ZC) from the epileptic signal. The k-nearest neighbours (k-NN) algorithm is used for the classification of epilepsy then regression analysis is used for the prediction of the epilepsy level at different ages of the patients. Using the statistical parameters and regression analysis, a prototype mathematical model is proposed which helps to find the epileptic randomness with respect to the age of different subjects. The accuracy of this prototype equation depends on proper analysis of the dynamic information from the epileptic EEG.

10.
Mymensingh Med J ; 26(2): 351-355, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28588172

RESUMO

Worldwide primary angioplasty is a recommended strategy of reperfusion in patient with acute myocardial infarction as because it ensures reperfusion of the infarct-related vessels more than 90% whereas, with thrombolytics it is only 60-70%. This retrospective observational study includes all patients treated with primary angioplasty at United Hospital from Between March 2007 to January 2011. Total 114 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction were treated with primary angioplasty included. Those presented beyond 12 hours of onset of chest pain, in cardiogenic shock, resuscitate and intubated before the procedure were excluded from the study. Majority (89%) of the patient were male, age was minimum 30 years and maximum 90 years, 41.5% were diabetics, 58.4% were hypertensive, 43.5% were dyslipidaemic, 17% were smoker, 29.3% with positive family history. Fifty seven percent patients presented with anterior MI , 42 % with inferior MI and 1% with lateral MI. Left anterior descending (LAD) is the most common vessel involved (57%), followed by Right coronary artery (RCA) 31%, Left circumflex artery (LCX) 8 %, Ramus 1.3% and Graft vessel 2.7%. Our door to balloon time was minimum 23 min, maximum 184 min. We used drug eluting stents for most of the patients, GP IIb- IIIa receptor blockers used in 50% cases and thrombus suction device were used when indicated. We faced complications like arrhythmias in 24%, hypotension in18%, no flow or slow flow in 45%, cardiac arrest in 3% and coronary perforation in 1%. Our overall survival was 97.9%. Primary angioplasty is an emerging area in context of our country. Many of the new centers start this novel strategy which helps to save many lives Primary angioplasty is feasible and safe method of reperfusion in patient with acute myocardial infarction in our center. With the help of our initial experience we can perform PAMI with confidence to those who can afford and who need most.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Choque Cardiogênico , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
BMC Biol ; 15(1): 28, 2017 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28385155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most agronomic traits in rice are complex and polygenic. The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for grain length is an important objective of rice genetic research and breeding programs. RESULTS: Herein, we identified 99 QTL for grain length by GWAS based on approximately 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms from 504 cultivated rice accessions (Oryza sativa L.), 13 of which were validated by four linkage populations and 92 were new loci for grain length. We scanned the Ho (observed heterozygosity per locus) index of coupled-parents of crosses mapping the same QTL, based on linkage and association mapping, and identified two new genes for grain length. We named this approach as Ho-LAMap. A simulation study of six known genes showed that Ho-LAMap could mine genes rapidly across a wide range of experimental variables using deep-sequencing data. We used Ho-LAMap to clone a new gene, OsLG3, as a positive regulator of grain length, which could improve rice yield without influencing grain quality. Sequencing of the promoter region in 283 rice accessions from a wide geographic range identified four haplotypes that seem to be associated with grain length. Further analysis showed that OsLG3 alleles in the indica and japonica evolved independently from distinct ancestors and low nucleotide diversity of OsLG3 in indica indicated artificial selection. Phylogenetic analysis showed that OsLG3 might have much potential value for improvement of grain length in japonica breeding. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that Ho-LAMap is a potential approach for gene discovery and OsLG3 is a promising gene to be utilized in genomic assisted breeding for rice cultivar improvement.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Genes de Plantas , Oryza/anatomia & histologia , Oryza/genética , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sequência de Bases , Cruzamento , Contagem de Células , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Epistasia Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ligação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos/genética , Heterozigoto , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sementes/citologia , Ativação Transcricional/genética
12.
Bull Entomol Res ; 107(3): 382-390, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27809938

RESUMO

The oriental army worm Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a migratory pest in Eastern Asia and China. Seasonal high temperatures in Southern China and low temperatures in Northern China are pressures favouring the annual migration of this species, while cold tolerance determines the northern limit of its overwintering range. A number of physiological stress responses occur in insects as a result of variations in temperature. One reaction to thermal stress is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can be harmful by causing oxidative damage. The time-related effects (durations of 1, 4 and 7 h) of thermal stress treatments of M. separata at comparatively low (5, 10, 15 and 20°C) and high (30, 35, 40 and 45°C) temperatures on the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were determined. Thermal stress resulted in significant elevation of the activities of SOD, CAT and GSTs, indicating that these enzymes contribute to defence mechanisms counteracting oxidative damage caused by an increase in ROS. However, at high-temperatures, POX and T-AOC were also found to contribute to scavenging ROS. Our results also indicate that extreme temperatures lead to elevated ROS production in M. separata. The present study confirms that thermal stress can be responsible for oxidative damage. To overcome such stress, antioxidant enzymes play key roles in diminishing oxidative damage in M. separata.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Temperatura Alta , Mariposas/fisiologia , Animais , Mariposas/enzimologia , Estresse Fisiológico
13.
Springerplus ; 5(1): 1522, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27652095

