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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243874, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285606

RESUMO

Abstract In recent days, cheapest alternative carbon source for fermentation purpose is desirable to minimize production cost. Xylanases have become attractive enzymes as their potential in bio-bleaching of pulp and paper industry. The objective of the present study was to identify the potential ability on the xylanase production by locally isolated Bacillus pumilus BS131 by using waste fiber sludge and wheat bran media under submerged fermentation. Culture growth conditions were optimized to obtain significant amount of xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was recorded after 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C and 7 pH with 4.0% substrate concentration. In the nutshell, the production of xylanase using inexpensive waste fiber sludge and wheat-bran as an alternative in place of expensive xylan substrate was more cost effective and environment friendly.


Resumo Nos últimos dias, a fonte alternativa de carbono mais barata para fins de fermentação é desejável para minimizar o custo de produção. As xilanases têm se tornado enzimas atraentes como seu potencial no biobranqueamento da indústria de papel e celulose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a capacidade potencial na produção de xilanase por Bacillus pumilus BS131 isolado localmente usando lodo de fibra residual e farelo de trigo em meio de fermentação submersa. As condições de crescimento da cultura foram otimizadas para obter uma quantidade significativa de xilanase. A produção máxima de xilanase foi registrada após 72 horas de incubação a 30 °C e pH 7 com concentração de substrato de 4,0%. Resumindo, a produção de xilanase usando lodo de fibra residual de baixo custo e farelo de trigo como uma alternativa no lugar do substrato de xilano caro foi mais econômica e ecológica.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 940-953, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153447

RESUMO

Abstract Nowadays food borne illness is most common in people due to their epidemic nature. These diseases affect the human digestive system through bacteria, viruses and parasites. The agents of illness are transmitted in our body through various types of food items, water and uncooked. Pathogens show drastic changes in immunosuppressant people. This review gives general insights to harmful microbial life. Pakistan is a developed country and because of its improper food management, a lot of gastrointestinal problems are noted in many patients. Bacteria are most common agents to spread diarrhoea, villi infection, constipation and dysenteric disease in human and induce the rejection of organ transplant. Enhancement of their lifestyle, properly cooked food should be used and to overcome the outbreak of the diseases.


Resumo Hoje em dia, as doenças transmitidas por alimentos são mais comuns em pessoas devido à sua natureza epidêmica. Essas doenças afetam o sistema digestivo humano por meio de bactérias, vírus e parasitas. Os agentes das doenças são transmitidos em nosso corpo por meio de diversos tipos de alimentos, água e crus. Os patógenos mostram mudanças drásticas em pessoas imunossupressoras. Esta revisão fornece uma visão geral da vida microbiana prejudicial. O Paquistão é um país desenvolvido e, devido ao seu manejo alimentar inadequado, muitos problemas gastrointestinais são observados em muitos pacientes. As bactérias são os agentes mais comuns para espalhar diarreia, infecção de vilosidades, obstipação e doença disentérica em humanos e induzem a rejeição de transplantes de órgãos. Melhoria de seu estilo de vida, alimentos devidamente cozidos devem ser utilizados e para superar o aparecimento de doenças.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243874, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378658

RESUMO

In recent days, cheapest alternative carbon source for fermentation purpose is desirable to minimize production cost. Xylanases have become attractive enzymes as their potential in bio-bleaching of pulp and paper industry. The objective of the present study was to identify the potential ability on the xylanase production by locally isolated Bacillus pumilus BS131 by using waste fiber sludge and wheat bran media under submerged fermentation. Culture growth conditions were optimized to obtain significant amount of xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was recorded after 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C and 7 pH with 4.0% substrate concentration. In the nutshell, the production of xylanase using inexpensive waste fiber sludge and wheat-bran as an alternative in place of expensive xylan substrate was more cost effective and environment friendly.


