Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 159
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247018, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285617

RESUMO

Abstract The Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda) belongs to family corvidae, order Passeriformes which includes about 100 species. The current study was conducted to gather information about the Population distribution and habitat analysis of D. vagabunda at District Abbottabad, Pakistan. The data were collected on monthly basis both morning and evening times (2018-2019). "The ''Point count Method" was used for population estimation and ''Quadrates Method" for habitat analysis of study area. The result shows an average month-wise population density of D. vagabunda was maximum at Jhangra 0.14±0.039/ha, whereas minimum at Havelian 0.11±0.022/ha. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among monthly population densities of D. vagabunda, however, a significant difference (p<0.05) was found between morning and evening times population of the specie. The present study revealed that importance value index (IVI) of plants species at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 59.6±12.6, 50.1±6.9, 53.4±6.3, 66.8±10 and 60.1±7.7. Likewise, the frequency of shrubs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 33.3±4.2, 45±9.4, 46.7±8.2, 55.6±22.2 and 37.5±8.5. Similarly, the frequency of herbs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 40.4±6.0, 37.5±5.6, 53.3±7.4, 48.5±5.2 and 46.9±7.4 respectively. Our results show the study area as suitable habitat for D. vagabunda.


Resumo A trepadeira Rufous (Dendrocitta vagabunda) pertence à família corvidae, ordem Passeriformes que inclui cerca de 100 espécies. O estudo atual foi realizado para reunir informações sobre a distribuição da população e análise do habitat de D. vagabunda no distrito de Abbottabad, Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados mensalmente pela manhã e à noite (2018-2019). O "método de contagem de pontos" foi usado para estimativa da população e o "método dos quadrados" para análise de habitat da área de estudo. O resultado mostra que uma densidade populacional média mensal de D. vagabunda foi máxima em Jhangra 0,14 ± 0,039 / ha, enquanto a mínima em Havelian 0,11 ± 0,022/ha. Não houve diferença significativa (p> 0,05) entre as densidades populacionais mensais de D. vagabunda, entretanto foi encontrada diferença significativa (p <0,05) entre os períodos matutino e noturno da população da espécie. O presente estudo revelou que o índice de valor de importância (IVI) das espécies de plantas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 59,6 ± 12,6, 50,1 ± 6,9, 53,4 ± 6,3, 66,8 ± 10 e 60,1 ± 7,7. Da mesma forma, a frequência de arbustos em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 33,3 ± 4,2, 45 ± 9,4, 46,7 ± 8,2, 55,6 ± 22,2 e 37,5 ± 8,5. Da mesma forma, a frequência de ervas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi: 40,4 ± 6,0, 37,5 ± 5,6, 53,3 ± 7,4, 48,5 ± 5,2 e 46,9 ± 7,4, respectivamente. Nossos resultados mostram a área de estudo como habitat adequado para D. vagabunda.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 00264, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339364

RESUMO

Abstract Allium cepa L. is a commonly consumed vegetable that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and contains nutrients and antioxidants in ample amounts. In spite of the valuable food applications of onion bulb, its peel and outer fleshy layers are generally regarded as waste and exploration of their nutritional and therapeutic potential is still in progress with a very slow progression rate. The present study was designed with the purpose of doing a comparative analysis of the antioxidant potential of two parts of Allium cepa, i.g., bulb (edible part) and outer fleshy layers and dry peels (inedible part). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the onion bulb and peel extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase of porcine was also evaluated. The antioxidant potential of onion peel and bulb extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity. Total flavonoids and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of onion peel were significantly greater as compared to that of onion bulb. Ethanolic extract of onion peel also presented better antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity as compared to the ethanolic extract of bulb, while the aqueous extract of bulb presented weakest antioxidative potential. Onion peel extract's α-glucosidase inhibition potential was also correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The current findings presented onion peel as a possible source of antioxidative agents and phenolic compounds that might be beneficial against development of various common chronic diseases that might have an association with oxidative stress. Besides, outer dry layers and fleshy peels of onion exhibited higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities, compared to the inner bulb. The information obtained by the present study can be useful in promoting the use of vegetable parts other than the edible mesocarp for several future food applications, rather than these being wasted.