RESUMO

Some people cannot produce sound although their facial muscles work properly due to having problem in their vocal cords. Therefore, recognition of alphabets as well as sentences uttered by these voiceless people is a complex task. This paper proposes a novel method to solve this problem using non-invasive surface Electromyogram (sEMG). Firstly, eleven Bangla vowels are pronounced and sEMG signals are recorded at the same time. Different features are extracted and mRMR feature selection algorithm is then applied to select prominent feature subset from the large feature vector. After that, these prominent features subset is applied in the Artificial Neural Network for vowel classification. This novel Bangla vowel classification method can offer a significant contribution in voice synthesis as well as in speech communication. The result of this experiment shows an overall accuracy of 82.3 % with fewer features compared to other studies in different languages.

14.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 59: e16160223, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-951331

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of the hydrodistillated essential oil and various extracts obtained from Premna integrifolia Linn. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil was resulted in determination 29 different compounds, representing 95.73% of total oil. Antioxidant activities of the essential oil and organic extracts of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol were determined by three different test systems namely DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging assays. The essential oil and methanol extract showed potent antioxidant activity among all the tested samples. Furthermore, the amount of total phenolic compounds was determined and its content in methanol extract was the highest as compared to other samples. The results indicate that the essential oil and extracts of Premna integrifolia could serve as an important bio-resource of antioxidants for using in the pharmaceutical industries.

15.
Mymensingh Med J ; 24(4): 661-4, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26620000

RESUMO

This prospective observational study was performed with twenty nine eyes of Twenty eight patients who were operated upon for chronic dacryocystitis eight months to two years six months before, presented with history of persistent watering and discharge. Number of male was 6(21%) and female was 22(79%). Re-DCR with silicone tube intubation was performed in all the patients. Post operative follow up for a period of 12-24 months revealed absence of symptoms in 28 eyes (97%) while 1(3%) eye persisted with watering and discharge despite uncomplicated surgical procedure. There are so many options for management of Failed DCR, among them Re-DCR with Silicone Tube Intubation is the most safe and less cost effective method.


Assuntos
Dacriocistite/cirurgia , Dacriocistorinostomia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Dacriocistorinostomia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reoperação , Silicones
16.
Open Orthop J ; 9: 480-2, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26587065

RESUMO

First metatarsalphalangeal joint arthrodesis is a well established and successful treatment; however there still remains controversy over the best choice of construct. We performed a retrospective study of patients undergoing first metatarsalphalangeal fusion over eighteen months (n=52) using either dorsal non-locking plate with additional compression lag screw fixation or dorsal non-locking plate alone. We found when assessing clinical criteria, patients with dorsal non-locking plates and additional compression lag screw fixation had a significantly higher rate of fusion (100% vs 77.8%), significantly higher rate of fusion within the first two months (55.6% vs 83.3%), significantly earlier time to fusion (52.2 days vs 75.6 days), and significantly lower rate of non-union (0% vs 22.2%). When blindly assessing radiographic criteria, the patients treated with the plate and compression screw had a significantly higher rate of fusion and lower rate of non-union (0% vs 33%). There was no statistically significant difference between the frequencies of complications in the groups. We believe that the interfragmentary compression is a crucial factor in achieving good union rates and recommend the use of non-locking pre-contoured plating with additional interfragmentary compression screw as the fixation method of choice for these procedures.

17.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 42(5): 451-7, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25800075

RESUMO

The extent to which cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 genotype influences the effectiveness of clopidogrel remains uncertain due to considerable heterogeneity between studies. We used the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method for genotyping loss of function (LOF) allele, CYP2C19*2 and gain of function (GOF) allele, CYP2C19*17 in 163 patients undergoing PCI and 165 healthy volunteers from an ethnically distinctive Bangladeshi population. Thirty-eight patients took prasugrel and 125 patients took clopidogrel among whom 30 patients had their clopidogrel active metabolites (CAM) determined by LC-MS/MS 1-1.5 h after clopidogrel intake. All patients who underwent PCI had their P2Y12 per cent inhibition (PRI) measured by VerifyNow System. The impact of different genotypes on CAM and PRI were also determined. We did not find significant variation of CYP2C19*2 (P > 0.05) and CYP2C9*17 (P > 0.05) alleles among healthy volunteers and patients. CAM concentration as well as PRI by clopidogrel varied significantly (P < 0.05) based on genotypic variation of CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17 individually. Such influence was not observed in case of prasugrel. Genotypic variation did not impact PRI but as a whole PRI by prasugrel was better than that of clopidogrel (P < 0.05). Due to presence of both of alleles the effect on PRI by clopidogrel could not be predicted, effectively indicating possible involvement of other factors. Genotype guided clopidogrel dose adjustment would be beneficial and therefore we propose mandatory genotyping before clopidogrel dosing. Prasugrel proved to be less affected by genotypic variability, but due to lack of sufficient long-term toxicity data, caution would be adopted before substituting clopidogrel.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Frequência do Gene , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/farmacocinética , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Bangladesh , Clopidogrel , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Ticlopidina/farmacocinética , Ticlopidina/farmacologia
18.
Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull ; 41(3): 114-120, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29870165