Assuntos
Bacillus pumilus , Bacillus , Bacillus/metabolismo , Bacillus pumilus/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Esgotos , Temperatura
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2896, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536469

RESUMO

An argon plasma jet was sustained in open air and characterized for its chemical composition. The optically characterized plasma jet was used to treat industrial wastewater containing mixed textile dyes and heavy metals. Since plasma jet produces UV-radiations, the photocatalytic TiO2 was used to enhance plasma treatment efficiency especially for degradation of dyes. Mixed anatase and rutile phases of TiO2 (5.2-8.5 nm) were produced through surfactant assisted sol-gel approach. The emission spectrum confirmed the presence of excited argon, OH, excited nitrogen, excited oxygen, ozone and nitric oxide in the plasma jet. The spectral lines of excited Ar, NO, O3, OH-, N2, [Formula: see text], O, [Formula: see text] and O+ species were observed at wavelength of 695-740 nm, 254.3 nm, 307.9 nm, 302-310 nm, 330-380 nm, 390-415 nm, 715.6 nm, 500-600 nm and 400-500 nm. These reactive species decompose the organic pollutants and separate the heavy metals from the water samples. The conductivity of plasma exposed water samples increased while pH and hardness decreased. The atomic absorption spectrophotometry analysis confirmed the presence of heavy metals in the samples, which were effectively removed through plasma treatment. Finally, the effect of plasma treatment on Staphylococcus aureus strains was more pronounced than Escherichia coli strains.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3270, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558637

RESUMO

The advent of remote sensing from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has opened the door to more affordable and effective methods of imaging and mapping of surface geophysical properties with many important applications in areas such as coastal zone management, ecology, agriculture, and defense. We describe a study to validate and improve soil moisture content retrieval and mapping from hyperspectral imagery collected by a UAS system. Our approach uses a recently developed model known as the multilayer radiative transfer model of soil reflectance (MARMIT). MARMIT partitions contributions due to water and the sediment surface into equivalent but separate layers and describes these layers using an equivalent slab model formalism. The model water layer thickness along with the fraction of wet surface become parameters that must be optimized in a calibration step, with extinction due to water absorption being applied in the model based on equivalent water layer thickness, while transmission and reflection coefficients follow the Fresnel formalism. In this work, we evaluate the model in both field settings, using UAS hyperspectral imagery, and laboratory settings, using hyperspectral spectra obtained with a goniometer. Sediment samples obtained from four different field sites representing disparate environmental settings comprised the laboratory analysis while field validation used hyperspectral UAS imagery and coordinated ground truth obtained on a barrier island shore during field campaigns in 2018 and 2019. Analysis of the most significant wavelengths for retrieval indicate a number of different wavelengths in the short-wave infra-red (SWIR) that provide accurate fits to measured soil moisture content in the laboratory with normalized root mean square error (NRMSE)< 0.145, while independent evaluation from sequestered test data from the hyperspectral UAS imagery obtained during the field campaign obtained an average NRMSE = 0.169 and median NRMSE = 0.152 in a bootstrap analysis.

6.
Braz J Biol ; 81(4): 940-953, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605364

RESUMO

Nowadays food borne illness is most common in people due to their epidemic nature. These diseases affect the human digestive system through bacteria, viruses and parasites. The agents of illness are transmitted in our body through various types of food items, water and uncooked. Pathogens show drastic changes in immunosuppressant people. This review gives general insights to harmful microbial life. Pakistan is a developed country and because of its improper food management, a lot of gastrointestinal problems are noted in many patients. Bacteria are most common agents to spread diarrhoea, villi infection, constipation and dysenteric disease in human and induce the rejection of organ transplant. Enhancement of their lifestyle, properly cooked food should be used and to overcome the outbreak of the diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Bactérias , Diarreia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia
7.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(9): 3186-3193, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340569

RESUMO

Here we report the electrospinning synthesis of Cd-substituted Ni-Co ferrite Ni0.5Co0.5-xCdxFe1.78Nd0.02O4 (x ≤ 0.25) nanofiber (NFs) with a very low concentration of Nd as a dopant. The structure and surface morphology of the Ni0.5Co0.5-xCdxFe1.78Nd0.02O4 (x ≤ 0.25) NFs were analyzed by X-ray powder pattern (XRD), transmission and scanning electron microscopes (TEM) along with Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). We have examined the biological applications of the Ni0.5Co0.5-xCdxFe1.78Nd0.02O4 (x ≤ 0.25) NFs on both cancerous cells and bacterial cells. We have found that Ni0.5Co0.5-xCdxFe1.78Nd0.02O4 (x ≤ 0.25) NFs produced inhibitory action on the human colorectal carcinoma cells (HEK-293) and also showed inhibitory action on the bacterial strains (S. aureus and E. coli) respectively. Finally, this is the first report on the synthesis of Cd- substituted Co-Ni ferrite nanofibers using electrospinning technique exhibiting anti-cancer and anti-bacterial activities.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