Resumo Allium cepa pertence à família Liliaceae e é rica em nutrientes e antioxidantes. Apesar das expressivas aplicações alimentares do bulbo da cebola, sua casca e outras camadas externas são geralmente consideradas resíduos, e seu potencial nutricional e terapêutico ainda é pouco explorado. O presente estudo foi delineado com o objetivo de investigar comparativamente o potencial antioxidante de duas partes de Allium cepa, por exemplo o bulbo (parte comestível) e camadas externas e cascas secas (parte não comestível). Além disso, o efeito inibitório dos extratos do bulbo de cebola e casca sobre a α-glucosidase intestinal de ratos e α-amilase pancreática suína também foi avaliado. O potencial antioxidante dos extratos da casca de cebola e bulbo foi avaliado utilizando-se 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), método de poder antioxidante de redução do ferro (FRAP), método 2,2'-azino-bis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS) de eliminação de radicais, atividade de eliminação de radicais H2O2 e atividade quelante do Fe2+. Os flavonoides totais e os teores fenólicos do extrato de etanol da casca de cebola foram significativamente maiores quando comparados ao do bulbo. O extrato de etanol da casca de cebola também apresentou melhor atividade antioxidante e eliminação de radicais livres quando comparado ao extrato de etanol do bulbo, enquanto o extrato aquoso de bulbo apresentou menor potencial antioxidante. O potencial de inibição da α-glicosidase dos extratos de casca de cebola correlacionou-se com seus teores fenólicos e de flavonoides. Os resultados encontrados identificaram que a casca de cebola é uma possível fonte de agentes antioxidantes e compostos fenólicos que podem ser benéficos contra o desenvolvimento de várias doenças crônicas que estão associadas ao estresse oxidativo. Além disso, as camadas externas secas e as cascas da cebola exibiram maior conteúdo fenólico e atividades antioxidantes, em comparação com o bulbo interno. As informações obtidas pelo presente estudo podem promover o uso de outras partes vegetais além do mesocarpo comestível para futuras aplicações em alimentos, ao invés de serem desperdiçadas.

3.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 413-419, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608115

RESUMO

Human brucellosis is a neglected zoonotic problem worldwide with a high degree of morbidity in humans and is mostly overlooked due to other febrile conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sero-prevalence and risk factors of human brucellosis among subjects living in Punjab, Pakistan. In this cross-sectional study, human blood samples were collected from seven districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Information regarding personal data, demographic data and potential risk factors was collected through a structured questionnaire. Detection of anti-Brucella antibodies was done through Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Descriptive analysis, Chi square test and Odds ratio was applied using STATA software version 12. The sero-prevalence of human brucellosis was 13.13% with significantly higher percentage in males 17.23% and age group 25-40 years 16.50% (P=< 0.001). The demographic factors positively associated with human brucellosis were lack of education (P = 0.003; OR = 1.85) and farming as an occupation (P =<0.001; OR = 2.50) Similarly, among the risk factors studied, keeping animals at home (P =<0.001; OR = 2.03), slaughtering of animals (P =<0.001; OR = 15.87) and consuming raw milk (P =<0.001; OR = 5.42) were the factors strongly connected with human brucellosis. A massive awareness should be given to livestock farmers and individuals directly linked to animals regarding risk factors and transmission of brucellosis. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and its products should be condemned to curtail this neglected disease.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: 00264, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669793

RESUMO

Allium cepa L. is a commonly consumed vegetable that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and contains nutrients and antioxidants in ample amounts. In spite of the valuable food applications of onion bulb, its peel and outer fleshy layers are generally regarded as waste and exploration of their nutritional and therapeutic potential is still in progress with a very slow progression rate. The present study was designed with the purpose of doing a comparative analysis of the antioxidant potential of two parts of Allium cepa, i.g., bulb (edible part) and outer fleshy layers and dry peels (inedible part). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the onion bulb and peel extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase of porcine was also evaluated. The antioxidant potential of onion peel and bulb extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity. Total flavonoids and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of onion peel were significantly greater as compared to that of onion bulb. Ethanolic extract of onion peel also presented better antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity as compared to the ethanolic extract of bulb, while the aqueous extract of bulb presented weakest antioxidative potential. Onion peel extract's α-glucosidase inhibition potential was also correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The current findings presented onion peel as a possible source of antioxidative agents and phenolic compounds that might be beneficial against development of various common chronic diseases that might have an association with oxidative stress. Besides, outer dry layers and fleshy peels of onion exhibited higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities, compared to the inner bulb. The information obtained by the present study can be useful in promoting the use of vegetable parts other than the edible mesocarp for several future food applications, rather than these being wasted.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cebolas , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Suínos , alfa-Glucosidases
5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247018, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431914

