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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254513, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360222

RESUMO

Abstract Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a recently defined vaginal recurring infection, which is treated with antibiotics. However, excessive and prolonged use of antibiotics disrupts healthy vaginal microflora and leads to the emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens. This situation has directed researchers to explore alternative antimicrobials. The current study describes in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial efficacy and pharmaceutical interactions between plant essential oils (EOs) and five lactic acid bacteria (LABs), isolated from the healthy vagina, against E. faecalis, one of the major etiological agents of AV. In vitro experiments confirm good antimicrobial activity of both plant EOs and cell free supernatant (CFS) from LABs. Based on high antimicrobial efficacy, Moringa essential oil (MO) was selected to determine its nature of interaction with CFS of five LAB strains. Synergism was recorded between MO and CFS of L. reuteri (MT180537). To validate in vitro findings, prophylactic responses of individual and synergistic application of MO and L. reuteri (MT180537) were evaluated in an E. faecalis (MW051601) induced AV murine model. The prophylactic efficacy was evidenced by a reduction in intensity of clinical symptoms, E. faecalis (MW051601) count per vaginal tissue along with a reduction in AV associated changes in histological markers of infection in animals receiving Moringa essential oil and L. reuteri (MT180537) alone or in combination. However, significant synergism between Moringa essential oil and L. reuteri (MT180537) could not be observed. Our data confirms the importance of in vivo experiments in deducing pharmacological interactions.


Resumo Vaginite aeróbica (VA) é uma infecção vaginal recorrente definida recentemente, que é tratada com antibióticos. No entanto, o uso excessivo e prolongado de antibióticos perturba a microflora vaginal saudável e leva ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos entre os patógenos. Esta situação levou os pesquisadores a explorar antimicrobianos alternativos. O presente estudo descreve a eficácia antimicrobiana in vitro e in vivo e as interações farmacêuticas entre óleos essenciais vegetais (OE) e cinco bactérias lácticas (BAL), isoladas de vagina sã, contra E. faecalis, um dos principais agentes etiológicos da AV. Os experimentos in vitro confirmam a boa atividade antimicrobiana de ambos os EOs de plantas e sobrenadante livre de células (CFS) de LABs. Com base na alta eficácia antimicrobiana, o óleo essencial de Moringa (MO) foi selecionado para determinar sua natureza de interação com o sobrenadante livre de células (CFS) de cinco cepas de LAB. Sinergismo foi registrado entre MO e CFS de L. reuteri (MT180537). Para validar os resultados in vitro, as respostas profiláticas da aplicação individual e sinérgica de MO e L. reuteri (MT180537) foram avaliadas em um modelo murino AV induzido por E. faecalis (MW051601). A eficácia profilática foi evidenciada por uma redução na intensidade dos sintomas clínicos, contagem de E. faecalis (MW051601) por tecido vaginal, juntamente com uma redução nas alterações associadas a AV nos marcadores histológicos de infecção em animais que receberam óleo essencial de Moringa e L. reuteri (MT180537) sozinho ou em combinação. No entanto, não foi possível observar sinergismo significativo entre o óleo essencial de Moringa e L. reuteri (MT180537). Nossos dados confirmam a importância dos experimentos in vivo na dedução de interações farmacológicas.

2.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-14, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765512

RESUMO

A huge amount of rice cultivation and consumption occur in Asia particularly in Pakistan and China. However, multiple abiotic stresses especially high and low-temperature proved to be a substantial threat for rice production ultimately risks for food security. To overcome various types of abiotic stress; seed priming is among the effective approaches to improve the rice seed germination and growth vigor. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate physiological and biochemical modifications in Chinese and Pakistani rice varieties by Qiangdi 863 biological assistant growth apparatus nano treated water (NTW), Osmo priming Calcium chloride (CaCl2), redoxpriming hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hormonal priming by Salicylic acid (SA) under temperature stress conditions. The experiment was performed with completely randomize design conditions. Five rice varieties, nomenclature as Zhongzoa 39, (Chinese rice variety) KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati and PK 1121 aromatic (Pakistani rice variety) were sown under low temperature (LT) (17ºC), optimal temperature (OT) 27ºC and high temperature (HT) 37ºC conditions. The present study indicated that nanopriming were the most effective treatments increased Germination Energy Percentage (GEP) (96.1, 100, 100%), Speed of Germination (SG) (27.2, 35.45, 37.1), Final Germination Percentage (FGP) (98.2, 99.1, 99.4%), Seedling Dry Weight Biomass (DWB) (0.1, 0.137, 0.14g), Total Chlorophyll Content (0.502, 13.74, 15.21), antioxidant enzymes Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)(3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh-1), Catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) and decreased Malondialdehyde (MDA) (6.5, 12.2, 6.5 µmol g-1 FW) for Zhongzao 39 and KSK 133 rice varieties under low (LT+NTW), optimal temperature (OP+NTW) and high temperature (HT+NTW) stress., Therefore, nano-priming is recommended to cope with the high and low-temperature stress conditions along with improved productivity of rice.(AU)