8.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 81(4): 99-103, out.-dez. 2021. graf, tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-31535

RESUMO

Abstract Nowadays food borne illness is most common in people due to their epidemic nature. These diseases affect the human digestive system through bacteria, viruses and parasites. The agents of illness are transmitted in our body through various types of food items, water and uncooked. Pathogens show drastic changes in immunosuppressant people. This review gives general insights to harmful microbial life. Pakistan is a developed country and because of its improper food management, a lot of gastrointestinal problems are noted in many patients. Bacteria are most common agents to spread diarrhoea, villi infection, constipation and dysenteric disease in human and induce the rejection of organ transplant. Enhancement of their lifestyle, properly cooked food should be used and to overcome the outbreak of the diseases.(AU)


Resumo Hoje em dia, as doenças transmitidas por alimentos são mais comuns em pessoas devido à sua natureza epidêmica. Essas doenças afetam o sistema digestivo humano por meio de bactérias, vírus e parasitas. Os agentes das doenças são transmitidos em nosso corpo por meio de diversos tipos de alimentos, água e crus. Os patógenos mostram mudanças drásticas em pessoas imunossupressoras. Esta revisão fornece uma visão geral da vida microbiana prejudicial. O Paquistão é um país desenvolvido e, devido ao seu manejo alimentar inadequado, muitos problemas gastrointestinais são observados em muitos pacientes. As bactérias são os agentes mais comuns para espalhar diarreia, infecção de vilosidades, obstipação e doença disentérica em humanos e induzem a rejeição de transplantes de órgãos. Melhoria de seu estilo de vida, alimentos devidamente cozidos devem ser utilizados e para superar o aparecimento de doenças.(AU)


Assuntos
Parasitologia de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Prevenção de Doenças
9.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 116: 111186, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806294

RESUMO

This study described the beneficial properties of ultrasonic irradiation approach to synthesize the spinel-type Dy-Y co-substituted Mn-Zn nanospinel ferrites (NSFs). We have used two different approaches like citrate sol-gel combustion and ultrasonic irradiation routes to produced series of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2-2x(DyxYx)O4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) NSFs (DyY-MnZn NSFs). The structure and morphology of NSFs X-was examined by using XRD, EDX, SEM and TEM methods. We have found that spinel ferrites and hematite phase in DyY-MnZn NSFs produced by citrate sol-gel, while DyY-MnZn NSFs created by ultrasonic irradiation contain a pure phase of spinel ferrite. TEM analysis revealed the spherical nanoparticles with fairly uniform size. We have also analyzed the biological applications of DyY-MnZn NSFs prepared by both methods (ultrasonication and sol-gel) by examining their anti-cancer and anti-bacterial (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureu) activities. We have found that both methods produced inhibitory actions on colon cancer cells (HCT-116) and bacterial cells, whereas, no inhibitory action was observed when examined on normal and non-cancerous cells (HEK-293).


Assuntos
Manganês , Zinco , Óxido de Alumínio , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Óxido de Magnésio
10.
J Hosp Infect ; 105(3): 419-423, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437822

RESUMO

A self-administered validated (Cronbach's alpha=0.077) questionnaire was used to assess knowledge, attitude and practice among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Pakistan regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Findings showed that HCWs have good knowledge (93.2%, N=386), a positive attitude [mean 8.43 (standard deviation 1.78)] and good practice (88.7%, N=367) regarding COVID-19. HCWs perceived that limited infection control material (50.7%, N=210) and poor knowledge regarding transmission (40.6%, N=168) were the major barriers to infection control. Regression analysis indicated that pharmacists were more likely to demonstrate good practice than other HCWs (odds ratio 2.247, 95% confidence interval 1.11-4.55, P=0.025). This study found that HCWs in Pakistan have good knowledge, but there are gaps in specific aspects of knowledge and practice that warrant attention.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Paquistão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/psicologia , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 109: 110534, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228890