RESUMO

The Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda) belongs to family corvidae, order Passeriformes which includes about 100 species. The current study was conducted to gather information about the Population distribution and habitat analysis of D. vagabunda at District Abbottabad, Pakistan. The data were collected on monthly basis both morning and evening times (2018-2019). "The ''Point count Method" was used for population estimation and ''Quadrates Method" for habitat analysis of study area. The result shows an average month-wise population density of D. vagabunda was maximum at Jhangra 0.14±0.039/ha, whereas minimum at Havelian 0.11±0.022/ha. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among monthly population densities of D. vagabunda, however, a significant difference (p<0.05) was found between morning and evening times population of the specie. The present study revealed that importance value index (IVI) of plants species at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 59.6±12.6, 50.1±6.9, 53.4±6.3, 66.8±10 and 60.1±7.7. Likewise, the frequency of shrubs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 33.3±4.2, 45±9.4, 46.7±8.2, 55.6±22.2 and 37.5±8.5. Similarly, the frequency of herbs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 40.4±6.0, 37.5±5.6, 53.3±7.4, 48.5±5.2 and 46.9±7.4 respectively. Our results show the study area as suitable habitat for D. vagabunda.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Animais , Paquistão , Densidade Demográfica
6.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 35(3): 865-880, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042415

RESUMO

Human Coronavirus (CoV) infections, including SARS-COV, MERS-COV, and SARS-CoV-2, usually cause fatal lower and upper respiratory tract infections due to exacerbated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We aim to summarize different aspects, such as CoV immune evasion mechanisms and host innate immune response to these infections, and their role in pathogenesis. We have also elaborated the up-to-date findings on different vaccine development strategies and progress against CoVs in both humans and non-human models. Most importantly, we have described the Phageome-human immune interaction, its therapeutic usage as anti-viral, anti-inflammatory agent, and implications for multiple vaccine development systems. The data suggest that endogenous phages might play a vital role in eliminating the infection and regulating the body's immune system. Considering the innate-immune-induced pathogenesis against CoVs and the therapeutic aptitude of phageome, we propose that the prophylactic administration of phages and phage-based vaccines could be a useful strategy to control the emerging CoV infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Viroma , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(8): 3162-3172, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928602

RESUMO

Naegleria fowleri is a deadly human pathogen that causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). In this study, in silico investigations of two important N. fowleri cathepsin B paralogs, i.e., copies of genes resulting from a gene duplication event, were carried out using comparative modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Comparative models of both paralogs showed significant architectural similarity with their template, i.e., rat cathepsin B. However, in N. fowleri cathepsin B (UniProt ID: X5D761) and putative cathepsin B (UniProt ID: M1HE19) enzymes, eleven and fifteen residues in the occluding loop regions were deleted, respectively, suggesting that these enzymes have a short occluding loop. Thus, it is concluded that N. fowleri cathepsin B and putative cathepsin B enzymes lack exopeptidase activity but possess enhanced endopeptidase activity and an affinity for macromolecular inhibitors. MD simulations further confirmed that prosegments (macromolecular inhibitors) bond more tightly with both enzymes than with wild-type cathepsin B. Additionally, a mutation was identified at an important N-glycosylation site; this mutation is believed to affect cathepsin B targeting inside the cell and make cathepsin B available in the extracellular environment. Due to this important N-glycosylation site mutation, these enzymes are secreted in the extracellular environment via an alternative, still unknown, posttranslational processing strategy. The present study is the first to predict the three-dimensional folds of N. fowleri cathepsin B paralogous enzymes, including a detailed description of the active site architecture and information about propeptide binding mode. This information can contribute to the discovery of novel and selective treatments that are effective against N. fowleri.