RESUMO

Bangladesh being a subtropical country provides varieties of herbs and vegetables. Brassica is a broad genus available in Bangladesh and it encompasses a lot of nutritive herbs. Among these, Brassica rapa subspecies chinensis (L.) Hanelt (Family-Brassicaceae) is popular in many parts of the world. In the quest of medicinal property, this plant was investigated here for observing analgesic and antidepressant activities in Swiss-albino mice model. The herb was extracted well with methanol and then assayed by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion methods for analgesic action. Besides, thiopental sodium induced sleeping time test, tail suspension test and forced swim test were conducted for the evaluation of its antidepressant activity. The plant extract was orally administered to the mice at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight and it exhibited significant analgesic and antidepressant activities in compare to the controlled groups. This is the first time comprehensive report for analgesic and antidepressant activities of this plant.


Assuntos
Analgésicos , Antidepressivos , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Modelos Animais , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Animais , Bangladesh , Camundongos
19.
Animal ; 7(9): 1472-8, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23688620

RESUMO

Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, feed intake, feed efficiency (FE) and blood metabolites in Nili-Ravi male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Twenty-four male buffalo calves were assigned to one of the three treatment groups: continuous milk feeding (CMF), limited milk feeding (LMF) and early weaning (EW), and weaned off milk at 12, 10 and 8 weeks of age, respectively. For the first 3 days after birth, calves in all three treatments were fed colostrum, and were then moved to individual milk feeding at 10% of BW for the next 6 weeks. Thereafter, the provision of milk to the CMF group was gradually tapered to zero through week 12, using week 6 intakes as a base. The LMF calves were fed milk at 7.5%, 5.0%, 3.5%, and 1.5% of BW during weeks 7 to 10, respectively. Lastly, calves in the EW group were fed milk at 5.0% and 2.5% of BW at weeks 7 and 8, respectively. Calf starter (CS) feed was also provided ad libitum from weeks 2 to 12 and individual intakes were recorded on a daily basis. Blood samples were taken from weeks 6 to 12, on a weekly basis; whereas, the BW, heart girth, withers height and hip width were measured at the start of experiment and later on a weekly basis. Weight gain, average daily gain, and body measurements were the same across all three groups. Milk intake was lower (P < 0.05), whereas CS intake was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the other treatment groups. Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW and LMF calves compared with the CMF calves. The FE was greater (P < 0.05) in the CMF calves compared with the LMF and EW treatment groups. Blood glucose concentration was similar among the treatments; however, blood urea nitrogen was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the CMF and LMF groups. Plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids was higher (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the CMF calves. In light of these results, it is evident that buffalo calves can be successfully weaned as early as 8 weeks of age without negatively affecting their growth performance.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Búfalos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Desmame , Fatores Etários , Ração Animal , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Masculino , Leite
20.
Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull ; 39(3): 139-45, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26118162

RESUMO

Dual antiplatelet treatment (DAPT) with aspirin and clopidogrel is vital after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Clopidogrel and prasugrel act on P2Y12 platelet surface receptors. Both these P2Y12 inhibitors are pro-drugs and depend on cytochrome system of the liver for their conversion to active metabolite. There is growing concern regarding suboptimal response in platelet inhibition by clopidogrel. Verify Now system got approval by Federal Drug Administration, USA, for assessing platelet function as its result is almost comparable to gold standard Light Transmission Aggregometry (LTA). There are no data on the prevalence of clopidogrel resistance in Bangladeshi population. Prasugrel, as an antiplatelet drug, is a newer introduction in this country. This study will show light on the efficacy of these drugs on our population especially in patients who undergo PCI where DAPT is mandatory. A total 120 (60 diabetics) patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), were alternatively given 600 mg clopidogrel loading dose (LD) followed by 75 mg maintenance dose (MD) daily or 60 mg LD of prasugrel followed by 10 mg MD daily. Five samples of blood were taken at different time intervals over a period of 2 weeks. Measurement of percent inhibition of P2Y12 was done by VerifyNow. Patients who showed less than 20% inhibition (clopidogrel resistant) at any stage were switched to prasugrel. The outcomes of clopidogrel, prasugrel and clopidogrel switched to prasugrel groups were then compared. Nearly half (46.7%) of the patients in the clopidogrel group was found resistant to the drug as opposed to none in the prasugrel group. No difference was found between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects with respect to drug resistance. Intracoronary blood samples showed high degree of platelet inhibition with prasugrel. There was a gradual decline of platelet inhibition over two weeks with prasugrel. Almost fifty percent of the population is clopidogrel resistant in our study. Prasugrel is a much more potent antiplatelet drug and should be preferred in patients undergoing PCI. Prasugrel may also show resistance over time.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Clopidogrel , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cloridrato de Prasugrel , Estudos Prospectivos , Ticlopidina/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
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