Cultivo e consumo de arroz ocorrem em grandes quantidades na Ásia, particularmente no Paquistão e na China. No entanto, vários estresses abióticos, especialmente de alta e baixa temperatura, provaram ser uma ameaça considerável para a produção de arroz, em última análise, riscos para a segurança alimentar. Para superar vários tipos de estresse abiótico, o priming de sementes está entre as abordagens eficazes que melhoram a germinação e o vigor de crescimento das sementes de arroz. Portanto, o presente estudo foi planejado para avaliar as modificações fisiológicas e bioquímicas em variedades de arroz chinês e paquistanês por Qiangdi 863, aparelho assistente biológico de crescimento com água nanotratada (NTW), Osmopriming cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2), peróxido de hidrogênio redox (H2O2) e priming hormonal por ácido salicílico (SA) em condições de estresse de temperatura. O experimento foi realizado em condições de delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Cinco variedades de arroz, nomenclaturas como Zhongzoa 39 (variedade de arroz chinês), KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati e PK 1121 aromático (variedade de arroz do Paquistão) foram semeadas sob baixa temperatura (LT) (17 ºC), temperatura ótima (OT) 27 ºC e condições de alta temperatura (HT) 37 ºC. O presente estudo indicou que nanocondicionamento foi o tratamento mais eficaz: aumento da porcentagem de energia de germinação (GEP) (96,1%, 100%, 100%), velocidade de germinação (SG) (27,2, 35,45, 37,1), porcentagem de germinação final (FGP) (98,2%, 99,1%, 99,4%), biomassa de peso seco de mudas (DWB) (0,1 g, 0,137 g, 0,14 g), conteúdo total de clorofila (0,502, 13,74, 15,21), enzimas antioxidantes superóxido dismutase (SOD) (3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh- 1), catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) e malondialdeído diminuído (MDA) (6,5, 12,2, 6,5 µmol g-1 FW) para as variedades de arroz Zhongzao 39 e KSK 133 sob baixo (LT + NTW), temperatura ótima (OP + NTW) e estresse de alta temperatura [...].(AU)


Assuntos
Oryza/fisiologia , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Estresse Fisiológico
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245206, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339387

RESUMO

Abstract A huge amount of rice cultivation and consumption occur in Asia particularly in Pakistan and China. However, multiple abiotic stresses especially high and low-temperature proved to be a substantial threat for rice production ultimately risks for food security. To overcome various types of abiotic stress; seed priming is among the effective approaches to improve the rice seed germination and growth vigor. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate physiological and biochemical modifications in Chinese and Pakistani rice varieties by Qiangdi 863 biological assistant growth apparatus nano treated water (NTW), Osmopriming Calcium chloride (CaCl2), redox priming hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hormonal priming by Salicylic acid (SA) under temperature stress conditions. The experiment was performed with completely randomize design conditions. Five rice varieties, nomenclature as Zhongzoa 39, (Chinese rice variety) KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati and PK 1121 aromatic (Pakistani rice variety) were sown under low temperature (LT) (17ºC), optimal temperature (OT) 27ºC and high temperature (HT) 37ºC conditions. The present study indicated that nanopriming were the most effective treatments increased Germination Energy Percentage (GEP) (96.1, 100, 100%), Speed of Germination (SG) (27.2, 35.45, 37.1), Final Germination Percentage (FGP) (98.2, 99.1, 99.4%), Seedling Dry Weight Biomass (DWB) (0.1, 0.137, 0.14g), Total Chlorophyll Content (0.502, 13.74, 15.21), antioxidant enzymes Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)(3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh-1), Catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) and decreased Malondialdehyde (MDA) (6.5, 12.2, 6.5 µmol g-1 FW) for Zhongzao 39 and KSK 133 rice varieties under low (LT+NTW), optimal temperature (OP+NTW) and high temperature (HT+NTW) stress., Therefore, nano-priming is recommended to cope with the high and low-temperature stress conditions along with improved productivity of rice.