8.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 40(3): 538-549, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645299

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA), an imperative environmental contaminant used in polycarbonate plastics. Due to limited information concerning the effect of BPA on lungs, this study design to assess whether BPA cause alterations in histopathology and trace metal content in lungs of rats. They were divided into five groups with five rats per group. Group I was named as control group. Group L6 and L12 were received BPA (10 mg/kg body weight/day) for 6 weeks and 12 weeks respectively. Group H6 and L12 were given BPA (25 mg/kg body weight/day) for 6 weeks and 12 weeks respectively. Considerable alteration in Cu, Zn and Fe was detected in experimental groups. BPA also caused significant increase in the expression of tumor necrosis factor α that mediate the pulmonary inflammatory response. Comparative study of resolved proteins i.e. 72 KDa (matrix metalloproteinase 2 fragment) and 109 KDa (nucleolin) on SDS-PAGE showed their altered expression in experimental groups. Histopathology of experimental groups revealed altered architecture of lungs. Special staining of BPA treated groups showed significant number of mast cells in alveoli and bronchioles. Prolonged administration of BPA causes deleterious aggravating lung damage even at extremely low dose, so the use of BPA should be prohibited in plastic synthesizing industries.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Animais , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
9.
Food Res Int ; 142: 110186, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773663

RESUMO

Green tea, the least processed tea product, is scientifically known for its rich antioxidant content originating from polyphenols, especially catechins. The most potent green tea catechin is epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which is responsible for a wide range of health benefits including anticancer, antidiabetics, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, green tea catechins (GTCs) are very labile under both environmental and gastrointestinal conditions; their chemical stability and bioavailability primarily depend on the processing and formulation conditions. Nanocarriers can protect GTCs against such conditions, and consequently, can be applicable for designing nanodelivery systems suitable for GTCs. In this review, the latest findings about both opportunities and limitations for the nanodelivery of GTCs and their incorporation into various functional food products are discussed. The scientific findings so far confirm that nanodelivery of GTCs can be an efficient approach towards the enhancement of their health-promoting effects with a minimal dose, controlled and targeted release, lessening the dose-related toxicity, and the efficient incorporation into functional foods. However, further investigation is yet needed to fully explain the cellular mechanisms of action of GTCs on human health and to elucidate the effect of encapsulation on their bioefficacy using well-designed, systematic, long-term, and large-scale clinical interventions. There also exists a substantial concern regarding the safety of the manufactured nanoparticles, their absorption, and the associated release mechanisms.


Assuntos
Catequina , Chá , Antioxidantes , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Polifenóis
11.
Scand J Rheumatol ; 50(2): 139-142, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942924

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between erythrocyte parameters and the presence or absence of arthritis in HFE C282Y homozygous hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) subjects compared to control groups of non-HH subjects with arthritis.Method: Erythrocyte and arthritis parameters [mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin (MCH)] were obtained from consecutive HH subjects (n = 119) who were referred for initial evaluation and management. For comparison, MCV and MCH values were collected from randomly selected non-HH subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 100) and osteoarthritis (n = 100), consisting of equal numbers of men and women. Two other comparison groups comprised 16 men and women who were heterozygous for C282Y with arthritis, and 38 non-HH subjects with type 2 polyarticular osteoarthritis (T2POA).Results: MCV values were significantly higher in HH subjects with arthritis (95 ± 0.56 fL) than in HH subjects without arthritis (92.75 ± 0.50 fL, p = 0.037). HH subjects with or without arthritis demonstrated a higher mean MCV than the control groups of non-HH osteoarthritis (90.12 ± 0.46 fL, p < 0.001) and non-HH rheumatoid arthritis (90.94 ± 0.57 fL, p < 0.001). HH subjects with arthritis also demonstrated a higher MCV than heterozygous C282Y subjects with arthritis (93.18 ± 1.55 fL, p = 0.025) and non-HH subjects with a similar pattern of arthritis, notably T2POA (91.13 ± 0.50 fL, p < 0.01). An MCV of ≥ 97.85 fL provided a likelihood ratio of 2.2 for development of arthritis in HH subjects.Conclusion: This study demonstrated a relationship between elevated MCV and arthritis in incident cases of HH.