RESUMO

Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) possess unique properties which makes them attractive candidates for various applications especially in field of experimental medicine and drug delivery. Many approaches were developed to synthesize divers and customized metallic NPs that can be useful in many areas such as, experimental medicine, drug design, drug delivery, electrical and electronic engineering, electrochemical sensors, and biochemical sensors. Among different metallic nanoparticles, manganese (Mn) NPs are the most prominent materials, in the present study, we have synthetized unique Mn0.5Zn0.5DyxEuxFe1.8-2xO4 NPs by using ultrasonication method (x ≤ 0.1). The structure, and surface morphology of Mn0.5Zn0.5DyxEuxFe1.8-2xO4 NPs was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and EDX methods. We have examined the biological effects of Mn0.5Zn0.5DyxEuxFe1.8-2xO4 NPs on both normal (HEK-293) and cancerous (HCT-116) cells. We have found that the treatment of Mn0.5Zn0.5DyxEuxFe1.8-2xO4 NPs post 48 h, showed significant decline in cancer cells population as revealed by MTT assay. The IC50 value of Mn0.5Zn0.5DyxEuxFe1.8-2xO4 NPs was ranged between (2.35 µg/mL to 2.33 µg/mL). To check the specificity of the actions, we found that the treatment of Mn0.5Zn0.5DyxEuxFe1.8-2xO4 NPs did not produce any effects on the normal cells, which suggest that Mn0.5Zn0.5DyxEuxFe1.8-2xO4 NPs selectively targeted the cancerous cells. The anti-bacterial properties of Mn0.5Zn0.5DyxEuxFe1.8-2xO4 NPs were also evaluated by MIC and MBC assays. We suggest that Mn0.5Zn0.5DyxEuxFe1.8-2xO4 NPs produced by sonochemical method possess potential anti-cancer and anti-bacterial capabilities.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antineoplásicos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Células HCT116 , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Ondas Ultrassônicas
13.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(1): e1-e3, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155921

RESUMO

Diffuse cavernous haemangioma is a rare disease of the rectum. It usually presents with a history of rectal bleeding in children and young adults. When conservative methods fail to control bleeding, traditionally resection is recommended. A 50-year-old man presented with per rectal bleeding and was diagnosed with diffuse cavernous haemangioma of the sigmoid and rectum extending up to 40 cm in the left colon through endoscopy, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. The diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy. This patient was successful managed conservatively with tranexamic acid as needed, avoiding the need for resection.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Hemangioma Cavernoso/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo Sigmoide/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Colonoscopia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemangioma Cavernoso/diagnóstico , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo Sigmoide/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Conduta Expectante
14.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 27(14): 3167-3178, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186146

RESUMO

Pyrazoloquinolinones (PQs) have been extensively studied as modulators of GABAA receptors with different subunit composition, exerting modulatory effects by binding at α+/ß- interfaces of GABAA receptors. PQs with a substituent in position R7 have been reported to preferentially modulate α6- subunit containing GABAA receptors which are mostly expressed in the cerebellum but were also found in the olfactory bulb, in the cochlear nucleus, in the hippocampus and in the trigeminal sensory pathway. They are considered potentially interesting in the context of sensori-motor gating deficits, depressive-like behavior, migraine and orofacial pain. Here we explored the option to modify the lead ligands' R7 position. In the compound series we observed two different patterns of allosteric modulation in recombinantly expressed α6ß3γ2 receptors, namely monophasic and biphasic positive modulation. In the latter case the additional phase occurred in the nanomolar range, while all compounds displayed robust modulation in the micromolar range. Nanomolar, near silent binding has been reported to occur at benzodiazepine binding sites, but was not investigated at the diazepam insensitive α6+/γ2- interface. To clarify the mechanism underlying the biphasic effect we tested one of the compounds in concatenated receptors. In these constructs the subunits are covalently linked, allowing to form either the α6+/γ2- interface, or the α6+/ß3- interface, to study the resulting modulation. With this approach we were able to ascribe the nanomolar modulation to the α6+/γ2- interface. While not all compounds display the nanomolar phase, the strong modulation at the α6+/ß3 interface proved to be tolerant for all tested R7 groups. This provides the future option to introduce e.g. isotope labelled or fluorescent moieties or substituents that enhance solubility and bioavailability.