Resumo Cultivo e consumo de arroz ocorrem em grandes quantidades na Ásia, particularmente no Paquistão e na China. No entanto, vários estresses abióticos, especialmente de alta e baixa temperatura, provaram ser uma ameaça considerável para a produção de arroz, em última análise, riscos para a segurança alimentar. Para superar vários tipos de estresse abiótico, o priming de sementes está entre as abordagens eficazes que melhoram a germinação e o vigor de crescimento das sementes de arroz. Portanto, o presente estudo foi planejado para avaliar as modificações fisiológicas e bioquímicas em variedades de arroz chinês e paquistanês por Qiangdi 863, aparelho assistente biológico de crescimento com água nanotratada (NTW), Osmopriming cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2), peróxido de hidrogênio redox (H2O2) e priming hormonal por ácido salicílico (SA) em condições de estresse de temperatura. O experimento foi realizado em condições de delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Cinco variedades de arroz, nomenclaturas como Zhongzoa 39 (variedade de arroz chinês), KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati e PK 1121 aromático (variedade de arroz do Paquistão) foram semeadas sob baixa temperatura (LT) (17 ºC), temperatura ótima (OT) 27 ºC e condições de alta temperatura (HT) 37 ºC. O presente estudo indicou que nanocondicionamento foi o tratamento mais eficaz: aumento da porcentagem de energia de germinação (GEP) (96,1%, 100%, 100%), velocidade de germinação (SG) (27,2, 35,45, 37,1), porcentagem de germinação final (FGP) (98,2%, 99,1%, 99,4%), biomassa de peso seco de mudas (DWB) (0,1 g, 0,137 g, 0,14 g), conteúdo total de clorofila (0,502, 13,74, 15,21), enzimas antioxidantes superóxido dismutase (SOD) (3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh- 1), catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) e malondialdeído diminuído (MDA) (6,5, 12,2, 6,5 µmol g-1 FW) para as variedades de arroz Zhongzao 39 e KSK 133 sob baixo (LT + NTW), temperatura ótima (OP + NTW) e estresse de alta temperatura (HT + NTW). Portanto, o nanopriming é recomendado para lidar com as condições de estresse de alta e baixa temperatura, juntamente com a produtividade aprimorada do arroz.


Assuntos
Oryza , Sementes , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura , Germinação , Plântula , Peróxido de Hidrogênio
4.
Clin Radiol ; 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550302

RESUMO

AIM: To report the technical success of image and endoscopy-guided retrograde trans-urostomy urinary drainage as a primary catheter placement method performed by interventional radiology (IR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine patients (15 attempted drain placements) with ureteric obstruction following radical cystectomy and urostomy creation were included. The patients were referred to IR for urinary drainage. All patients underwent primary image and endoscopy-guided retrograde trans-urostomy urinary drainage. RESULTS: Primary image and endoscopy-guided retrograde trans-urostomy urinary drainage was successful in 13/15 (86.6%) attempts. The proposed technique had a limited complication rate omitting the percutaneous nephrostomy access step. CONCLUSION: Primary image and endoscopy guided retrograde trans-urostomy urinary drainage should be considered before percutaneous nephrostomy in all patients with a urostomy.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260615, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544796

RESUMO

This article describes the environmental impacts of producing a single seedling in forest nurseries of selected districts (i.e., Haripur, Abbottabad, and Mansehra) of Hazara Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan using the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. This study was based on the cradle-to-gate approach which begins with the pre-nursery stage and progresses toward the main nursery before transplanting seedlings into the plantation site. Data or life cycle inventory (LCI) of seedling production were collected through questionnaire surveys and personal meetings with forest nurseries managers and workers regarding consumption of different inputs such as electricity, diesel, fertilizers, herbicides, and polyethylene bags, organic manure, and water consumption. The SimaPro software version 8.5 and the CML2000 v2.05 environmental model was applied to perform life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) for a single seedling production in forest nurseries in the study area. In line with the objectives of the study, primary data regarding inputs and outputs of the nurseries were collected from 35 nurseries in the study area by using a random questionnaire method. In addition, secondary data were taken from online databases such as Eco-invent v.3.2 CORRIM and peer-reviewed published literature. For this study, a functional unit of a single seedling was considered. Production weighted average data were modeled in the latest environmental modeling software i.e., SimaPro v.8.5 for ten US-EPA most wanted environmental impacts, such as global warming potential (GWP), abiotic depletion (AD), eutrophication potential (EP), acidification potential (AP), freshwater aquatic eco-toxicity (FAE), marine water eco-toxicity (MWE), terrestrial eco-toxicity (TE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), photochemical oxidation (PO), and human toxicity (HT). The results showed that the highest environmental impact posed by a single seedling was marine aquatic eco-toxicity (11.31360 kg 1,4-DB eq), followed by global warming potential (0.02945 kg CO2 eq) and (0.01227 kg 1,4-DB eq) human toxicity. The primary reason for these environmental burdens was the use of synthetic fertilizers in forest nurseries and the consumption of fossil fuels in nursery mechanization and transportation activities. The total cumulative energy demand for a single seedling was (0.800 MJ) with more than 90% contribution from fossil fuel energy resources such as petrol and diesel. It is therefore highly recommended to use renewable energy resources and organic fertilizers instead of chemical fertilizers in forest nurseries to avoid and minimize greenhouse gas emissions (GHS) and other toxic emissions in the study area.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Plântula , Florestas , Combustíveis Fósseis , Humanos , Paquistão
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35351394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As rates of breast cancer and type II diabetes increase, so does the number of women with diabetes undergoing breast reconstruction (BR). Patients with diabetes are at increased risk of postoperative complications. This meta-analysis seeks to evaluate the post-operative outcomes of women with diabetes who underwent BR following mastectomy. METHOD: This review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The EMBASE, PUBMED, and MEDLINE electronic databases were searched from inception to November 1, 2020 for studies published in English. Outcomes evaluated were overall complications, surgical complications, and longer hospital stay. Subgroup analysis investigated outcomes, such as implant/flap failure, infection, and necrosis. RESULTS: Sixty-five studies met our inclusion criteria and 38 provided data to be included in the meta-analysis. A total of 151,585 patients were included, of which 9299 had diabetes. Women with diabetes were more likely to experience overall complications (11.6% vs 5.6%; p<0.0001) and surgical complications (7.7% vs 3.3%; p<0.0001), and were more likely to have a prolonged hospital stay (p = 0.04) than women without diabetes. Subgroup analysis showed that implant loss (2.5% vs 1.6%; p = 0.0003), infection (6.8% vs 2.5%; p<0.0001) and necrosis (23.8% vs 6.5; p = 0.001) were significantly higher in women with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that diabetes mellitus increases the risk of complications in patients with breast cancer undergoing BR after mastectomy. Prospective studies are required to establish whether diabetes that is well-controlled prior to reconstruction, including diabetes that is paired with adjuvant radiation therapy, reduces the perioperative risks.