Assuntos
Hemocromatose/sangue , Osteoartrite/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Índices de Eritrócitos , Eritrócitos , Feminino , Hemocromatose/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/complicações , Adulto Jovem
12.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-22, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350318

RESUMO

Ascorbic acid, known as vitamin C, is an important antioxidant and food ingredient, and highly sensitive to environmental conditions, which makes its incorporation into food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products more difficult. The evaluation of its nano/microencapsulation enables the improvement of its stability and controlled release. There are various investigations regarding ascorbic acid encapsulation; however, a deep study related to the scale-up of encapsulation process, its application into food products and digestibility study are still needed. This review highlights the main physicochemical and health properties of vitamin C, recent advances of its encapsulation into micro/nanocarriers, and application in food products. Also, the controlled release and bioavailability of encapsulated forms within different carriers is underlined. The results of published studies clearly show that vitamin C can be successfully protected within micro/nanoencapsulation systems and it can be applied as an efficient ingredient in the formulation of various food products such as bakery goods.

13.
Poult Sci ; 99(12): 6946-6953, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248610

RESUMO

This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary addition of probiotics (Protexin) and prebiotics (active MOS, mannan oligosaccharides) on growth performance, carcasses, and antibody titer in broilers. A total number of 360-day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly divided into 9 groups in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Nine broiler starter (0-21 d) and finisher (21-35 d) diets were formulated by using 3 levels of probiotics (0, 1, and 2 g/kg of feed) and 3 levels of MOS (0, 1, and 1.5 g/kg of feed) and were randomly allotted to 9 groups. Feed intake was not affected by interaction of treatments during all phases (P > 0.05). Feed intake was improved due to the main effect of probiotic (P = 0.0001) or MOS (P = 0.005). No interaction (P > 0.05) was observed for weight gain in the starter, finisher, and overall phases. While, during the starter and finisher phases, weight gain was increased by probiotics (P = 0.028 or 0.04, respectively). Dietary supplementation of MOS improved weight gain (P = 0.01) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P = 0.03) during the overall period, but during starter and finisher periods, weight gain and FCR were not affected by prebiotics. Apart from dressing percentage, no interaction or individual effect of probiotics and prebiotics was observed for carcass, breast, thigh, heart, liver, and gizzard weight. Antibody titer for infectious bursal disease (IBD) was improved (P = 0.026) by the interaction effect between probiotics and prebiotics, when compared with the control group. Antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND) was not affected by probiotics or prebiotics or their interactions (P > 0.05). It could be concluded that supplementation of prebiotics or probiotics can improve the growth performance of broilers. It may also be helpful in improving the antibody titer against IBD in broilers fed antibiotic-free diets.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Composição Corporal , Galinhas , Imunidade , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória
14.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e285, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228824

RESUMO

Understanding risk factors for death from Covid-19 is key to providing good quality clinical care. We assessed the presenting characteristics of the 'first wave' of patients with Covid-19 at Royal Oldham Hospital, UK and undertook logistic regression modelling to investigate factors associated with death. Of 470 patients admitted, 169 (36%) died. The median age was 71 years (interquartile range 57-82), and 255 (54.3%) were men. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (n = 218, 46.4%), diabetes (n = 143, 30.4%) and chronic neurological disease (n = 123, 26.1%). The most frequent complications were acute kidney injury (AKI) (n = 157, 33.4%) and myocardial injury (n = 21, 4.5%). Forty-three (9.1%) patients required intubation and ventilation, and 39 (8.3%) received non-invasive ventilation. Independent risk factors for death were increasing age (odds ratio (OR) per 10 year increase above 40 years 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.57-2.27), hypertension (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.10-2.70), cancer (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.27-3.81), platelets <150 × 103/µl (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.13-3.30), C-reactive protein ≥100 µg/ml (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.05-2.68), >50% chest radiograph infiltrates (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.16-3.77) and AKI (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.64-4.13). There was no independent association between death and gender, ethnicity, deprivation level, fever, SpO2/FiO2, lymphopoenia or other comorbidities. These findings will inform clinical and shared decision making, including use of respiratory support and therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Ann Ig ; 32(4): 368-375, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appropriate utilization of therapeutic agents is a basic component of the quality of health outcomes for the patients and the community. A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the rational use of medicines and antibiotics, based on World Health Organization (who) prescribing indicators. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional pilot study in the medical outpatient departments in four tertiary care hospitals of Islamabad, Pakistan, in order to verify the correct prescribing of medicines according to the validated indicators prepared by the World Health Organization (who). METHODS: The Registries of all the prescriptions formulated during the period April 02 2017 - April 01 2018 by the outpatient departments of four tertiary care hospitals (two government funded hospitals (GH-A and GH-B) and two private funded hospitals (PH-C and PH-D) were considered. According to the World Health Organization recommendations, during the following month (April 02 2018 to May 1 2018), 600 prescriptions (150 per hospital) were collected by a random sampling method, verified and analyzed through a statistical tool (SPSS version 22.0). RESULTS: Mean number of medicines per prescription were 4.6 (Optimal value ≤ 2), with the highest value observed in GH-B hospital. Out of these, 350 (58.3%) (Optimal value < 30%) prescriptions consisted of antibiotics and 340 (56.6%) (Optimal value < 25%) prescriptions consisted of injectable medicines, with marked differences between hospitals. About 550 (19.6%) medicines were prescribed by generic name in all selected prescriptions with the lowest value observed in PH-D (9.9%) (Optimal value = 100%). Overall, 88% medicines were prescribed from National essential medicine list/formulary (Optimal value = 100%). All the prescribing core indicators showed significant difference between hospitals (P = 0.001). The most commonly prescribed antibiotic was ceftriaxone (37.4%), followed by ciprofloxacin (15.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Poor adherence to WHO prescribing indicators were observed in all medical outpatient departments in selected hospitals. WHO recommended core interventions should be implemented on trial basis to develop strategies to achieve long-lasting benefits.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/administração & dosagem , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Medicamentos Essenciais/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambulatório Hospitalar , Paquistão , Projetos Piloto , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
AIDS Behav ; 24(8): 2421-2429, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997056