Assuntos
Quinolonas/química , Receptores de GABA-A/química , Sítios de Ligação , Humanos , Ligantes
15.
AACE Clin Case Rep ; 5(3): e204-e209, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967035

RESUMO

Objective: Hürthle cell tumors constitute about 5% of thyroid neoplasms. They have malignant potential, behaving very aggressively compared to other differentiated thyroid cancers. The objective of this case report is to describe a case of a Hürthle cell carcinoma with a single large metastasis in the liver presenting almost 17 years after hemithyroidectomy. We highlight the difficulties in making a histologic diagnosis and the unpredictable nature of this cancer. Methods: The patient history and biochemistry were detailed. Thyroid function tests analyzed on multiple platforms (single-photon emission computed tomography, dynamic magnetic resonance imaging, technetium-99m bone scan, and radioactive iodine) were used to aid biochemical and radiologic diagnosis. Results: The patient's thyroid function test showed persistently low free thyroxine concentrations with normal thyroid stimulating hormone and free triiodothyronine, suggesting rapid deiodination in the context of a large liver lesion. Radiologic and morphologic appearances of the liver lesion led to an initial misdiagnosis of primary hepato-cellular carcinoma, revised to metastatic Hürthle cell carcinoma after positive immunochemistry. Nonparathyroid hormone-related intractable hypercalcemia of malignancy with an unusual pattern of elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and raised fibroblast growth factor 23 concentrations culminated in his demise. Conclusions: In Hürthle cell carcinomas treated with partial thyroidectomy, subsequent abnormal thyroid functions tests may herald a more sinister underlying diagnosis. The management of Hürthle cell carcinoma relies heavily on the initial histology results. Histologic diagnosis should be sought earlier in abnormal and suspicious distant masses. Malignant hypercalcemia poses a great challenge in delayed presentations and can prove resistant to conventional treatments.

16.
Appl Opt ; 57(17): 4795-4801, 2018 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30118100

RESUMO

We propose a differential interference contrast method for cells using hard x-ray Gabor holography and knife-edge filtering in the spatial frequency domain, without relying on beam shearing. A phase object is holographically recorded and reconstructed by computer. Interference between the wavefronts of zeroth order weighted by ejπ/2 in the positive frequency region produces a dark image. Similarly, interference between the wavefronts of the zeroth order weighted by ej3π/2 in the negative frequency region produces a bright image. By adding these two intensity distributions, good quality phase-contrast images of 8-µm-diameter polystyrene beads and human HeLa cells were obtained.


Assuntos
Holografia/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Microscopia de Contraste de Fase/métodos , Microesferas , Células HeLa/patologia , Humanos , Poliestirenos , Raios X
17.
Colorectal Dis ; 19(12): 1050-1057, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29028289

RESUMO

AIMS: The objective of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcomes and feasibility of early loop defunctioning ileostomy closure, within 2 weeks of index surgery, in patients undergoing distal colorectal resection. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature on published randomized controlled trials reporting the feasibility and outcomes on early vs delayed closure of loop defunctioning ileostomy in patients undergoing distal colorectal resection using the principles of meta-analysis on RevMan 5.4 statistical software was undertaken. RESULTS: Four randomized, controlled trials on 446 patients evaluating the feasibility and outcomes on early vs delayed closure of loop defunctioning ileostomy in patients undergoing low colorectal resection were analysed. There were 176 patients in the early closure group and 270 patients in the delayed closure group. The risk of anastomotic leak [risk ratio 0.37 (CI: 0.10-1.42), P = 0.15], anastomotic stenosis [risk ratio 4.79 (CI: 0.23-98.47), P = 0.31] and postoperative complications [risk ratio 0.75 (CI: 0.48-1.16), P = 0.19] was similar in both groups. In addition, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to the duration of operation [standardized mean difference -0.49 (CI: -01.09, -0.12), P = 0.12] and length of hospitalization [standardized mean difference -0.04 (CI: -0.25, -0.18), P = 0.75]. CONCLUSIONS: Early closure of loop defunctioning ileostomy in patients undergoing distal colorectal resection is feasible with comparable outcomes to delayed closure.


Assuntos
Colo/cirurgia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Ileostomia/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Reto/cirurgia , Idoso , Anastomose Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Anastomose Cirúrgica/métodos , Fístula Anastomótica/etiologia , Constrição Patológica/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ileostomia/efeitos adversos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Duração da Cirurgia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Int Nurs Rev ; 64(4): 536-543, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28786210

RESUMO

AIM: To determine factors contributing to stress experienced by preregistration nursing students in Pakistan, using the Stressors in Nursing Students scale. The aim was to explore the psychometric properties of this instrument and to investigate the effect of a range of demographic variables on the perception of stressors in nursing students. BACKGROUND: Nursing is a stressful profession, and nursing students may experience more stress due to competing demands and challenges of nursing education, assessment, placements and worries about employment prospects. METHODS: In this cross-sectional survey, data from 726 nursing students from 11 schools of nursing in Karachi, Pakistan, were collected using a questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive as well inferential statistics. An exploratory factor analysis was also conducted. RESULTS: There was no apparent factor structure to the Stressors in Nursing Students scale, unlike in previous studies. The total score on the Stressors in Nursing Students scale was related to gender with males scoring higher. The score generally increased over 4 years of the programme, and students in private schools of nursing scored higher than those in public schools of nursing. CONCLUSION: Nursing students in Pakistan do not appear to differentiate between different stressors, and this may be due to cultural differences in the students and to the structure of the programme and the articulation between the academic and clinical aspects. Likewise, cultural reasons may account for differences between stress experienced by male and female students. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING AND POLICY: The fact that scores on the Stressors in Nursing Students scale increased over 4 years of the programme and males scored higher than females should alert nursing schools and policymakers related to nursing education and workforce to pay attention to prevent attrition from nursing programmes.


Assuntos
Currículo , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Estresse Psicológico , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Psicometria , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Clin Genet ; 92(1): 62-68, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28004384

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a rare and heterogeneous genetic disorder characterized by reduced head circumference, low cognitive prowess and, in general, architecturally normal brains. As many as 14 different loci have already been mapped. We recruited 35 MCPH families in Pakistan and could identify the genetic cause of the disease in 31 of them. Using homozygosity mapping complemented with whole-exome, gene panel or Sanger sequencing, we identified 12 novel mutations in 3 known MCPH-associated genes - 9 in ASPM, 2 in MCPH1 and 1 in CDK5RAP2. The 2 MCPH1 mutations were homozygous microdeletions of 164,250 and 577,594 bp, respectively, for which we were able to map the exact breakpoints. We also identified four known mutations - three in ASPM and one in WDR62. The latter was initially deemed to be a missense mutation but we demonstrate here that it affects splicing. As to ASPM, as many as 17 out of 27 MCPH5 families that we ascertained in our sample were found to carry the previously reported founder mutation p.Trp1326*. This study adds to the mutational spectra of four known MCPH-associated genes and updates our knowledge about the genetic heterogeneity of MCPH in the Pakistani population considering its ethnic diversity.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Microcefalia/fisiopatologia , Mutação , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Linhagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
20.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 35(9): 1541-7, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27262852

RESUMO

Comparatively few studies have been published describing Staphylococcus aureus/MRSA epidemiology in Central Asia including Pakistan. Here, we report the genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains (that include both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) from community- and hospital-acquired skin and soft-tissue infections in a tertiary care hospital in the Malakand district of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. Forty-five isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were characterized by microarray hybridization. Twenty isolates (44 %) were MRSA, whereas 22 (49 %) were PVL-positive. Fourteen isolates (31 %) harboured both mecA and PVL genes. The dominant clones were CC121-MSSA (n = 15, 33 %) and the PVL-positive "Bengal Bay Clone" (ST772-MRSA-V; n = 13, 29 %). The PVL-positive CC8-MRSA-IV strain "USA300" was found once. The pandemic ST239-MRSA-III strain was absent, although it has previously been observed in Pakistan. These observations require a re-assessment of schemes for initial antibiotic therapy to cover MRSA and they emphasise the need for a rapid and non-molecular test for PVL.


Assuntos
Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Exotoxinas/genética , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Leucocidinas/genética , Análise em Microsséries , Epidemiologia Molecular , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/epidemiologia , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Centros de Atenção Terciária
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