7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 9863616, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35299896

RESUMO

Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticle- (NP-) decorated carbon NPs (CNPs) were produced as colloidal suspension through pulsed laser ablation technique in liquid (PLAL) medium. The antimicrobial activity of the produced NPs was tested against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), and anticancer activity was tested against breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, together with the biocompatibility assessment of these NPs. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the obtained CNPs showed peaks at 26.58° and 43.78° (2θ) identical to (002) and (111) planes, respectively, of the carbon phases. It also displayed new peaks at 38.5° and 48.64° (2θ) after doping with CuO NPs. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images revealed the crystalline nature with the spherical shape of the prepared CNPs with 5-40 nm diameter ranges. In addition, the NP effects on the bacterial cell walls and nucleic acid were confirmed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and microscopic fluorescence analysis. The NPs showed antibacterial activity through SEM examinations against the pathogenic microbial species, S. aureus and E. coli. In the cellular material release assay, the optical density of the bacterial cells, treated with NPs, displayed a significant increase with the time of exposure to NPs, and the cytotoxicity reached more than 80% of the level for the CNPs decorated with CuO NPs. The morphology of the MCF-7 cells treated with NPs decreased numbers, and the loss of contact with the surrounding cells was observed. These results confirmed that the CNPs decorated with CuO NPs have no observable side effects and can be safely used for therapeutic applications. It is also noteworthy that it is the first report of preparation of CuO NPs decorated with CNPs (CuO NPs-CNPs) by PLAL, and the produced NPs showed antimicrobial antiproliferative activities against breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7. The main advantage of the PLAL technique of synthesizing CuO NPs-CNPs provided a two-step, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Carbono/química , Carbono/farmacologia , Cobre/química , Cobre/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Coloides/química , Coloides/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia a Laser , Células MCF-7 , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
PeerJ ; 10: e13029, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35251787

RESUMO

Milk is an excellent source of nutrients for humans. Therefore, in order to enhance the quality and production of milk in cattle, it is interesting to examine the underlying mechanisms. A number of new investigations and research have found that, circRNA; a specific class of non-coding RNAs, is linked with the development of mammary gland and lactation. In the present study, genome wide identification and expression of the circRNAs in mammary epithelial cells of two distinct cattle breeds viz Jersey and Kashmiri at peak lactation was conducted. We reported 1554 and 1286 circRNA in Jersey and Kashmiri cattle, respectively, with 21 circRNAs being differentially expressed in the two breeds. The developmental genes of the established differentially expressed circRNAs were found to be largely enriched in antioxidant activity, progesterone, estradiol, lipid, growth hormone, and drug response. Certain pathways like MAPK, IP3K and immune response pathways were found significantly enriched in KEGG analysis. These results add to our understanding of the controlling mechanisms connected with the lactation process, as well as the function of circRNAs in bovine milk synthesis. Additionally, the comparative analysis of differentially expressed circRNAs showed significant conservation across different species.

9.
Front Oncol ; 12: 841303, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35273919

RESUMO

SNTA1 signaling axis plays an essential role in cytoskeletal organization and is also implicated in breast cancers. In this study, we aimed to investigate the involvement of actin cytoskeleton in the propagation of SNTA1/p66shc mediated pro-metastatic cascade in breast cancer cells.The effect of actin filament depolymerization on SNTA1-p66Shc interaction and the trimeric complex formation was analyzed using co-immunoprecipitation assays. Immunofluorescence and RhoA activation assays were used to show the involvement of SNTA1-p66Shc interaction in RhoA activation and F-actin organization. Cellular proliferation and ROS levels were assessed using MTT assay and Amplex red catalase assay. The migratory potential was evaluated using transwell migration assay and wound healing assay.We found that cytochalasin D mediated actin depolymerization significantly declines endogenous interaction between SNTA1 and p66Shc protein in MDA-MB-231 cells. Results indicate that SNTA1 and p66Shc interact with RhoA protein under physiological conditions. The ROS generation and RhoA activation were substantially enhanced in cells overexpressing SNTA1 and p66Shc, promoting proliferation and migration in these cells. In addition, we found that loss of SNTA1-p66Shc interaction impaired actin organization, proliferation, and migration in breast cancer cells. Our results demonstrate a novel reciprocal regulatory mechanism between actin modulation and SNTA1/p66Shc/RhoA signaling cascade in human metastatic breast cancer cells.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216263