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the association between suicidal ideation among mothers living with HIV in Zimbabwe and the cognitive development of their children. Participants were mother-child dyads recruited from two rural districts in Zimbabwe. Data were collected at baseline and 12 months follow-up. Suicidal ideation was assessed using item-10 from the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to assess the association of child cognitive outcomes at follow-up (using the Mullen scales of early learning) with maternal suicidal ideation. Mothers with suicidal ideation at baseline (n = 171) tended to be younger, unmarried, experienced moderate to severe hunger, had elevated parental stress and depression symptoms compared with non-suicidal mothers (n = 391). At follow-up, emerging maternal suicidal ideation was associated with poorer child cognitive outcomes (adjusted mean difference - 6.1; 95% CI - 10.3 to - 1.8; p = 0.03). Suicidal ideation affects child cognitive development and should be addressed, particularly in HIV positive mothers.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Ideação Suicida , Adulto , Criança , Cognição , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Mães , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
17.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 22(3): eRBCA-2020-1285, out. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-761970

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of fat sources and emulsifier supplementation in different phases on growth performance of broilers. Treatments were; (T1) basal ration (BR) which contained soy oil (SO) and had inclusion of emulsifier for whole life, (T2) BR which contained poultry fat (PO) and had inclusion of emulsifier for whole life, (T3) BR which contained oxidized oil (OO) and had inclusion of emulsifier for whole life, (T4) BR which contained SO and had inclusion of emulsifier during starter phase (T5) BR which contained PO and had inclusion of emulsifier during the starter phase, (T6) BR which contained OO and had inclusion of emulsifier during the starter phase, (T7) BR which contained SO and had inclusion of emulsifier during the starter phase (T8) BR which contained PO and had inclusion of emulsifier during the grower phase, (T9) BR which contained OO and had inclusion of emulsifier during the grower phase, (T10) BR which contained SO and had inclusion of emulsifier during the finisher phase, (T11) BR which contained PO and had inclusion of emulsifier during the finisher phase (T12) BR which contained OO and had inclusion of emulsifier during the finisher phase. The Basal ration which contained SO and supplemented emulsifier during the grower phase and throughout life increased the body weight gain. The supplementation of emulsifier in the finisher phase and throughout life in a diet which contained SO had better feed conversion ratio. The supplementation of emulsifier in the finisher phase and throughout life in SO based diet increased the dry matter and crude fat digestibility. We recommend emulsifier supplementation in the finisher phase for the economic point of view.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Emulsificantes , Gorduras
18.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 21(1): eRBCA-2019-0734, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-17627