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are water-soluble, colored compounds of the flavonoid class, abundantly found in the fruits, leaves, roots, and other parts of the plants. The fruit berries are prime sources and exhibit different colors. The anthocyanins utility as traditional medicament for liver protection and cure, and importance as strongest plants-based anti-oxidants have conferred these plants products different biological activities. These activities include anti-inflammation, liver protective, analgesic, and anti-cancers, which have provided the anthocyanins an immense commercial value, and has impelled their chemistry, biological activity, isolation, and quality investigations as prime focus. Methods in extraction and production of anthocyanin-based products have assumed vital economic importance. Different extraction techniques in aquatic solvents mixtures, eutectic solvents, and other chemically reactive extractions including low acid concentrations-based extractions have been developed. The prophylactic and curative therapy roles of the anthocyanins, together with no reported toxicity has offered much-needed impetus and economic benefits to these classes of compounds which are commercially available. Information retrieval from various search engines, including the PubMed®, ScienceDirect®, Scopus®, and Google Scholar®, were used in the review preparation. This imparted an outlook on the anthocyanins occurrence, roles in plants, isolation-extraction, structures, biosynthetic as well as semi- and total-synthetic pathways, product quality and yields enhancements, including uses as part of traditional medicines, and uses in liver disorders, prophylactic and therapeutic applications in liver protection and longevity, liver cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. The review also highlights the integrated approach to yields maximizations to meet the regular demands of the anthocyanins products, also as part of the extract-rich preparations together with a listing of marketed products available for human consumption as nutraceuticals/food supplements.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos
11.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e254513, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35195170

RESUMO

Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a recently defined vaginal recurring infection, which is treated with antibiotics. However, excessive and prolonged use of antibiotics disrupts healthy vaginal microflora and leads to the emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens. This situation has directed researchers to explore alternative antimicrobials. The current study describes in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial efficacy and pharmaceutical interactions between plant essential oils (EOs) and five lactic acid bacteria (LABs), isolated from the healthy vagina, against E. faecalis, one of the major etiological agents of AV. In vitro experiments confirm good antimicrobial activity of both plant EOs and cell free supernatant (CFS) from LABs. Based on high antimicrobial efficacy, Moringa essential oil (MO) was selected to determine its nature of interaction with CFS of five LAB strains. Synergism was recorded between MO and CFS of L. reuteri (MT180537). To validate in vitro findings, prophylactic responses of individual and synergistic application of MO and L. reuteri (MT180537) were evaluated in an E. faecalis (MW051601) induced AV murine model. The prophylactic efficacy was evidenced by a reduction in intensity of clinical symptoms, E. faecalis (MW051601) count per vaginal tissue along with a reduction in AV associated changes in histological markers of infection in animals receiving Moringa essential oil and L. reuteri (MT180537) alone or in combination. However, significant synergism between Moringa essential oil and L. reuteri (MT180537) could not be observed. Our data confirms the importance of in vivo experiments in deducing pharmacological interactions.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus reuteri , Moringa , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
12.
Bioinorg Chem Appl ; 2022: 1854473, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35116061

RESUMO

Iron oxide and titania-based composite nanoparticles (NPs) populated with core-shell structures, as part of the mixture of the monometallic NPs, were prepared in water medium by the two-fluence LASER ablation technique by applying 30 and 60 mJ/cm2 LASER energy irradiations. The prepared monometallics, composite, and core-shell NPs structures were confirmed from the XRD, TEM, and EDX analyses, followed by the FE-SEM and UV absorptions. Optically, the NPs exhibited an increase in the energy gap from 3.27 eV to 3.75 eV as LASER fluence increased from 30 mJ/cm2 to 60 mJ/cm2. The average NPs core size distributions for the core-shell material ranged at ∼70 nm with the shell thickness around 20 nm. The biggest NPs were of ∼170 nm size which were sparsely distributed. The magnetization behaviors of the NPs were also investigated using the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The NPs showed antimicrobial activities against the pathogenic species: Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial activities of the synthesized NPs, synthesized under the influence of magnetic fields, were found to be more potent than the NPs synthesized without the presence of any magnetic field. The NPs prepared under the influence of the magnetic fields also comparatively exhibited higher levels of cytotoxicity against lung cancer cell lines (A549) than the NPs prepared under no magnetic field's influence by the similar energy level effects of the LASER fluence. The flow cytometry analyses confirmed the NPs' cytotoxic impacts against the human lung cancer A549 cell lines through the initiation of apoptosis and promotion of the cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase of cell division. To further confirm the cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of the anticancer activity of the synthesized NPs against the A549 cell lines, several related parameters (cell viability, membrane permeability, nuclear intensity, and cytochrome-C release) were analyzed using the high-content screening (HCS) assay. The study suggested that the prepared NPs have potential as antimicrobial and also as anti-lung-cancer agents as tested in vitro. These NPs can also be part of combined chemotherapy in different oncological interventions, as well as a sonosensitizer in sonomagnetic heating-based therapy, especially for cancers.

13.
Reprod Sci ; 29(1): 229-242, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160778

RESUMO

Evidence to date supports regulatory T cell (Treg) alterations in endometriosis; however, the relationship remains unclear, and Tregs have not previously been investigated with respect to infertility in endometriosis. This prospective cross-sectional cohort study details circulating and endometrial tissue-specific disturbances in Tregs and broader gated populations in women of reproductive age with and without endometriosis (n = 57 and 29, respectively) using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Participants were characterised by menstrual cycle phase, r-ASRM endometriosis disease stage and fertility status.In the endometrium of women with endometriosis, endometrial Tregs and CD4+ lymphocyte proportions did not change between the proliferative and secretory phases, while in women without the disease, they significantly decreased (p = 0.045 and p = 0.039, respectively). In women with endometriosis, endometrial Tregs were lower than in women without endometriosis overall (p = 0.050 as a proportion of all CD45+ immune cells). We have shown for the first time that proportions of CD4+ lymphocytes (p = 0.021), overall lymphocytes (p = 0.034) and non-granulocytes (p = 0.027) were significantly decreased in the endometrium of women with moderate-severe (r-ASRM stages III and IV) compared to minimal-mild (r-ASRM stages I and II) endometriosis. During the secretory phase, circulating Treg proportions were significantly increased in infertile compared to fertile women (p = 0.049). This study confirms differences in endometrial Tregs in women with endometriosis, with blunting of normal menstrual cyclical variations, reduced proportions during the proliferative phase and disease stage-specific relationships.


Assuntos
Endometriose/metabolismo , Endométrio/metabolismo , Infertilidade Feminina/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Epitélio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686017

RESUMO

Four halophytic plants, Lycium shawii, Anabasis articulata, Rumex vesicarius, and Zilla spinosa, growing in the central Qassim area, Saudi Arabia, were phytochemically and biologically investigated. Their hydroalcoholic extracts' UPLC-ESIQ-TOF analyses demonstrated the presence of 44 compounds of phenolic acids, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, and fatty acids chemical classes. Among all the plants' extracts, L. shawii showed the highest quantities of total phenolics, and flavonoids contents (52.72 and 13.01 mg/gm of the gallic acid and quercetin equivalents, respectively), along with the antioxidant activity in the TAA (total antioxidant activity), FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), and DPPH-SA (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-scavenging activity) assays with 25.6, 56.68, and 19.76 mg/gm, respectively, as Trolox equivalents. The hydroalcoholic extract of the L. shawii also demonstrated the best chelating activity at 21.84 mg/gm EDTA equivalents. Among all the four halophytes, the hydroalcoholic extract of L. shawii exhibited the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF7 and K562 cell lines with IC50 values at 194.5 µg/mL and 464.9 µg/mL, respectively. The hydroalcoholic extract of A. articulata demonstrated better cytotoxic activity amongst all the tested plants' extracts against the human pancreatic cancer cell lines (PANC1) with an IC50 value of 998.5 µg/mL. The L. shawii induced apoptosis in the MCF7 cell lines, and the percentage of the necrotic cells changed to 28.1% and 36.5% for the IC50 and double-IC50 values at 22.9% compared with the untreated groups. The hydroalcoholic extract of L. shawii showed substantial antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876 with a MIC value of 12.5 mg/mL. By contrast, the A. articulata and Z. spinosa exhibited antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275 with MIC values at 12.5 and 50 mg/mL, respectively. These findings suggested that the L. shawii is a potential halophyte with remarkable biological properties, attributed to its contents of phenolics and flavonoid classes of compounds in its extract.

15.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641301

RESUMO

Sage, Salvia officinalis L., is used worldwide as an aromatic herb for culinary purposes as well as a traditional medicinal agent for various ailments. Current investigations exhibited the effects of extended dryings of the herb on the yields, composition, oil quality, and hepatoprotective as well as anti-cancer biological activities of the hydrodistillation-obtained essential oils from the aerial parts of the plant. The essential oils' yields, compositions, and biological activities levels of the fresh and differently timed and room-temperature dried herbs differed significantly. The lowest yields of the essential oil were obtained from the fresh herbs (FH, 631 mg, 0.16%), while the highest yield was obtained from the two-week dried herbs (2WDH, 1102 mg, 0.28%). A notable decrease in monoterpenes, with increment in the sesquiterpene constituents, was observed for the FH-based essential oil as compared to all the other batches of the essential oils obtained from the different-timed dried herbs. Additionally, characteristic chemotypic constituents of sage, i.e., α-pinene, camphene, ß-pinene, myrcene, 1, 8-cineole, α-thujone, and camphor, were present in significantly higher proportions in all the dried herbs' essential oils as compared to the FH-based essential oil. The in vivo hepatoprotective activity demonstrated significant reductions in the levels of AST, ALT, and ALP, as well as a significant increase in the total protein (p < 0.05) contents level, as compared to the acetaminophen (AAP) administered experimental group of rats. A significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the ALT level was demonstrated by the 4WDH-based essential oil in comparison to the FH-based essential oil. The levels of creatinine, cholesterol, and triglycerides were reduced (p < 0.05) in the pre-treated rats by the essential oil batches, with non-significant differences found among them as a result of the herbs dryings based oils. A notable increase in the viability of the cells, and total antioxidant capacity (TAOxC) levels, together with the reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were observed by the essential oils obtained from all the batches as compared with the AAP-treated cell-lines, HepG-2, HeLa, and MCF-7, that indicated the in vitro hepatoprotective effects of the sage essential oils. However, significant improvements in the in vivo and in vitro hepatoprotective activities with the 4WDH-based oil, as compared to all other essential oil-batches and silymarin standard demonstrated the beneficial effects of the drying protocol for the herb for its medicinal purposes.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Salvia officinalis/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6174897, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567411

RESUMO

Suaeda vermiculata, a halophyte consumed by livestock, is also used by Bedouins to manage liver disorders. The aqueous-ethanolic extract of S. vermiculata, its subsequent fractions, and pure compounds, i.e., pheophytin-A (1), isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (2), and quercetin (3), were evaluated for their hepatoprotective efficacy. The male mice were daily fed with either silymarin, plant aq.-ethanolic extract, fractions, pure isolated compounds, or carboxyl methylcellulose (CMC) for 7 days (n = 6/group, p.o.). On the day 7th of the administrations, all, except the intact animal groups, were induced with hepatotoxicity using paracetamol (PCM, 300 mg/kg). The anesthetized animals were euthanized after 24 h; blood and liver tissues were collected and analysed. The serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels decreased significantly for all the S. vermiculata aq.-ethanolic extract, fraction, and compound-treated groups when equated with the PCM group (p < 0.0001). The antioxidant, superoxide dismutase (SOD), increased significantly (p < 0.05) for the silymarin-, n-hexane-, and quercetin-fed groups. Similarly, the catalase (CAT) enzyme level significantly increased for all the groups, except for the compound 2-treated group as compared to the CMC group. Also, the glutathione reductase (GR) levels were significantly increased for the n-butanol treated group than for the PCM group. The oxidative stress biomarkers, lipid peroxide (LP) and nitric oxide (NO), the inflammatory markers, IL-6 and TNF-α, and the kidney's functional biomarker parameters remained unchanged and did not differ significantly for the treated groups in comparison to the PCM-induced toxicity bearing animals. All the treated groups demonstrated significant decreases in cholesterol levels as compared to the PCM group, indicating hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects. The quercetin-treated group demonstrated significant improvement in triglyceride level. The S. vermiculata aq.-ethanolic extract, fractions, and the isolated compounds demonstrated their hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects, confirming the claimed traditional use of the herb as a liver protectant.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Chenopodiaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Silimarina/farmacologia , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/toxicidade , Animais , Interações Medicamentosas , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
17.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579344

RESUMO

Pulicaria undulata (L.) C. A. Mey has multiple uses as part of the traditional medicament, and several biological activities of the plant have been corroborated in the scientific literature. The current work evaluates the phytochemical constituents and biological properties of the water-ethanol extract of the P. undulata growing in Qassim, the central arid regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Qualitative UPLC-ESIQ-TOF analysis identified 27 compounds belonging to the phenolics, flavonoids, triterpenes, coumarins, and of fatty acids chemical classes. The quantitative analysis exhibited 33.3 mg/g GAE (Gallic Acid Equivalents), and 10.8 mg/g QE (Quercetin Equivalents) of the phenolics and flavonoids in the plant's concentrated (to dryness) water-ethanol extract. The trace elements analysis of the plant's dry powder established the presence of copper (20.13 µg/kg), and zinc (68.2 µg/kg) in the higher levels of occurrences. In terms of the antioxidant potential of the plant's extract, the ferric-reducing, and free-radicals scavenging activities were recorded at 47.11 mg/g, and 19.13 mg/g equivalents of the concentrated to dryness water-ethanol extract of the plant. The water-ethanol extract of P. undulata also exhibited antimicrobial activity against the tested Gram-positive bacteria, while no activity was observed against the tested Gram-negative bacteria, or the fungi. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values were in the range of 49 to 1563 µg/mL, whereas the MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) values ranged from 49 to 3125 µg/mL, against the tested Gram-positive bacteria. The P. undulata water-ethanol extract also exhibited potent cytotoxic effects with the IC50 value at 519.2 µg/mL against the MCF-7 breast cancer cell-lines, followed by the anticancer activity of erythroleukemic cell-lines, K562 at 1212 µg/mL, and pancreatic cell-lines, PANC-1, at 1535 µg/mL, as compared to the normal fibroblast cells (4048 µg/mL). The Annexin-V assay demonstrated that, as the P. undulata extract's dose increased from IC50 to twice of the IC50, the percentage of the necrosis was found to be increased in the late apoptosis stage of the cancer cells. These data confirmed the P. undulata extract's ability to inhibit several human cancer cell lines' growth in comparison to other local halophytes. The antimicrobial activity of the plant was also confirmed.

18.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245206, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550280

RESUMO

A huge amount of rice cultivation and consumption occur in Asia particularly in Pakistan and China. However, multiple abiotic stresses especially high and low-temperature proved to be a substantial threat for rice production ultimately risks for food security. To overcome various types of abiotic stress; seed priming is among the effective approaches to improve the rice seed germination and growth vigor. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate physiological and biochemical modifications in Chinese and Pakistani rice varieties by Qiangdi 863 biological assistant growth apparatus nano treated water (NTW), Osmopriming Calcium chloride (CaCl2), redox priming hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hormonal priming by Salicylic acid (SA) under temperature stress conditions. The experiment was performed with completely randomize design conditions. Five rice varieties, nomenclature as Zhongzoa 39, (Chinese rice variety) KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati and PK 1121 aromatic (Pakistani rice variety) were sown under low temperature (LT) (17ºC), optimal temperature (OT) 27ºC and high temperature (HT) 37ºC conditions. The present study indicated that nanopriming were the most effective treatments increased Germination Energy Percentage (GEP) (96.1, 100, 100%), Speed of Germination (SG) (27.2, 35.45, 37.1), Final Germination Percentage (FGP) (98.2, 99.1, 99.4%), Seedling Dry Weight Biomass (DWB) (0.1, 0.137, 0.14g), Total Chlorophyll Content (0.502, 13.74, 15.21), antioxidant enzymes Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)(3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh-1), Catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) and decreased Malondialdehyde (MDA) (6.5, 12.2, 6.5 µmol g-1 FW) for Zhongzao 39 and KSK 133 rice varieties under low (LT+NTW), optimal temperature (OP+NTW) and high temperature (HT+NTW) stress., Therefore, nano-priming is recommended to cope with the high and low-temperature stress conditions along with improved productivity of rice.


Assuntos
Oryza , Germinação , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Plântula , Sementes , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura
19.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 16(22): 1937-1961, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431317

RESUMO

Aims: To evaluate the anti breast-cancer activity, biocompatibility and toxicity of poly(d,l)-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-encapsulated quercetin nanoparticles (Q-PLGA-NPs). Materials & methods: Quercetin was nano-encapsulated by an emulsion-diffusion process, and the nanoparticles were fully characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffractions, FESEM and zeta-sizer analysis. Activity against CAL51 and MCF7 cell lines were assessed by DNA fragmentation assays, fluorescence microscopy, and acridine-orange, and propidium-iodide double-stainings. Biocompatibility towards red blood cells and toxicity towards mice were also explored. Results: The Q-PLGA-NPs exhibited apoptotic activity against the cell lines. The murine in vivo studies showed no significant alterations in the liver and kidney's functional biomarkers, and no apparent abnormalities, or tissue damages were observed in the histological images of the liver, spleen, lungs, heart and kidneys. Conclusion: The study established the preliminary in vitro efficacy and in vivo safety of Q-PLGA-NPs as a potential anti-breast cancer formulation.


Lay abstract Quercetin is a flavonoid, a type of chemical, antioxidant in nature, found in many fruits and vegetables. It is known to have anticancer properties. In this study, quercetin was encased into nano-sized particles of biologically compatible and bio-degradable synthetic polymer, named PLGA (poly-[D,L]-lactic-co-glycolic acid). The effects of the quercetin nanoparticles/nano-quercetin were tested against two types of breast cancer cell lines in the laboratory. The quercetin-loaded nanoparticles were able to kill the breast cancer cells, suggesting they could be able to kill the cancer cells in the body. Also, when given to mice, the quercetin nanoparticles did not appear to damage any organ, or change the functions of the liver, and kidneys, thereby suggesting that they are not toxic. Further work is required to assess how well they could be used to treat breast cancer in people.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Animais , Apoptose , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Ácido Láctico , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Quercetina/farmacologia
20.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438611

RESUMO

The current study demonstrates the culture characteristics of adipose tissue and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The study evaluates the effect of ambient temperature, physiological status of the donor and the tissue source on sheep (Ovis aries) mesenchymal stem cells. The tissue samples were harvested from full term pregnant female sheep (n = 9) and male sheep (n = 10). Adipose tissue was harvested from n = 9 sheep and bone marrow from n = 10 sheep. The samples (adipose tissue, n = 2; bone marrow, n = 3) transported at cold ambient temperature (<10 °C) failed to yield MSCs while those (n = 14) at higher (>20 °C) ambient temperature successfully yielded MSCs. Bone marrow mononuclear cell (MNC) fraction was higher than the adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF), but the percent adherent cells (PAC) was higher in the later cell fraction. Adipose tissue-derived MSCs from the full term female sheep had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher proliferation potential as compared to those of the male sheep-derived MSCs. Female sheep MSCs also had rapid differentiation potential. The cryopreserved MSCs had morphological features comparable to that of the fresh cells. In conclusion, the tissue type and physiological status of donor animal may affect MSCs' characteristics and should be taken into consideration while applying in clinical settings.

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