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different anti-stressors on growth performance, carcass traits, bloodchemistry and meat quality attributes of broiler Japanese quail. For this purpose, a total of 1,875 quail chicks were procured and arranged according to completely randomized design, birds were divided into 5 treatment groups having 5 replicates of 75 birds each. The treatments consisted of four anti-stressors i.e., synthetic anti-stressors (Vitamin C and Betaine) and natural anti-stressors (Turmeric and Chia Seed) along with a control group. Birds diets were supplemented with vitamin C, betaine, turmeric and chia seed @ 600 mg/kg, 700 mg /kg, 300 mg/kg and 7,000 mg/kg, respectively. After four weeks, 10 birds per treatment were slaughtered (Halal method), de-feathered, eviscerated and their carcass traits, serum chemistry and meat quality attributes were calculated. Birds supplemented with betaine revealed significantly (p0.05) lower feed intake, glucose, cholesterol, H:L ratio, better weight gain, times of gain, FCR and highest anti-oxidant assay and total viable count. However, carcass traits, processing traits and blood cortisol level did not differ (p>0.05) among the treatment groups. In conclusion, addition of anti-stressors (especially betaine) in the diet of growing Japanese quail had positive influence on growth and serum chemistry.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Coturnix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coturnix/fisiologia , Carne/análise
19.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 20(3): 455-462, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-738620

RESUMO

This study was designed to examine carryover effect of dietary lysine (Lys) levels fed during the starter phase on the growth performance of three varieties of Aseel chickens. A total of 378 birds (126 from each variety) derived from a previous experiment, in which birds were distributed according a randomized block design in a 3×3 factorial arrangement, were evaluated from 7-18 weeks of age. Treatments consisted of three varieties of Aseel chicken [(Mianwali (MW), Peshawari (PW) and Lakha (LK)] fed three dietary Lys regimes (high, medium and low) during the starter phase (0-6 weeks). In the present experiment, the performance parameters, carcass traits, and meat chemical composition six replicates of seven birds per treatment were evaluated. The MW variety exhibited higher weight gain and better feed to gain ratio (p 0.05). Previous medium dietary Lys regimen improved weight gain, feed to gain ratio, final weight gain (p0.05). Birds previously fed medium dietary Lys showed higher thigh dry matter content (p 0.05), and those previously fed low Lys significantly higher thigh crude protein (CP) content (p 0.05). The highest breast muscle CP % were observed birds previously fed the high Lys regime (p 0.05), those of the MW variety (p 0.05). Higher slaughter weight and carcass weight and yield were obtained in the birds previously fed to medium dietary Lys level (p 0.05), and the MW variety showed overall better carcass traits (p 0.05). It is concluded that medium Lys levels in the starter feed promote subsequent better growth performance and that the MW variety has better carcass traits, it may be used as for rural chicken meat production.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Carne/análise , Lisina/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ganho de Peso
20.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 20(3): 497-506, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-738615

RESUMO

The present study evaluated different selection strategies to improve the growth performance and carcass traits of Japanese quails. To this end, 540 Japanese quails previously selected for high body weight at three ages (10, 12 and 14 weeks) from four close-bred flocks (Major, Kaleem, Saadat and Zahid) were subjected to three selection strategies: pedigree-based, mass selection or random-bred (controls). For pedigree-based selection, 108 birds (4 close-bred flocks × 3 age groups × 9 replicates × 1 bird each) with full pedigree and selected for high body weight were used, whereas in mass selection 324 birds (4 close-bred flocks × 3 age groups × 9 replicates × 3 birds each) with high body weight were selected to be the parents of next generation. Random-bred controls included 108 birds (4 close-bred flocks × 3 age groups × 9 replicates × 1bird each) which were not previously submitted to selection. The effects of selection strategies of Japanese quail parents from four close-bred flocks (CBF) at three ages on the performance growth and carcass traits of their progenies were measured. The parent flocks were selected at three ages (10, 12 and 14 weeks) and reared for 20 weeks, and their progenies were reared for four weeks. The progeny of pedigree-based selected parents presented better feed intake (g), body weight gain (g), feed conversion ratio, live and carcass weights (g), and carcass yield. The progeny of 10- and 14-week-old parents showed better growth performance and carcass traits, respectively. Moreover, there was no influence of CBF on growth and carcass traits. It was concluded that pedigree-based selection had pronounced effect on the growth performance and carcass traits of the progeny compared with mass selection and random breeding. It is suggested that parental ages of 10 and 14 weeks of age promote better progeny growth performance and carcass traits.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Coturnix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coturnix/genética , Seleção Genética , Ganho de Peso , Fatores Etários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA